Author: Christine Zuchora-Walske
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Amazing medical breakthroughs are made every day. In the past decades, medical researchers have cured diseases that were once deadly and devised new methods to heal that were once unimaginable. This title follows the development of antibiotics, including premodern forerunners to antibiotics, groundbreaking discoveries and the doctors who made them, and where the science is heading in the future. Learn how antibiotics work and why scientists need to continually discover new drugs. Sidebars, full-color photos, a glossary, and well-placed graphs, charts, and maps, enhance this engaging title. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Essential Library is an imprint of ABDO Publishing Company.
Challenges, Mechanisms, Opportunities
Author: Christopher Walsh,Timothy Wencewicz
Antibiotics: Challenges, Mechanisms, Opportunitiesdetails the contemporary challenges for discovery, optimization, and advancement of new antibiotics. It focuses on discovery not preclinical or clinical development. Given that the few classes of clinically significant antibiotics are all small molecules, this book focuses on the molecular structures and characteristics of both natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. Antibioticsis a valuable reference for microbiologists, bacterial physiologists, geneticists, pharmacologists, and drug developers.
Mechanisms and New Antimicrobial Approaches
Author: Kateryna Kon,Mahendra Rai
Publisher: Academic Press
Antibiotic Resistance: Mechanisms and New Antimicrobial Approaches discusses up-to-date knowledge in mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and all recent advances in fighting microbial resistance such as the applications of nanotechnology, plant products, bacteriophages, marine products, algae, insect-derived products, and other alternative methods that can be applied to fight bacterial infections. Understanding fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance is a key step in the discovery of effective methods to cope with resistance. This book also discusses methods used to fight antibiotic-resistant infection based on a deep understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the resistance. Discusses methods used to fight antibiotic-resistant infection based on a deep understanding of mechanisms involved in the development of the resistance Provides information on modern methods used to fight antibiotic resistance Covers a wide range of alternative methods to fight bacterial resistance, offering the most complete information available Discusses both newly emerging trends and traditionally applied methods to fight antibiotic resistant infections in light of recent scientific developments Offers the most up-to-date information in fighting antibiotic resistance Includes involvement of contributors all across the world, presenting questions of interest to readers of both developed and developing countries
Expanding Nature's Inventory
Author: Christopher Walsh
Publisher: Roberts and Company Publishers
"Walsh has coalesced the dizzying array of posttranslational modifications into a small subset of reactions. It is written with a concise chemical logic and Walsh's typical flair that makes it a pleasure to read." Michael A. Marletta, Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley
Author: Vincent T. Andriole
Publisher: Academic Press
The Quinolones covers reviews on the history, chemistry and mechanism of action, in vitro properties, pharmacokinetics, clinical overview, toxicity, adverse effects and drug interactions, and future prospects of the 4-quinolones. The book discusses the microbiology of quinolones, particularly with consideration of the development of resistance, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical uses. Chemists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and clinicians will find the book useful.
Origins, Evolution, Selection and Spread
Author: CIBA Foundation Symposium
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Antibiotic Resistance: Origins, Evolution, Selection and Spread Chairman: Stuart B. Levy, 1997 Over the last 50 years, the rapid increase in the use of antibiotics, not only in people, but also in animal husbandry and agriculture, has delivered a selection unprecedented in the history of evolution. Consequently, society is facing one of its gravest public health problems-the emergence of infectious bacteria with resistance to many, and in some cases all, available antibiotics. This book brings together a multidisciplinary group of experts to discuss this problem. It begins by examining the origins of resistance and goes on to look at how the use of antibiotics in human medicine and farming/agriculture has selected for resistant bacteria. Separate chapters describe the evolution of resistance determinants and how these are spread both within and between bacterial species. Finally, the book contains discussions on strategies for countering the threat of antibiotic resistance. A major re-thinking of our approach to the treatment of infectious diseases is proposed-that antibiotic resistance should be seen as a problem created by the disruption of normal microbial ecology. To restore efficacy to earlier antibiotics, and to maintain the success of new antibiotics that are introduced, we need to use these drugs in a way that ensures an ecological balance that favours the predominance of susceptible bacteria.
Reform, Resistance, and the Pursuit of a Rational Therapeutics
Author: Scott H. Podolsky
Publisher: JHU Press
In The Antibiotic Era, physician-historian Scott H. Podolsky narrates the far-reaching history of antibiotics, focusing particularly on reform efforts that attempted to fundamentally change how antibiotics are developed and prescribed. This sweeping chronicle reveals the struggles faced by crusading reformers from the 1940s onward as they advocated for a rational therapeutics at the crowded intersection of bugs and drugs, patients and doctors, industry and medical academia, and government and the media. During the post–World War II "wonder drug" revolution, antibiotics were viewed as a panacea for mastering infectious disease. But from the beginning, critics raised concerns about irrational usage and overprescription. The first generation of antibiotic reformers focused on regulating the drug industry. The reforms they set in motion included the adoption of controlled clinical trials as the ultimate arbiters of therapeutic efficacy, the passage of the Kefauver-Harris amendments mandating proof of drug efficacy via well-controlled studies, and the empowering of the Food and Drug Administration to remove inefficacious drugs from the market. Despite such victories, no entity was empowered to rein in physicians who inappropriately prescribed, or overly prescribed, approved drugs. Now, in an era of emerging bugs and receding drugs, discussions of antibiotic resistance focus on the need to develop novel antibiotics and the need for more appropriate prescription practices in the face of pharmaceutical marketing, pressure from patients, and the structural constraints that impede rational delivery of antibiotics worldwide. Concerns about the enduring utility of antibiotics—indeed, about a post-antibiotic era—are widespread, as evidenced by reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, academia, and popular media alike. Only by understanding the historical forces that have shaped our current situation, Podolsky argues, can we properly understand and frame our choices moving forward.
Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary
Author: Forum on Microbial Threats,Board on Global Health,Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Years of using, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant 'superbugs.' The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to discuss the nature and sources of drug-resistant pathogens, the implications for global health, and the strategies to lessen the current and future impact of these superbugs.
Author: Richard B. Silverman,Mark W. Holladay
Publisher: Academic Press
The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, Third Edition, represents a unique approach to medicinal chemistry based on physical organic chemical principles and reaction mechanisms that rationalize drug action, which allows reader to extrapolate those core principles and mechanisms to many related classes of drug molecules. This new edition includes updates to all chapters, including new examples and references. It reflects significant changes in the process of drug design over the last decade and preserves the successful approach of the previous editions while including significant changes in format and coverage. This text is designed for undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry studying medicinal chemistry or pharmaceutical chemistry; research chemists and biochemists working in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Updates to all chapters, including new examples and references Chapter 1 (Introduction): Completely rewritten and expanded as an overview of topics discussed in detail throughout the book Chapter 2 (Lead Discovery and Lead Modification): Sections on sources of compounds for screening including library collections, virtual screening, and computational methods, as well as hit-to-lead and scaffold hopping; expanded sections on sources of lead compounds, fragment-based lead discovery, and molecular graphics; and deemphasized solid-phase synthesis and combinatorial chemistry Chapter 3 (Receptors): Drug-receptor interactions, cation-π and halogen bonding; atropisomers; case history of the insomnia drug suvorexant Chapter 4 (Enzymes): Expanded sections on enzyme catalysis in drug discovery and enzyme synthesis Chapter 5 (Enzyme Inhibition and Inactivation): New case histories: for competitive inhibition, the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib and Abelson kinase inhibitor, imatinib for transition state analogue inhibition, the purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors, forodesine and DADMe-ImmH, as well as the mechanism of the multisubstrate analog inhibitor isoniazid for slow, tight-binding inhibition, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, saxagliptin Chapter 7 (Drug Resistance and Drug Synergism): This new chapter includes topics taken from two chapters in the previous edition, with many new examples Chapter 8 (Drug Metabolism): Discussions of toxicophores and reactive metabolites Chapter 9 (Prodrugs and Drug Delivery Systems): Discussion of antibody–drug conjugates
Monitoring, Toxicity, Risk Assessment and Management
Author: Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi,Vladimir Strezov,Ajit Varma
This book summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment. It covers a wide range of topics to help readers understand antibiotics and ARGs in soils, the risks they pose for the environment, and options for effective control. In addition, it presents a range of essential tools and methodologies that can be used to address antibiotics and ARGs in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Gathering contributions by international experts, the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.The topics discussed include antibiotics-producing microorganisms; the routes of entry and fate of antibiotics and resistance genes; biomonitoring approaches; dissemination of ARGs in soils; risk assessment; the impact of antibiotics and ARGs on the soil microbial community and other biota; bioremediation and biodegradation approaches; and soil management strategies for antibiotics and ARG-contaminated soils.As such, the book will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences, microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. Readers and Journals: 1. This new volume on antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences,microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. 2. The book will provide government authorities all over the world with effective strategies for the management of antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARG)- contaminated soil. 3. Gathering contributions by international experts,the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.
Author: Jun Lin,Kunihiko Nishino,Marilyn C. Roberts,Marcelo Tolmasky,Rustam I. Aminov,Lixin Zhang
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Antibiotics represent one of the most successful forms of therapy in medicine. But the efficiency of antibiotics is compromised by the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antibiotic resistance, which is implicated in elevated morbidity and mortality rates as well as in the increased treatment costs, is considered to be one of the major global public health threats (www.who.int/drugresistance/en/) and the magnitude of the problem recently prompted a number of international and national bodies to take actions to protect the public (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/road-map-amr_en.pdf: http://www.who.int/drugresistance/amr_global_action_plan/en/; http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/carb_national_strategy.pdf). Understanding the mechanisms by which bacteria successfully defend themselves against the antibiotic assault represent the main theme of this eBook published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy. The articles in the eBook update the reader on various aspects and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of these mechanisms should facilitate the development of means to potentiate the efficacy and increase the lifespan of antibiotics while minimizing the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens.
Author: Victor Lorian
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Implement the most current science and practice in antimicrobial research. Now, find the newest approaches for evaluating the activity, mechanisms of action, and bacterial resistance to antibiotics with this completely updated, landmark reference. Turn to this comprehensive reference for groundbreaking evidence on the molecular link between chemical disinfectants, sterilants, and antibiotics. On the latest methods for detecting antibacterial resistance genes in the clinical laboratory, and antivirogram use to select the most active antiviral components against your patient's HIV.
Author: Michel Tibayrenc
Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Second Edition, discusses the constantly evolving field of infectious diseases and their continued impact on the health of populations, especially in resource-limited areas of the world. Students in public health, biomedical professionals, clinicians, public health practitioners, and decisions-makers will find valuable information in this book that is relevant to the control and prevention of neglected and emerging worldwide diseases that are a major cause of global morbidity, disability, and mortality. Although substantial gains have been made in public health interventions for the treatment, prevention, and control of infectious diseases during the last century, in recent decades the world has witnessed a worldwide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, increasing antimicrobial resistance, and the emergence of many new bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The economic, social, and political burden of infectious diseases is most evident in developing countries which must confront the dual burden of death and disability due to infectious and chronic illnesses. Takes an integrated approach to infectious diseases Includes contributions from leading authorities Provides the latest developments in the field of infectious disease
Author: Christon J. Hurst
This volume focuses on blocking disease transmission and the ecological perspective of pathogens and pathogenic processes. The chapters on blocking transmission cover the environmental safety of space flight, biocides and biocide resistance, as well as infection control in healthcare facilities. The book also offers insights into the ecological aspects of infectious disease, introducing the reader to the role of indigenous gut microbiota in maintaining human health and current discussions on environmentally encountered bacterial and fungal pathogens including species that variously cause the necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer and coccidioidomycosis. Further, it explores the influenza A virus as an example for understanding zoonosis. It is a valuable resource for microbiologists and biomedical scientists alike.
Author: Robert Paul Hunter, Carlos F Amábile-Cuevas,Jun Lin,Joshua D Nosanchuk, Rustam Aminov
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
Antimicrobial therapy is a key factor in our success against pathogens poised to ravage at risk or infected individuals. However, we are currently at a watershed point as we face a growing crisis of antibiotic resistance among diverse pathogens. One area of intense interest is the impact of the application of antibiotics for uses other than the treatment of patients and the association with such utilization with emerging drug resistance. This Research Topic “Low- dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future” in Frontiers in Microbiology: Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy details various aspects of the wide ranging effects of antimicrobial therapy from areas such as the regulation of host responses to modulation of bacterial virulence factors to acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes.
Author: Steven L. Foley,Anne Y. Chen,Shabbir Simjee,Marcus J. Zervos
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Providing a broad overview of the microbial pathogens associated with hospital-acquired human illness, Techniques for the Study of Hospital Acquired Infection examines the cost-effective use of laboratory techniques in nosocomial infectious disease epidemiology and control. This concise guide addresses the cost benefits of combining modern molecular techniques with the traditional activities of infection control departments. The book is useful as a guide to hospital infection control programs as well as a text for medical practitioners, grad/medical students, researcher scientists, population biologists, molecular biologists, and microbiologists.
How Bacterial Resistance is Undermining the Antibiotic Miracle
Author: Abigail A. Salyers,Dixie D. Whitt
Publisher: ASM Press
"What is antibiotic resistance, and why should I be concerned with it?" Media coverage and political and scientific discussions about "superbugs" that defy our current treatments, genetically–modified foods in our fields and grocery stores, the threat of bioterrorism, and the use of antibiotics in agriculture have increased citizen awareness and fears regarding the issues surrounding antibiotic resistance. Revenge of the Microbes: How Bacterial Resistance Is Undermining the Antibiotic Miracle is a single source of answers to this and other questions average people are asking. Written by experts with extensive experience in the field, Revenge of the Microbes provides the scientific information readers will need to form opinions and make informed decisions regarding the use of antibiotics. The authors have carefully sifted through a vast amount of information to ensure comprehensive coverage of topics including the larger issues of economics, politics, health, safety, and the environment. Specific antibiotics and controversies are examined in a real–life context; accounts of positions on all sides of the public policy debate are presented; and less common issues such as what happens to antibiotics once they are released into the environment, are addressed. The evolution of antibiotic–resistant bacteria is put into perspective and bacterial mutation and horizontal gene transfer are explained in simple terms. An in–depth documentation of antibiotic structures is provided in the appendix. Reader–friendly and comprehensible, Revenge of the Microbes will engage a diverse audience, including biologists, doctors, teachers, students, lawyers, environmentalists, and everyday citizens. This new volume encourages readers to consider the extensive role of antibiotics in modern medicine and the potentially catastrophic impact the loss of effective antibiotics would have today and on future generations.
Author: Aníbal de J. Sosa,Denis K. Byarugaba,Carlos Amabile,Po-Ren Hsueh,Samuel Kariuki,Iruka N. Okeke
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Avoiding infection has always been expensive. Some human populations escaped tropical infections by migrating into cold climates but then had to procure fuel, warm clothing, durable housing, and crops from a short growing season. Waterborne infections were averted by owning your own well or supporting a community reservoir. Everyone got vaccines in rich countries, while people in others got them later if at all. Antimicrobial agents seemed at first to be an exception. They did not need to be delivered through a cold chain and to everyone, as vaccines did. They had to be given only to infected patients and often then as relatively cheap injectables or pills off a shelf for only a few days to get astonishing cures. Antimicrobials not only were better than most other innovations but also reached more of the world’s people sooner. The problem appeared later. After each new antimicrobial became widely used, genes expressing resistance to it began to emerge and spread through bacterial populations. Patients infected with bacteria expressing such resistance genes then failed treatment and remained infected or died. Growing resistance to antimicrobial agents began to take away more and more of the cures that the agents had brought.
Author: John Parascandola,American Chemical Society. Division of the History of Chemistry,American Chemical Society. Division of Medicinal Chemistry
Publisher: Amer Inst of the History of