America, the EU and Strategic Culture

Renegotiating the Transatlantic Bargain

Author: Asle Toje

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134060599

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 9309

This book provides a provocative analysis of relations between Europe and America during the tempestuous years 1998-2004. Analysing EU foreign policy, it concludes that the lessons learnt in interacting with America have been crucial in shaping the emerging EU strategic culture. The book challenges established orthodoxy regarding the sui generis nature of the European Union. Through detailed case-studies, it shows how the US influenced decisions during the formative years of the EU foreign and security policy: during the 1999 Kosovo war, the EU and NATO enlargement processes, and the 2003 Iraq crisis. However, the book argues that although policy ends may be lead by the US, the EU is growing increasingly confident in selecting distinctively ‘European’ means to achieve these goals. These findings have important implications for understanding both the EU as a foreign policy actor and of the EU-US partnership at the start of the 21st century.

European Security Policy and Strategic Culture

Author: Peter Schmidt,Benjamin Zyla

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317980328

Category: History

Page: 232

View: 1191

With the Lisbon Treaty in place and the European Union increasingly involved in international crisis management and stabilization operations in places near and far, this volume revisits the trajectory of a European strategic culture. Specifically, it studies the usefulness of its application in a variety of circumstances, including the EU’s operations in Africa and the Balkans as well as joint operations with NATO and the United Nations. The contributors find that strategic culture is a useful tool to explain and understand the EU's civilian and military operations, not in the sense of a ‘cause’, but as a European normative framework of preferences and constraints. Accordingly, classical notions of strategic culture in the field of international security must be adapted to highlight the specific character of Europe's strategic culture, especially by taking the interaction with the United Nations and NATO into account. Though at variance over the extent to which security and defence missions have demonstrated or promoted a shared strategic culture in Europe, the authors reveal a growing sense that a cohesive strategic culture is critical in the EU’s ambition of being a global actor. Should Europe fail to nurture a shared strategic culture, its actions will be based much more on flexibility than on cohesion. This book was published as a special issue of Contemporary Security Policy.

Strategic Cultures in Europe

Security and Defence Policies Across the Continent

Author: Heiko Biehl,Bastian Giegerich,Alexandra Jonas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3658011688

Category: Social Science

Page: 401

View: 820

European countries work together in crisis management, conflict prevention and many other aspects of security and defence policy. Closer cooperation in this policy arena seems to be the only viable way forward to address contemporary security challenges. Yet, despite the repeated interaction, fundamental assumptions about security and defence remain remarkably distinct across European nations. This book offers a comparative analysis of the security and defence policies of all 27 EU member states and Turkey, drawing on the concept of ‘strategic culture’, in order to examine the chances and obstacles for closer security and defence cooperation across the continent. Along the lines of a consistent analytical framework, international experts provide case studies of the current security and defence policies in Europe as well as their historical and cultural roots. ​

The European Union’s Normative Power in Central Asia

Promoting Values and Defending Interests

Author: G. Voloshin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137443944

Category: Political Science

Page: 96

View: 924

The normative power of the European Union has historically been a key element of its foreign policy. This study considers the EU's Central Asia policy, questioning whether the EU's normative power can work in this remote region.

Security Strategies and American World Order

Lost Power

Author: Birthe Hansen,Peter Toft,Anders Wivel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134036507

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 6546

This book analyses security strategies in the American world order, systematically comparing Russian, Middle Eastern and European policies. The main finding is that the loss of relative power has decisive importance for the security strategies of states, but that particular strategies can only be explained when relative power is combined with ideology and the probability of military conflict. Research on the unipolar world order has focused largely on the general dynamics of the system and the actions of the American unipole. By contrast, this book focuses on states that lost out relatively as a consequence of unipolarity, and seeks to explain how this loss has affected their security strategies. Thus, in essence, the book tells ‘the other side of the story’ about the contemporary world order. In addition, it makes an important theoretical contribution by systematically coupling relative ideology and relative security with relative power and exploring their explanatory value. This book will be of great interest to students of international relations, security studies and foreign policy.

The Quest for a European Strategic Culture

Changing Norms on Security and Defence in the European Union

Author: C. Meyer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230598218

Category: Political Science

Page: 211

View: 3762

The Quest for a European Strategic Culture investigates whether strategic norms and beliefs held in different countries have become more similar since 1989 and explores the implications for the viability of a common European Security and Defence Policy. The empirical evidence emerging from various sources shows some significant changes.

Old Europe, New Europe and the Transatlantic Security Agenda

Author: Kerry Longhurst,Marcin Zaborowski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317999150

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 5918

The post-September 11th security policies of Poland, the UK, France, the US and Germany presented in this new book illustrate how and why the Atlantic community ruptured over Iraq, a result in part, it is argued, of the existence of particular national strategic cultures. Whilst the longer term effects of Iraq for the transatlantic security agenda have yet to fully transpire, what is certain is that the EU's ambitions to become a credible security actor have been seriously questioned, as has the notion of multilateralism as an international norm, as has the function of international law. The book addresses these issues by considering the evolution of the EU's role in the world and the development of American perspectives on the transatlantic security agenda. This volume was previously published as a special issue of the journal European Security.

Strategic Culture and Ways of War

Author: Lawrence Sondhaus

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135989753

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 3954

A much-needed survey and synopsis of literature on strategic culture and ways of war. It clearly shows how national strategies and approaches to warfare are, to a significant extent, culturally determined. The concept of national ‘ways of war’ dates from the 1930s, when Basil H. Liddell Hart theorized that there was a ‘British Way in Warfare’. The concept of "strategic culture" dates from the 1970s, when Jack Snyder introduced it to explain why leaders of the Soviet Union did not behave according to rational choice theory. These ideas have gained wide acceptance among historians of international politics and warfare, and remain controversial for political scientists seeking general or universal theoretical understanding of such subjects. Because political scientists have focused on strategic culture and historians on ways of war, this work will greatly benefit both audiences and provide each with valuable exposure to the ideas of the other.

Reconsidering the American Way of War

US Military Practice from the Revolution to Afghanistan

Author: Antulio J. Echevarria II

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626160678

Category: Political Science

Page: 219

View: 8259

Challenging several longstanding notions about the American way of war, this book examines US strategic and operational practice from 1775 to 2014. It surveys all major US wars from the War of Independence to the campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as most smaller US conflicts to determine what patterns, if any, existed in American uses of force. Contrary to many popular sentiments, Echevarria finds that the American way of war is not astrategic, apolitical, or defined by the use of overwhelming force. Instead, the American way of war was driven more by political considerations than military ones, and the amount of force employed was rarely overwhelming or decisive. Echevarria discovers that most conceptions of American strategic culture fail to hold up to scrutiny, and that US operational practice has been closer to military science than to military art. This book should be of interest to military practitioners and policymakers, students and scholars of military history and security studies, and general readers interested in military history and the future of military power.

The European Union as a Small Power

After the Post-Cold War

Author: A. Toje

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230281818

Category: Political Science

Page: 250

View: 1624

The post-Cold War period is coming to an end. After a decade of foreign policy integration Europe faces multipolarity internally divided and externally weak. Toje argues that due to the lack of a workable decision-making mechanism the EU is destined to play the limited but distinct role of a small power in global politics.

The Kosovo Crisis

The Evolution of Post Cold War European Security

Author: Paul Latawski,Martin A. Smith

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9780719059803

Category: History

Page: 230

View: 5361

This book looks at the legacy of the 1998-99 Kosovo crisis for European security affairs. It examines the debates about the nature and justification of intervention in the affairs of sovereign states. It also considers the impact of the crisis on NATO and on relations between western states and Russia both during and since Kosovo. Well-known "facts" are critically assessed and challenged. The authors argue that the NATO attacks on Serbia were not a "war," nor did the crisis directly lead to moves to endow the European Union with its own military dimension. They place the Kosovo crisis in the context of the long-term evolution of a transatlantic "community of values" between Europe and North America.

The US-EU Security Relationship

The Tensions between a European and a Global Agenda

Author: Wyn Rees

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137285567

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 1108

A constantly evolving security agenda has become a vital part of US–EU relations. Contemporary security challenges such as the rise of international terrorism and the threat from 'states of concern' have – in recent years – forced the US and the EU to adapt their relationship and work together in new ways. Written by a leading authority, this incisive and wide-ranging book systematically examines the development of the transatlantic security relationship in the post-Cold War era. It assesses the nature of the US and EU as international actors and considers how they cooperate together. Rees argues that – despite divergences of interest after the end of the Cold War – the complex nature of contemporary challenges is driving both sides of the Atlantic towards increased cooperation. In addition, the book looks in detail at how global and European issues such as EU defence and enlargement policies, nuclear non-proliferation, and the war on terror have affected security relations.

Strategic Culture and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Culturally Based Insights Into Comparative National Security Policymaking

Author: Jeannie L. Johnson,Kerry M. Kartchner,Jeffrey A. Larsen

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: 9780230612211

Category: History

Page: 285

View: 5934

Comparative analysis of military strategy, national security, and nuclear arms in the United States, Russia, Israel, India, Iran, Syria, China, North Korea, and Afghanistan (Al-Qaeda).

The Culture of Military Innovation

The Impact of Cultural Factors on the Revolution in Military Affairs in Russia, the US, and Israel.

Author: Dima Adamsky

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804773807

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 4782

This book studies the impact of cultural factors on the course of military innovations. One would expect that countries accustomed to similar technologies would undergo analogous changes in their perception of and approach to warfare. However, the intellectual history of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) in Russia, the US, and Israel indicates the opposite. The US developed technology and weaponry for about a decade without reconceptualizing the existing paradigm about the nature of warfare. Soviet 'new theory of victory' represented a conceptualization which chronologically preceded technological procurement. Israel was the first to utilize the weaponry on the battlefield, but was the last to develop a conceptual framework that acknowledged its revolutionary implications. Utilizing primary sources that had previously been completely inaccessible, and borrowing methods of analysis from political science, history, anthropology, and cognitive psychology, this book suggests a cultural explanation for this puzzling transformation in warfare. The Culture of Military Innovation offers a systematic, thorough, and unique analytical approach that may well be applicable in other perplexing strategic situations. Though framed in the context of specific historical experience, the insights of this book reveal important implications related to conventional, subconventional, and nonconventional security issues. It is therefore an ideal reference work for practitioners, scholars, teachers, and students of security studies.

The European Union in the Security of Europe

From Cold War to Terror War

Author: Steve Marsh,Wyn Rees

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113663102X

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 4240

This book examines the European Union’s contribution to providing security in Europe amidst an increasingly complex and challenging environment. In this new and comprehensive guide to the EU's role in security since the end of the Cold War, the authors offer an explanation of EU internal and external security regimes, and argue that the Union has become an important exporter of security within its region. However, the Union’s rhetorical ambitions and commitments continue to outstrip its capabilities and it lacks both a common conceptualisation of security and a meaningful, shared strategic culture. Drawing extensively on primary sources the book examines the Union’s relations with the US and Russia in a time of shifting geostrategic calculations and priorities. With the EU capacity for enlargement slowing, this text presents a detailed assessment of EU security policies towards Central Europe, the Mediterranean, the Western Balkans, Eastern Europe and South Caucasus. European Union Security will be of interest to students and scholars of the EU, security studies, and international relations.

European Union and Strategy

An Emerging Actor

Author: Kjell Engelbrekt,Jan Hallenberg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134106793

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 3148

This edited volume sets out to explore the paradox that the European Union (EU) produces policies with strategic qualities, but lacks the institutions and concepts to engage in strategic reasoning and action proper. The book has a two-fold agenda, exploring current EU external policies that are, or seem to be, linked to strategic priorities, and also studying the concept of strategy in the particular context of EU decision- and policymaking. The volume first examines the character of the Union as a strategic actor at this stage of its development. It then explores the ability of the Union to act and otherwise influence both its periphery and the wider world, focusing in particular on how it is perceived by other actors. The final section comprises personal assessments by a group of contributors regarding the character of the union as a strategic actor in the present and future. When these are pieced together, a picture emerges of a European strategy in the making, albeit one that so far is modest and partial. This book will be of interest to students of European Security, European Politics and IR.

Poland in Europe

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Europe

Page: N.A

View: 4900

Forged in Crisis

India and the United States Since 1947

Author: Rudra Chaudhuri

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190237988

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 7573

Rudra Chaudhuri's book examines a series of crises that led to far-reaching changes in India's approach to the United States, defining the contours of what is arguably the imperative relationship between America and the global South. Forged in Crisis provides a fresh interpretation of India's advance in foreign affairs under the stewardship of Prime Ministers Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, and finally, Manmohan Singh. It reveals the complex and distinctive manner in which India sought to pursue at once material interests and ideas, while meticulously challenging the shakier and largely untested reading of 'non-alignment' palpable in most works on Indian foreign policy and international relations. From the Korean War in 1950 to the considered debate within India on sending troops to Iraq in 2003, and from the loss of territory to China and the subsequent talks on Kashmir with Pakistan in 1962-63 to the signing of a civil nuclear agreement with Washington in 2008, Chaudhuri maps Indian negotiating styles and behaviour and how these shaped and informed decisions vital to its strategic interest, in turn redefining its relationship with the United States.

On Mars and Venus

Strategic Culture as an Intervening Variable in US and European Foreign Policy

Author: Michael J. Williams

Publisher: Lit Verlag

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 110

View: 3637

In 2003, the idea that Americans were from Mars and Europeans from Venus stirred up serious conversation about the nature of the transatlantic relationship on both sides of the Atlantic. While useful in prompting discussion, the introduction of pop-psychology terminology into IR lexicon was essentially divisive and not analytically helpful. Kagan relied on journalistic generalization, rather than tested academic methods to support his work. This study rectifies that deficiency, exploring the extent to which Americans are from Mars and Europeans from Venus by deploying the analytical concept of strategic culture for an unbiased analysis of transatlantic drift. Michael J. Williams is a researcher at the Department of Politics and International Relations at the University of Oxford (UK).

The Self in European and North American Culture

Development and Processes

Author: J.H. Oosterwegel,R.A. Wicklund

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401103313

Category: Psychology

Page: 395

View: 3495

How diverse or potentially overlapping are the numerous self-models, self-theories, and directions of self-research? It has become clear that the processes associated with the self are complex and diverse, and that many of the approaches associated with the self have been pursued in isolation. Moreover, the fact of there being different traditions within developmental and social psychology, as well as different traditions in Europe and North America, has also led to a certain cacophony when we examine the self-field as a whole. The chapters here confront these differences, trying to come to terms with phenomena that are overarching, that extend through the dimensions of developmental psychology, social psychology, motivation psychology, and parts of clinical psychology. The book as whole gives a clear presentation of the issues, questions and phenomena that surface in research fields known as self psychology.