Her Health, Her Lifetime, Our World

Unlocking the Potential of Adolescent Girls and Young Women

Author: Helene Gayle,John Hammergren

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 144228000X

Category: Political Science

Page: 90

View: 2743

CSIS launched the Task Force on Women’s and Family Health in the belief that there is an exceptional opportunity—and pressing need—for U.S. leadership in this critical area. The Task Force has generated a bold vision, detailed in this report, for a major U.S. initiative by the Trump administration to unlock the potential of adolescent girls and young women in select low-income countries. It is a call for a new and different U.S. approach to foreign assistance: one that creatively integrates key health interventions—improving maternal and newborn health, increasing access to voluntary family planning, reducing anemia, and expanding access to the HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer—with education and other development efforts. It promises to deliver concrete and enduring returns on investment, firmly establish adolescent girls and young women as a pillar of long-term economic growth and opportunity, as well as bring vital benefits to Americans.

Health Financing in Indonesia

A Reform Road Map

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821380079

Category: Medical

Page: 167

View: 4861

In 2004 the Indonesian government made a commitment to provide its entire population with health insurance coverage through a mandatory public health insurance scheme. It has moved boldly already provides coverage to an estimated 76.4 million poor and near poor, funded through the public budget. Nevertheless, over half the population still lacks health insurance coverage, and the full fiscal impacts of the government's program for the poor have not been fully assessed or felt. In addition, significant deficiencies in the efficiency and equity of the current health system, unless addressed will exacerbate cost pressures and could preclude the effective implementation of universal coverage (Ue and the desired result of improvements in population health outcomes and financial protection. For Indonesia to achieve UC, systems' performance must be improved and key policy choices with respect to the configuration of the health financing system must be made. Indonesia's health system performs well with respect to some health outcomes and financial protection, but there is potential for significant improvement. High-level political decisions are necessary on key elements of the health financing reform package. The key transitional questions to get there include: [ the benefits that can be afforded and their impacts on health outcomes and financial protection; [ how the more than 50 percent of those currently without coverage will be insured; [ how to pay medical care providers to assure access, efficiency, and quality; [ developing a streamlined and efficient administrative structure; [ how to address the current supply constraints to assure availability of promised services; [ how to raise revenues to finance the system, including the program for the poor as well as currently uninsured groups that may require government subsidization such as the more than 60 million informal sector workers, the 85 percent of workers in firms of less than five employees, and the 70 percent of the population living in rural areas.

Un cadre d'investissement pour la nutrition

Atteindre fes cibles mondiales en matière de retard de croissance, d'anemie, d'allaitement maternel et d'emaciation

Author: Meera Shekar,Jakub Kakietek,Julia Dayton Eberwein,Dylan Walters

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464811431

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 290

View: 1295

L'ouvrage Un cadre d'investissement pour la nutrition: atteindre les cibles mondiales en matiere de retard de croissance, d'anemie, d'allaitement maternel et d'emaciation estime les couts et les impacts des differents scenarios de financement qui permettraient l'atteinte des cibles mondiales de nutrition adoptees par l' Assemblee mondiale de la sante en matiere de retard de croissance, danemie chez la femme, d'allaitement matemel exclusif et de mise a I'echelle du traitement de I'emaciation severe chez le jeune enfant. 11 faudra, pour atteindre ces quatre cibles, proceder a des financements mondiaux de 70 milliards de dollars sur lOans, ceci dans des interventions specifiques a la nutrition a fort impact. Ces investissements auraient toutefois des retornbees substantielles : 65 millions de cas de retard de croissance et 265 millions de cas danemie chez la femme auraient ete evites en 2025 comparati vement a I' annee de reference 2015. En outre, sur 10 ans, au moins 91 millions d' enfants supplementaires auraient ete traites pour emaciation severe et 105 millions de nourrissons additionnels auraient ete beneficiaires d'un allaitement matemel exclusif au cours de leurs premiers six mois de vie. L'atteintede l'ensemble de ces cibles permettrait d'eviter au moins 3,7 millions de mortalites infantiles. Chaque dollar investi dans ce paquet d'interventions genererait des rendements econorniques de4 a 35 dollars, ce qui fait du financement de la nutrition precoce l'une des interventions de developpement les plus rentables. Certaines des cibles - particulierement celles qui sont axees sur la reduction du retard de croissance chez l'enfant et de I'anemie chez la femmeparaissent ambitieuses et demanderont des efforts concertes de financement, de mise a l' echelle et d' engagement continu; toutefois, l' experience tiree de plusieurs pays indique que leur atteinte reste possible. Les investissements au cours des 1000 premiers jours decisifs de la petite enfance sont inalienables, transportables et porteurs de retombees tout au long de la vie - non seulement pour les enfants directement concernes, mais aussi pour nous tous - sous forme de societes plus robustes, qui agissent comme moteur des economies a venir.

Quantifying the cost and benefits of ending hunger and undernutrition: Examining the differences among alternative approaches

Author: Fan, Shenggen,Headey, Derek D.,Laborde Debucquet, David,Mason-D’Croz, Daniel,Rue, Christopher,Sulser, Timothy B.,Wiebe, Keith D.

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896292991

Category: Political Science

Page: 4

View: 3819

This brief examines estimates produced by several recent model simulations and frameworks that focus on the cost of ending hunger as well as progress toward other development goals—estimates that range from US$7 billion to US$265 billion per year. The differences among these estimates are largely attributable to the different targeted objectives and policy questions of each modeling exercise, different investment strategies considered, and varying assumptions about the role of different sectors in reducing hunger.

International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes

Author: Nancy E. Riley,Jan Brunson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9402412905

Category: Social Science

Page: 359

View: 6194

This handbook presents a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of gender in demography, addressing the many different influences of gender that arise from or influence demographic processes. It collects in one volume the key issues and perspectives in this area, whereby demography is broadly defined. The purpose in casting a wide net is to cover the range of work being done within demography, but at the same time to open up our perspectives to neighboring fields to encourage better conversations around these issues. The chapters in this handbook carefully document definition and measurement issues, and take up parts of the demographic picture and focus on how gender plays a role in outcomes. In other cases, gender often plays a cross-cutting role in social processes; rather than having a single or easily distinguishable role, it often combines with other social institutions and even other statuses and inequalities to affect outcomes. Thus, a key factor in this volume is how gender interacts with race/ethnicity, class, nationality, and sexuality in any demographic setting. While each section contains chapters that are broad overviews of the current state of knowledge and behavior, the handbook also includes chapters that focus on specific cultures or events in order to examine how gender operates in a particular circumstance.

Reaping Richer Returns

Public Spending Priorities for African Agriculture Productivity Growth

Author: Aparajita Goyal,John Nash

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464809402

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 350

View: 6412

Enhancing the productivity of agriculture is vital for Sub-Saharan Africa's economic future and is one of the most important tools to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity in the region. How governments elect to spend public resources has significant development impact in this regard. Choosing to catalyze a shift toward more effective, efficient, and climate-resilient public spending in agriculture can accelerate change and unleash growth. Not only does agricultural public spending in Sub-Saharan Africa lag behind other developing regions but its impact is vitiated by subsidy programs and transfers that tend to benefit elites to the detriment of poor people and the agricultural sector itself. Shortcomings in the budgeting processes also reduce spending effectiveness. In light of this scenario, addressing the quality of public spending and the efficiency of resource use becomes even more important than addressing only the level of spending. Improvements in the policy environment, better institutions, and investments in rural public goods positively affect agricultural productivity. These, combined with smarter use of public funds, have helped lay the foundations for agricultural productivity growth around the world, resulting in a wealth of important lessons from which African policy makers and development practitioners can draw. 'Reaping Richer Returns: Public Spending Priorities for African Agriculture Productivity Growth' will be of particular interest to policy makers, development practitioners, and academics. The rigorous analysis presented in this book provides options for reform with a view to boosting the productivity of African agriculture and eventually increasing development impact.

Developing Socioemotional Skills for the Philippines' Labor Market

Author: Pablo Acosta,Takiko Igarashi,Rosechin Olfindo,Jan Rutkowski

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146481192X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 112

View: 1990

While the Philippines has achieved remarkable progress in raising the education level of its labor force, the standard proxy for educational attainment—years of formal schooling—is increasingly inadequate as a measure of workforce skills. About one-third of employers report being unable to fill vacancies due to lack of applicants with the requisite skills. Most of these “missing skills†? are socioemotional skills,†? also known as “non-cognitive skills†?, “soft skills†? or “behavioral skills.†? Emerging international evidence suggests that socioemotional skills are increasingly crucial to the types of jobs being created by the global economy. The following study presents new evidence from employer and household surveys on the role of socioemotional skills in the Philippine labor market. The analysis reveals that: • Two-thirds of employers report difficulty in finding workers with adequate work ethics or appropriate interpersonal and communications skills. Firm-based training increasingly focuses on socioemotional skills. • The more educated and employed workers tend to score higher on measures of grit, decision-making, agreeableness, and extroversion. • Socioemotional skills are associated with an increase in average daily earnings, in particular for women, young workers, less-educated workers, and those employed in the service sector. • Higher levels of socioemotional skills are also correlated with a greater probability of being employed, having completed secondary education, and pursuing tertiary education. Studies suggest that primary school is the optimal age for shaping socioemotional skills, but the Philippines’ elementary education curriculum devotes limited resources to their development. Schools continue to be judged solely by students’ performance in cognitive achievement tests, but not on soft-skills competencies, and teachers are not appropriately trained to foster the development of them. Finally, interventions targeting workers entering the labor force can also effectively bolster their socioemotional skills, complementing effects to improve labor-market information and vocational counseling.

Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development

A Strategy for Large Scale Action

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821364006

Category: Developing countries

Page: 246

View: 9889

Persistent malnutrition is contributing not only to widespread failure to meet the first MDG--to halve poverty and hunger--but to meet other goals in maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, education, and gender equity. The choice is now between continuing to fail, or to finally make nutrition central to development. Underweight prevalence among children is the key indicator for measuring progress on non-income poverty and malnutrition remains the world's most serious health problem and the single biggest contributor to child mortality. Nearly a third of children in the developing world are either.

The Changing Wealth of Nations 2018

Building a Sustainable Future

Author: Glenn-Marie Lange,Quentin Wodon,Kevin Carey

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464810478

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 2131

Countries regularly track gross domestic product (GDP) as an indicator of their economic progress, but not wealth—the assets such as infrastructure, forests, minerals, and human capital that produce GDP. In contrast, corporations routinely report on both their income and assets to assess their economic health and prospects for the future. Wealth accounts allow countries to take stock of their assets to monitor the sustainability of development, an urgent concern today for all countries. The Changing Wealth of Nations 2018: Building a Sustainable Future covers national wealth for 141 countries over 20 years (1995†“2014) as the sum of produced capital, 19 types of natural capital, net foreign assets, and human capital overall as well as by gender and type of employment. Great progress has been made in estimating wealth since the fi rst volume, Where Is the Wealth of Nations? Measuring Capital for the 21st Century, was published in 2006. New data substantially improve estimates of natural capital, and, for the fi rst time, human capital is measured by using household surveys to estimate lifetime earnings. The Changing Wealth of Nations 2018 begins with a review of global and regional trends in wealth over the past two decades and provides examples of how wealth accounts can be used for the analysis of development patterns. Several chapters discuss the new work on human capital and its application in development policy. The book then tackles elements of natural capital that are not yet fully incorporated in the wealth accounts: air pollution, marine fi sheries, and ecosystems. This book targets policy makers but will engage anyone committed to building a sustainable future for the planet.

Infant and Young Child Feeding

Author: Fiona Dykes,Victoria Hall-Moran

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444315325

Category: Medical

Page: 232

View: 3072

Research has shown that optimum maternal and child nutrition can reduce the incidence of chronic conditions ranging from obesity, food allergy and asthma, to cardiovascular disease and cancers. This exciting book, edited by Fiona Dykes and Victoria Hall Moran and with a foreword from Gretel Pelto, explores in an integrated context the varied factors associated with infant and child nutrition, including global feeding strategies, cultural factors, issues influencing breastfeeding, and economic and life cycle influences. Carefully drawn together and edited, recognising the many complexities and challenges that face practitioners working in the field, this landmark publication offers practical suggestions in this vitally important subject. Infant and Young Child Feeding: Offers crucial insights into implementation of a Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding Illuminates the complex challenges for nutritionists, dieticians and other health and social care professionals in implementing international guidelines within local cultural settings Includes contributions from leading international experts in the field All libraries in universities, medical schools and research establishments where nutrition and dietetics, midwifery, medicine, nursing, health studies and social sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this crucially important book on their shelves.

Scaling Up Nutrition

What Will It Cost?

Author: Susan Horton,Meera Shekar,Christine McDonald,Ajay Mahal,Jana Krystene Brooks

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821380789

Category: Medical

Page: 132

View: 6989

Action against malnutrition is needed more than ever. An additional US$10.3 billion a year is required from national and international public resources to successfully attack undernutrition worldwide. This would benefit more than 360 million children in the 36 countries with the highest burden of undernutrition home to 90 percent of the stunted children globally. Since early childhood offers a special window of opportunity to improve nutrition, the bulk of the investment needs to be targeted between pre-pregnancy until two years of age. 'Scaling Up Nutrition: What Will It Cost?' notes that investment will yield high returns through thriving children, healthier families, and more productive workers. This investment is essential to make progress on the nutrition and child mortality Millennium Development Goals and to protect critical human capital in developing economies. The human and financial costs of further neglect will be high. This call for greater investment in nutrition comes at a time when global efforts to strengthen health systems provide a unique opportunity to scale up integrated packages of health and nutrition interventions with common delivery platforms, thereby reducing costs. 'Scaling Up Nutrition: What Will It Cost?' has benefited from the expertise of many international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and research institutions. This book will be of interest to policy makers, public health officials, nutritionists, government officials, and all those interested in improving child nutrition and health outcomes.

Structural Reforms and Firms’ Productivity: Evidence from Developing Countries

Author: Wilfried A. Kouamé,Mr.Sampawende J Tapsoba

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1484348389

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 42

View: 9748

This paper assesses the effects of structural reforms on firm-level productivity for 37 developing countries from 2006 to 2014 period. It takes advantage of the IMF Monitoring of Fund Arrangements dataset for reform indexes and the World Bank Enterprise Surveys for firm-level productivity. The paper highlights the following results. Structural reforms such as financial, fiscal, real sector, and trade reforms, significantly improve firm-level productivity. Interestingly, real sector reforms have the most sizeable effects on firm-level productivity. The relationship between structural reforms and firm-level productivity is nonlinear and shaped by some firms’ characteristics such as the financial access, the distortionary environment, and the size of firms. The pace of structural reforms matters since being a “strong reformer” is associated with a clear productivity dividend for firms. Finally, except for financial and trade reforms, all structural reforms under consideration are bilaterally complementary in improving firm-level productivity. These findings are robust to several sensitivity checks.

Global Nutrition Report 2015

Actions and accountability to advance nutrition and sustainable development

Author: International Food Policy Research Institute

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896298833

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 6918

As we move into the post-2015 era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the world faces many seemingly intractable problems. Malnutrition should not be one of them. Countries that are determined to make rapid advances in malnutrition reduction can do so. If governments want to achieve the SDG target of ending all forms of malnutrition by 2030, they have clear pathways to follow. There are many levers to pull, and this report provides many examples of countries that have done so. Tackling malnutrition effectively is also key to meeting many other SDG targets. Good nutrition signals the realization of people’s rights to food and health. It reflects a narrowing of the inequalities in our world. Without good nutrition, human beings cannot achieve their full potential. When people’s nutrition status improves, it helps break the intergenerational cycle of poverty, generates broad-based economic growth, and leads to a host of benefits for individuals, families, communities, and countries. Good nutrition provides both a foundation for human development and the scaffolding needed to ensure it reaches its full potential. Good nutrition, in short, is an essential driver of sustainable development.

Nourishing millions: Stories of change in nutrition: Synopsis

Author: Yosef, Sivan,Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896299902

Category: Political Science

Page: 4

View: 3920

In recent years, the world has seen unprecedented attention and political commitment to addressing malnutrition. Milestones such as the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement, the Lancet Maternal and Child Nutrition Series, and the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) have marked the rapid rise of nutrition on the global policy and research agenda. These developments reverse years of relative neglect for nutrition. Undernutrition is a global challenge with huge social and economic costs. It kills millions of young children annually, stunts growth, erodes child development, reduces the amount of schooling children attain, and increases the likelihood of their being poor as adults, if they survive. Stunting persists through a lifetime and beyond—underweight mothers are more likely to give birth to underweight children, perpetuating undernutrition across generations. Undernutrition reduces global gross domestic product by US$1.4–$2.1 trillion a year—the size of the total economy of Africa south of the Sahara.

Empowerment in Practice

From Analysis to Implementation

Author: Ruth Alsop,Mette Frost Bertelsen,Jeremy Holland

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821364510

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 371

View: 1135

"This document offers an excellent explanation of the concept of empowerment and develops a very useful framework for disentangling and clarifying the concept. It is both practical and well justified on the basis of the literature. The approach and survey instruments developed to measure empowerment are innovative and very useful. Developing an approach to empirically measure empowerment, and to track empowerment indicators over time in a way that is operationally feasible and consistent with World Bank standards is certainly an outstanding achievement."Reginer Birner, Senior Researc.

Health and Growth

Author: Michael Spence,Maureen A. Lewis

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821376608

Category: Medical

Page: 189

View: 8074

This book containes a series of "state of the art" essays on topics related to health and growth. The Commission on Growth and Development (CGD)--in preparing its own Growth Report--wished to take stock of the current state of knowledge and understanding of economic growth, and thus commissioned a series of essays on a range of thematic areas. One such area is health. The following questions are discussed in the book:Does investing in health raise economic growth? Can governments achieve rapid growth or high incomes without investing in health? What are the options and benefits of different an.

Malnutrition in Afghanistan

Scale, Scope, Causes, and Potential Response

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821384414

Category: Medical

Page: 210

View: 4134

Malnutrition in Afghanistan analyses the very high rates of malnutrition amongst women and children in the country and provides the outline of a comprehensive nutrition action plan.

Wage Inequality in Latin America

Understanding the Past to Prepare for the Future

Author: Julián Messina,Joana Silva

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464810400

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 226

View: 8118

What caused the decline in wage inequality of the 2000s in Latin America? Looking to the future, will the current economic slowdown be regressive? Wage Inequality in Latin America: Understanding the Past to Prepare for the Future addresses these two questions by reviewing relevant literature and providing new evidence on what we know from the conceptual, empirical, and policy perspectives. The answer to the fi rst question can be broken down into several parts, although the bottom line is that the changes in wage inequality resulted from a combination of three forces: (a) education expansion and its eff ect on falling returns to skill (the supply-side story); (b) shifts in aggregate domestic demand; and (c) exchange rate appreciation from the commodity boom and the associated shift to the nontradable sector that changed interfi rm wage diff erences. Other forces had a non-negligible but secondary role in some countries, while they were not present in others. These include the rapid increase of the minimum wage and a rapid trend toward formalization of employment, which played a supporting role but only during the boom. Understanding the forces behind recent trends also helps to shed light on the second question. The analysis in this volume suggests that the economic slowdown is putting the brakes on the reduction of inequality in Latin America and will likely continue to do so—but it might not actually reverse the region’s movement toward less wage inequality.

Global Nutrition Report 2016

From Promise to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030

Author: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896295842

Category: Political Science

Page: 182

View: 4588

Few challenges facing the global community today match the scale of malnutrition, a condition that directly affects 1 in 3 people. Malnutrition manifests itself in many different ways: as poor child growth and development; as individuals who are skin and bone or prone to infection; as those who are carrying too much weight or whose blood contains too much sugar, salt, fat, or cholesterol; or those who are deficient in important vitamins or minerals. Malnutrition and diet are by far the biggest risk factors for the global burden of disease: every country is facing a serious public health challenge from malnutrition. The economic consequences represent losses of 11 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) every year in Africa and Asia, whereas preventing malnutrion delivers $16 in returns on investment for every $1 spent. The world’s countries have agreed on targets for nutrition, but despite some progress in recent years the world is off track to reach those targets. This third stocktaking of the state of the world’s nutrition points to ways to reverse this trend and end all forms of malnutrition by 2030.