Animism and the Question of Life

Author: Istvan Praet

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134500661

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 1805

The central purpose of this book is to help change the terms of the debate on animism, a classic theme in anthropology. It combines some of the finest ethnographic material currently available (including firsthand research on the Chachi of Ecuador) with an unusually broad geographic scope (the Americas, Asia, and Africa). Edward B. Tylor originally defined animism as the first phase in the development of religion. The heyday of cultural evolutionism may be over, but his basic conception is commonly assumed to remain valid in at least one respect: there is still a broad consensus that everything is alive within animism, or at least that more things are alive than a modern scientific observer would allow for (e.g., clouds, rivers, mountains) It is considered self-evident that animism is based on a kind of exaggeration: its adherents are presumed to impute life to this, that and the other in a remarkably generous manner. Against the prevailing consensus, this book argues that if animism has one outstanding feature, it is its peculiar restrictiveness. Animistic notions of life are astonishingly uniform across the globe, insofar as they are restricted rather than exaggerated. In the modern Western cosmology, life overlaps with the animate. Within animism, however, life is always conditional, and therefore tends to be limited to one’s kin, one’s pets and perhaps the plants in one’s garden. Thus it emerges that "our" modern biological concept of life is stranger than generally thought.

Autorität und Macht in Nahua-Haushalten

Indigene Strukturen in Mexiko zwischen lokaler Politik, globaler Wirtschaft und Kosmos

Author: Patricia Zuckerhut

Publisher: transcript Verlag

ISBN: 3839434645

Category: Social Science

Page: 468

View: 9205

Intersektionell wirkende Macht- und Ungleichheitsstrukturen lassen sich besonders gut an privaten Haushalten analysieren - vor allem in Bezug auf Geschlechterverhältnisse. Patricia Zuckerhut nimmt Haushalte der Nahua in Cuetzalan, Mexiko, in den Blick, die sowohl Teil des globalen kapitalistischen Systems wie auch der lokalen Politik sind. Sie betrachtet Veränderungen der Autoritäts- und Machtbeziehungen aufgrund von politischen und ökonomischen Transformationen, aber auch solche, die sich durch das Eintreten oder Weggehen von Haushaltsmitgliedern ergeben. Als besonders relevant erweisen sich dabei lokale Vorstellungen der Einbindung von Mensch und Gesellschaft in den Kosmos, als einem System, das menschliche und nichtmenschliche Akteur_innen inkludiert.

Inherited Land

The Changing Grounds of Religion and Ecology

Author: Whitney A. Bauman,Richard R. Bohannon

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630876240

Category: Religion

Page: 278

View: 9209

Religion and ecology has arrived. What was once a niche interest for a few academics concerned with environmental issues and a few environmentalists interested in religion has become an established academic field with classic texts, graduate programs, regular meetings at academic conferences, and growing interest from other academics and the mass media. Theologians, ethicists, sociologists, and other scholars are engaged in a broad dialogue about the ways religious studies can help understand and address environmental problems, including the sorts of methodological, terminological, and substantive debates that characterize any academic discourse. This book recognizes the field that has taken shape, reflects on the ways it is changing, and anticipates its development in the future. The essays offer analyses and reflections from emerging scholars of religion and ecology, each addressing her or his own specialty in light of two questions: (1) What have we inherited from the work that has come before us? and (2) What inquiries, concerns, and conversation partners should be central to the next generation of scholarship? The aim of this volume is not to lay out a single and clear path forward for the field. Rather, the authors critically reflect on the field from within, outline some of the major issues we face in the academy, and offer perspectives that will nurture continued dialogue.

The Handbook of Contemporary Animism

Author: Graham Harvey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317544498

Category: Religion

Page: 544

View: 1113

The Handbook of Contemporary Animism brings together an international team of scholars to examine the full range of animist worldviews and practices. The volume opens with an examination of recent approaches to animism. This is followed by evaluations of ethnographic, cognitive, literary, performative, and material culture approaches, as well as advances in activist and indigenous thinking about animism. This handbook will be invaluable to students and scholars of Religion, Sociology and Anthropology.

Living with Environmental Change

Waterworlds

Author: Kirsten Hastrup,Cecilie Rubow

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317753615

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 6725

Climate change is a lived experience of changes in the environment, often destroying conventional forms of subsistence and production, creating new patterns of movement and connection, and transforming people’s imagined future. This book explores how people across the world think about environmental change and how they act upon the perception of past, present and future opportunities. Drawing on the ethnographic fieldwork of expert authors, it sheds new light on the human experience of and social response to climate change by taking us from the Arctic to the Pacific, from the Southeast Indian Coastal zone to the West-African dry-lands and deserts, as well as to Peruvian mountain communities and cities. Divided into four thematic parts - Water, Landscape, Technology, Time – this book uses rich photographic material to accompany the short texts and reflections in order to bring to life the human ingenuity and social responsibility of people in the face of new uncertainties. In an era of melting glaciers, drying lands, and rising seas, it shows how it is part and parcel of human life to take responsibility for the social community and take creative action on the basis of a localized understanding of the environment. This highly original contribution to the anthropological study of climate change is a must-read for all those wanting to understand better what climate change means on the ground and interested in a sustainable future for the Earth.

An Introduction to the History of Religion (Routledge Revivals)

Author: F. B. Jevons

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317600053

Category: Religion

Page: 444

View: 8564

First published in 1902, this book investigates the history and development of early religion from an anthropological perspective. Rather than dealing with religions that grew from the teachings of their original founders, such as Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism, Jevons considers those religions that were practised as a matter of custom and tradition. The title considers such subjects as the supernatural, life and death, animal sacrifice, and the worship of nature. It provides an introduction to the history of religion for students of religion, anthropology and folklore.

Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples

Mountain Minorities in the South-East Asian Massif

Author: Jean Michaud,Jan Ovesen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136827889

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 8694

Scattered across the South-East Asian massif, a few dozen ethnic groups (numbering around 50 million) maintain highly original cultural identities and political and economic traditions, against pressure from national majorities. They face the same challenges. The means by which social change has been imposed by the lowlanders are similar from country to country, and the results are comparable. The originality of this book lies in the combination of multi-disciplinary mixing of social anthropology, history and human geography; multi-culturality grouping together several cultural contexts; trans-nationality straddling five countries and bridging the traditional divide between South China and Mainland South-East Asia; and history reaching back 300 years.

The Racial Discourses of Life Philosophy

Négritude, Vitalism, and Modernity

Author: Donna V. Jones

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231518609

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 1709

In the early twentieth century, the life philosophy of Henri Bergson summoned the élan vital, or vital force, as the source of creative evolution. Bergson also appealed to intuition, which focused on experience rather than discursive thought and scientific cognition. Particularly influential for the literary and political Négritude movement of the 1930s, which opposed French colonialism, Bergson's life philosophy formed an appealing alternative to Western modernity, decried as "mechanical," and set the stage for later developments in postcolonial theory and vitalist discourse. Revisiting narratives on life that were produced in this age of machinery and war, Donna V. Jones shows how Bergson, Nietzsche, and the poets Leopold Senghor and Aimé Césaire fashioned the concept of life into a central aesthetic and metaphysical category while also implicating it in discourses on race and nation. Jones argues that twentieth-century vitalism cannot be understood separately from these racial and anti-Semitic discussions. She also shows that some dominant models of emancipation within black thought become intelligible only when in dialogue with the vitalist tradition. Jones's study strikes at the core of contemporary critical theory, which integrates these older discourses into larger critical frameworks, and she traces the ways in which vitalism continues to draw from and contribute to its making.

Animism in Southeast Asia

Author: Kaj Arhem,Guido Sprenger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317336615

Category: Social Science

Page: 326

View: 6718

Animism refers to ontologies or worldviews which assign agency and personhood to human and non-human beings alike. Recent years have seen a revival of this concept in anthropology, where it is now discussed as an alternative to modern-Western naturalistic notions of human-environment relations. Based on original fieldwork, this book presents a number of case studies of animism from insular and peninsular Southeast Asia and offers a comprehensive overview of the phenomenon – its diversity and underlying commonalities and its resilience in the face of powerful forces of change. Critically engaging with the current standard notion of animism, based on hunter-gatherer and horticulturalist societies in other regions, it examines the roles of life forces, souls and spirits in local cosmologies and indigenous religion. It proposes an expansion of the concept to societies featuring mixed farming, sacrifice and hierarchy and explores the question of how non-human agents are created through acts of attention and communication, touching upon the relationship between animist ontologies, world religion, and the state. Shedding new light on Southeast Asian religious ethnographic research, the book is a significant contribution to anthropological theory and the revitalization of the concept of animism in the humanities and social sciences.

Macmillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying: A-K

Author: Robert Kastenbaum

Publisher: MacMillan Reference Library

ISBN: 9780028656908

Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE

Page: 1071

View: 5521

Comprehensive exploration of the place of death in contemporary life. Coverage of topics is broad and multi-disciplinary.

Stories from the landscape

archaeologies of inhabation

Author: Adrian M. Chadwick

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 281

View: 922

Man's impact on the landscape is obvious although, as this book makes clear, his relationship with the landscape is a complicated one and is both physical and emotional. This collection of 'stories', written by both field archaeologists and academics, aims to show how archaeology can give us 'an idea of how people in the past thought and moved about their landscapes on a routine, daily basis'. Combining theory with archaeological data the contributors discuss such themes as: landscape and technology; relams of existence in the early Neolithic of southern Britain; forest wilderness in the Middle Ages; the urban sprawl of Mexico City; architecture and buildings; the prehistoric Peak District; Cranborne Chase in Dorset; boundaries. Poems and interesting illustrations complement the stories.

Jean Piaget

Consensus and Controversy

Author: Sohan Modgil,Celia Modgil,Bärbel Inhelder

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780039103521

Category: Psychology

Page: 446

View: 9054

North Atlantic Studies

Author: Torben A. Vestergaard

Publisher: Aarhus Universitetsforlag

ISBN: 9788798342472

Category: North Atlantic Region

Page: 80

View: 8278

This volume of North Atlantic Studies is a theme issue of conference presentations on particular religious beliefs and practices in the North Atlantic area and in the American and Eurasian north. The central theme is the relationship between human society and other realms or worlds. The papers deal with interaction through ritual, shamanic practices, dreams, imagery etc. with the worlds of spirits, game animals, the dead, and others removed in time or space from the human actors. There are extensive cross cultural resemblances between such beliefs and practices within the northern regions. Historically such issues have been addressed in terms of climate, historical connection, evolution, structural or functional necessity, psychological mechanisms etc. and research in this field has taken place in different disciplinary frameworks with limited mutual contact. In the tradition of North Atlantic Studies scholars from different disciplines and research communities are brought together in the presentation of common themes in and around the North Atlantic areas. In this volume the contributors are anthropologists, archaeologists, a student of folklore, a biologist and, presenting a different viewpoint, a shamanic therapist.

Death and Dying

A Bibliographical Survey

Author: Samuel Southard

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: N.A

Category: Reference

Page: 514

View: 5839

A burgeoning body of literature on death and dying is organized into this comprehensive annotated list--citing more than 2,200 books, articles, chapters, monographs, and reports primarily concerned with the counseling or theological aspects of death and dying. This bibliography covers a wide range of topics comprising the human experience of death and dying, accessing information from the pastoral to the medical, the historical to the topical, and the philosophical to the technical elements of thanatology.

Memory and the Mountain

Environmental Relations of the Wachagga of Kilimanjaro and Implications for Landscape Archaeology

Author: Timothy Clack

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 108

View: 1281

This book considers the relationships between memory, experience and landscape from insights gained conducting ethnographic research; its primary focus is the Wachagga of Kilimanjaro, East Africa. In so doing it aims to raise issues relating to interdisciplinary work involving ethnography and landscape archaeology.

Jenseits von Natur und Kultur

Author: Philippe Descola

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518768409

Category: Social Science

Page: 638

View: 2878

Seit der Zeit der Renaissance ist unser Weltbild von einer zentralen Unterscheidung bestimmt: der zwischen Natur und Kultur. Dort die von Naturgesetzen regierte, unpersönliche Welt der Tiere und Dinge, hier die Menschenwelt mit ihrer individuellen und kulturellen Vielfalt. Diese fundamentale Trennung beherrscht unser ganzes Denken und Handeln. In seinem faszinierenden Buch zeigt der große französische Anthropologe und Schüler von Claude Lévi-Strauss, Philippe Descola, daß diese Kosmologie alles andere als selbstverständlich ist. Dabei stützt er sich auf reiches Material aus zum Teil eigenen anthropologischen Feldforschungen bei Naturvölkern und indigenen Kulturen in Afrika, Amazonien, Neuguinea oder Sibirien. Descola führt uns vor Augen, daß deren Weltbilder ganz andersartig aufgebaut sind als das unsere mit seinen »zwei Etagen« von Natur und Kultur. So betrachten manche Kulturen Dinge als beseelt oder glauben, daß verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen zwischen Tieren und Menschen bestehen. Descola plädiert für eine monistische Anthropologie und entwirft eine Typologie unterschiedlichster Weltbilder. Auf diesem Wege lassen sich neben dem westlichen dualistischen Naturalismus totemistische, animistische oder analogistische Kosmologien entdecken. Eine fesselnde Reise in fremde Welten, die uns unsere eigene mit anderen Augen sehen läßt.

Skull Collection, Modification and Decoration

Author: Michelle Bonogofsky

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 143

View: 9075

The intent of the volume is to bring together and make available to a wider audience a body of information on skull collection, modification and decoration that spans the Early Neolithic to the twentieth century. The papers are grouped by geographic region Europe, Middle East, Eurasia, Oceania, New World.

Cultural Anthropology

Author: Barbara D. Miller,John Van Esterik,Penny Van Esterik

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon

ISBN: 9780205365753

Category: Ethnology

Page: 454

View: 4926

Rethinking Materiality

The Engagement of Mind with the Material World

Author: Chris Gosden

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781902937304

Category: Material culture

Page: 280

View: 1537

What is the relationship between mind and ideas on the one hand, and the material things of the world on the other? In recent years, researchers have rejected the old debate about the primacy of the mind or material, and have sought to establish more nuanced understandings of the ways humans interact with their material worlds. In this volume contributors debate the significance of key thresholds in the human past, including sedentism, domestication, and the emergence of social inequality and their impact on changing patterns of human cognition, symbolic expression, and technological innovation.