A Biologist's Guide to Mathematical Modeling in Ecology and Evolution

Author: Sarah P. Otto,Troy Day

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400840910

Category: Science

Page: 744

View: 8432

Thirty years ago, biologists could get by with a rudimentary grasp of mathematics and modeling. Not so today. In seeking to answer fundamental questions about how biological systems function and change over time, the modern biologist is as likely to rely on sophisticated mathematical and computer-based models as traditional fieldwork. In this book, Sarah Otto and Troy Day provide biology students with the tools necessary to both interpret models and to build their own. The book starts at an elementary level of mathematical modeling, assuming that the reader has had high school mathematics and first-year calculus. Otto and Day then gradually build in depth and complexity, from classic models in ecology and evolution to more intricate class-structured and probabilistic models. The authors provide primers with instructive exercises to introduce readers to the more advanced subjects of linear algebra and probability theory. Through examples, they describe how models have been used to understand such topics as the spread of HIV, chaos, the age structure of a country, speciation, and extinction. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists today need enough mathematical training to be able to assess the power and limits of biological models and to develop theories and models themselves. This innovative book will be an indispensable guide to the world of mathematical models for the next generation of biologists. A how-to guide for developing new mathematical models in biology Provides step-by-step recipes for constructing and analyzing models Interesting biological applications Explores classical models in ecology and evolution Questions at the end of every chapter Primers cover important mathematical topics Exercises with answers Appendixes summarize useful rules Labs and advanced material available

MATHEMATICAL MODELS – Volume III

Author: Jerzy A. Filar,Jacek B Krawczyk

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 1848262442

Category: Mathematical models

Page: 398

View: 3827

Mathematical Models is a component of Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Mathematical Models discusses matters of great relevance to our world such as: Basic Principles of Mathematical Modeling; Mathematical Models in Water Sciences; Mathematical Models in Energy Sciences; Mathematical Models of Climate and Global Change; Infiltration and Ponding; Mathematical Models of Biology; Mathematical Models in Medicine and Public Health; Mathematical Models of Society and Development. These three volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Ecology - Volume II

Author: Antonio Bodini ,Stefan Klotz

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 1848262914

Category:

Page: 428

View: 3661

Ecology is a component of Encyclopedia of Environmental and Ecological Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Ecology is the study of the interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. The term "ecology" was introduced by Ernst Haeckel, at the end of the nineteenth century. Since that time spectacular advances have been made. Much has been learned about the relationship between organisms and environmental factors, and about the processes that regulate the abundance and distribution of species. The Theme on Ecology with contributions from distinguished experts in the field discusses the Science of Ecology for a Sustainable World. The two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Mathematical Methods in Biology

Author: J. David Logan,William Wolesensky

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470525878

Category: Mathematics

Page: 417

View: 7309

A one–of–a–kind guide to using deterministic and probabilistic methods for solving problems in the biological sciences Highlighting the growing relevance of quantitative techniques in scientific research, Mathematical Methods in Biology provides an accessible presentation of the broad range of important mathematical methods for solving problems in the biological sciences. The book reveals the growing connections between mathematics and biology through clear explanations and specific, interesting problems from areas such as population dynamics, foraging theory, and life history theory. The authors begin with an introduction and review of mathematical tools that are employed in subsequent chapters, including biological modeling, calculus, differential equations, dimensionless variables, and descriptive statistics. The following chapters examine standard discrete and continuous models using matrix algebra as well as difference and differential equations. Finally, the book outlines probability, statistics, and stochastic methods as well as material on bootstrapping and stochastic differential equations, which is a unique approach that is not offered in other literature on the topic. In order to demonstrate the application of mathematical methods to the biological sciences, the authors provide focused examples from the field of theoretical ecology, which serve as an accessible context for study while also demonstrating mathematical skills that are applicable to many other areas in the life sciences. The book′s algorithms are illustrated using MATLAB®, but can also be replicated using other software packages, including R, Mathematica®, and Maple; however, the text does not require any single computer algebra package. Each chapter contains numerous exercises and problems that range in difficulty, from the basic to more challenging, to assist readers with building their problem–solving skills. Selected solutions are included at the back of the book, and a related Web site features supplemental material for further study. Extensively class–tested to ensure an easy–to–follow format, Mathematical Methods in Biology is an excellent book for mathematics and biology courses at the upper–undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as a valuable reference for researchers and professionals working in the fields of biology, ecology, and biomathematics.

Modeling and Simulation

Author: Hartmut Bossel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663108228

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 484

View: 2315

This book is the the English Language Version of the very successful German textbook, "Modellbildung und Simulation". It provides a self-contained and complete guide to the methods and mathematical background of modeling and simulation software of dynamic systems. Furthermore, an appropriate simulation software and a collection of dynamic system models (on the accompanying disk) are highlights of the book/software-Package.Dies ist die englischsprachige Ausgabe des sehr erfolgreichen Lehrbuches "Modellbildung und Simulation". Geboten wird eine vollständige Einführung in die Methoden der Simulation dynamischer Systeme, wobei auch der notwendige mathematische Hintergrund vermittelt wird. Außerdem ist eine Simulationssoftware Bestandteil des Werkes; auf der beiliegenden Diskette befinden sich ferner 50 Beispielsysteme ("Systemzoo"), die zur spielerischen Einübung der verwendeten Verfahren hilfreich sind.

Official Meeting Program

Author: Ecological Society of America. Meeting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Ecology

Page: N.A

View: 3557

Mathematical Reviews

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 6716

Technology, Innovations and Growth

Author: J. K. Sengupta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230295258

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 195

View: 597

This book provides detailed empirical analysis of countries in Asia to examine various dynamic models that incorporate the impact of technology and innovations on the industry evolution and overall economic growth.

Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology

The Legacy of Charles Elton

Author: David M. Richardson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444330004

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 1598

Invasion ecology is the study of the causes and consequences of the introduction of organisms to areas outside their native range. Interest in this field has exploded in the past few decades. Explaining why and how organisms are moved around the world, how and why some become established and invade, and how best to manage invasive species in the face of global change are all crucial issues that interest biogeographers, ecologists and environmental managers in all parts of the world. This book brings together the insights of more than 50 authors to examine the origins, foundations, current dimensions and potential trajectories of invasion ecology. It revisits key tenets of the foundations of invasion ecology, including contributions of pioneering naturalists of the 19th century, including Charles Darwin and British ecologist Charles Elton, whose 1958 monograph on invasive species is widely acknowledged as having focussed scientific attention on biological invasions.

Extended Heredity

A New Understanding of Inheritance and Evolution

Author: Russell Bonduriansky,Troy Day

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400890152

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 2430

How genes are not the only basis of heredity—and what this means for evolution, human life, and disease For much of the twentieth century it was assumed that genes alone mediate the transmission of biological information across generations and provide the raw material for natural selection. In Extended Heredity, leading evolutionary biologists Russell Bonduriansky and Troy Day challenge this premise. Drawing on the latest research, they demonstrate that what happens during our lifetimes--and even our grandparents' and great-grandparents' lifetimes—can influence the features of our descendants. On the basis of these discoveries, Bonduriansky and Day develop an extended concept of heredity that upends ideas about how traits can and cannot be transmitted across generations. By examining the history of the gene-centered view in modern biology and reassessing fundamental tenets of evolutionary theory, Bonduriansky and Day show that nongenetic inheritance—involving epigenetic, environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors—could play an important role in evolution. The discovery of nongenetic inheritance therefore has major implications for key questions in evolutionary biology, as well as human health. Extended Heredity reappraises long-held ideas and opens the door to a new understanding of inheritance and evolution.

Die soziale Eroberung der Erde

Eine biologische Geschichte des Menschen

Author: Edward O. Wilson

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406645313

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 6200

Woher kommen wir? Was sind wir? Wohin gehen wir? Der große Biologe E. O. Wilson entschlüsselt die Evolution des Menschen Die soziale Eroberung der Erde ist die Summe lebenslanger innovativer Forschung, die Krönung des Lebenswerkes von Edward O. Wilson. Seine weitreichende These: Die soziale Gruppe und nicht das egoistische Gen war der entscheidende Faktor der Menschwerdung. "Keinem außer Edward O. Wilson konnte eine derart brillante Synthese aus Biologie und Geisteswissenschaften gelingen, die Licht wirft auf den Ursprung von Sprache, Religion, Kunst und der gesamten menschlichen Kultur." Oliver Sacks "Eine große, doch einfache Fragestellung, überzeugende Erklärungen, eine meisterhafte Beherrschung der Wissenschaft und eine anschauliche, verständliche Darstellung einmal mehr hat E.O. Wilson ein Buch geschrieben mit den Qualitäten, die ihm Pulitzerpreise und ein Millionenpublikum eingebracht haben." Jared Diamond "Ein fabelhaftes Buch." Bill Clinton

The Founders of Evolutionary Genetics

A Centenary Reappraisal

Author: S. Sarkar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401128561

Category: Science

Page: 306

View: 1517

genetics. " It is simply the appropriation of that term, very likely with insufficient knowledge and respect for its past usage. For that, the Editor alone is responsible and requests tolerance. He has, as far as he can tell, no intention or desire to use it for any historiographical purposes other than that just mentioned. Even more important, the decision to consider Muller together with Fisher, Haldane and Wright is also not original. Crow (1984) has already done so, arguing persua sively that Muller was "keenly interested in evolution and made sub stantial contributions to the development of the neo-Darwinian view. " Crow's reasons for considering these four figures together and the reasons discussed above are complementary. This book continues a historiographical choice he initiated; others will have to judge whether it is appropriate. The foregoing considerations were intended to show why Fisher, Haldane, Muller and Wright should be considered together in the history of theoretical evolutionary genetics. I By a welcome stroke of luck, from the point of view of the Editor, all four of these figures were born almost together, between 1889 and 1892, and almost exactly a century ago. It therefore seemed appropriate to use their birth cente naries to consider their work together. A conference was held at Boston University, on March 6, 1990, under the auspices of the Boston Center for the Philosophy and History of Science, to discuss their work. This book has emerged mainly from that conference.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 8845

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Introduction to Environmental Toxicology

Molecular Substructures to Ecological Landscapes, Fourth Edition

Author: Wayne Landis,Ruth Sofield,Ming-Ho Yu,Wayne G. Landis,Ruth M. Sofield

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439804109

Category: Science

Page: 542

View: 2531

After fifteen years and three editions, Introduction to Environmental Toxicology: Molecular Substructures to Ecological Landscapes has become a standard that defines the field of environmental toxicology, and the fourth edition is no exception. The authors take an integrated approach to environmental toxicology that emphasizes scale and context as important factors in understanding effects and management options. New in the Fourth Edition: New author, Dr. Ruth M. Sofield 8-page color insert New chapter on fate and transport of contaminants Emphasis on the use of all types of models in understanding how nature works Revised sections on synergy and atrazine toxicity Updated coverage of the analysis of impacts to populations, communities and ecosystems Enlarged risk assessment chapter with an in-depth description of a regional scale risk assessment This edition benefits from the insight of a new author, Dr. Ruth M. Sofield, who prepared the new chapter on the fate and transport of contaminants. The relationship between structure and toxicological properties has been a major theme of this book since its inception and this new chapter expands this fundamental concept to include fate and transport. In the early chapters the use of models in science is discussed and this theme carries throughout the rest of the book. So much has changed in the fifteen years since the publication of the first edition. The mid-1990s seem so long ago, when our understanding of environmental toxicology was very basic. Ecological risk assessment was in its very early stages and the consideration of the effects of toxicants on landscapes was only beginning. Computation was still hard, genes stayed put, and it was only becoming recognized that xenobiotics could have hormonal effects — developments that are taken for granted in this edition. Written by authors who teach this subject, a feature that is reflected in their straightforward style, the book provides a foundation for understanding environmental toxicology and its application.

Mapping the Future of Biology

Evolving Concepts and Theories

Author: Anouk Barberousse,Michel Morange,Thomas Pradeu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402096364

Category: Science

Page: 173

View: 9899

Carving Nature at its Joints? In order to map the future of biology we need to understand where we are and how we got there. Present day biology is the realization of the famous metaphor of the organism as a bete ˆ machine elaborated by Descartes in Part V of the Discours,a realization far beyond what anyone in the seventeenth century could have im- ined. Until the middle of the nineteenth century that machine was an articulated collection of macroscopic parts, a system of gears and levers moving gasses, solids, and liquids, and causing some parts of the machine to move in response to the force produced by others. Then, in the nineteenth century, two divergent changes occurred in the level at which the living machine came to be investigated. First, with the rise of chemistry and the particulate view of the composition of matter, the forces on macroscopic machine came to be understood as the ma- festation of molecular events, and functional biology became a study of molecular interactions. That is, the machine ceased to be a clock or a water pump and became an articulated network of chemical reactions. Until the ?rst third of the twentieth century this chemical view of life, as re?ected in the development of classical b- chemistry treated the chemistry of biological molecules in much the same way as for any organic chemical reaction, with reaction rates and side products that were the consequence of statistical properties of the concentrations of reactants.

Conservation Biology

For the Coming Decade

Author: Peggy L. Fiedler,Peter M. Kareiva

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461560519

Category: Nature

Page: 576

View: 3374

Refecting what a new generation of conservation biologists is doing and thinking, this vital and far ranging second edition explores where conservation biology is heading. It challenges many conventions of conservation biology by exposing certain weaknesses of widely accepted principles. Combining contributions from both the school and the new breed of conservation biologists, this insightful text focuses primarily on topics the are integral to the daily activities of conservation biologists. Several chapters address ecosystem restoration and biotic invasions as well as the the mechanics of population viability analyses, which are now a routine facet of conservation efforts. A case history approach is implemented throughout the book, with the use of practical real-world examples. Furthermore, an in-depth look at quantitative analyses is presented, allowing for models and mathematical analyses to pinpoint limitations in existing data and guide research toward those aspects of biology that are most likely to be critical to the dynamics of a species or an ecosystem.

Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites

Author: Robert Poulin

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691120843

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 4173

Here, in a thoroughly revised and updated edition of his influential earlier work, Robert Poulin provides an evolutionary ecologist's view of the biology of parasites. He sets forth a comprehensive synthesis of parasite evolutionary ecology, integrating information across scales from the features of individual parasites to the dynamics of parasite populations and the structuring of parasite communities. Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites presents an evolutionary framework for the study of parasite biology, combining theory with empirical examples for a broader understanding of why parasites are as they are and do what they do. - Publisher.

Metabolic Ecology

A Scaling Approach

Author: Richard M. Sibly,James H. Brown,Astrid Kodric-Brown

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119968518

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 1360

One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.