Aquatic Chemistry

Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters

Author: Werner Stumm,James J. Morgan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047167303X

Category: Science

Page: 1040

View: 832

The authoritative introduction to natural water chemistry THIRD EDITION Now in its updated and expanded Third Edition, Aquatic Chemistry remains the classic resource on the essential concepts of natural water chemistry. Designed for both self-study and classroom use, this book builds a solid foundation in the general principles of natural water chemistry and then proceeds to a thorough treatment of more advanced topics. Key principles are illustrated with a wide range of quantitative models, examples, and problem-solving methods. Major subjects covered include: * Chemical Thermodynamics * Solid-Solution Interface and Kinetics * Trace Metals * Acids and Bases * Kinetics of Redox Processes * Dissolved Carbon Dioxide * Photochemical Processes * Atmosphere-Water Interactions * Kinetics at the Solid-Water * Metal Ions in Aqueous Solution Interface * Precipitation and Dissolution * Particle-Particle Interaction * Oxidation and Reduction * Regulation of the Chemical * Equilibria and Microbial Mediation Composition of Natural Waters

Aquatic chemistry

an introduction emphasizing chemical equilibria in natural waters

Author: Werner Stumm,James J. Morgan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 583

View: 5801

Aquatic Chemical Kinetics

Reaction Rates of Processes in Natural Waters

Author: Werner Stumm

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 545

View: 7112

Aquatic Chemistry An Introduction Emphasizing Chemical Equilibria in Natural Waters Second Edition Edited by Werner Stumm and James J. Morgan This second edition of the renowned classic unites concepts, applications, and techniques with the growing amounts of data in the field. Expanded treatment is offered on steady-state and dynamic models employing mass-balance approaches and kinetic information. New chapters address such topics as: environmental aspects of aquatic chemistry; new material on organic compounds in natural water systems; the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in chemical and physical processes; the latest advances in marine chemistry; solid-solution interface; kinetic considerations of equilibria; metal-ligand interactions; and an expanded compilation of thermodynamic data for important reactions in natural water systems. 1981 (0 471-04831-3) Cloth 780 pp. (0 471-09173-1) Paper Chemical Processes in Lakes Edited by Werner Stumm This is a multidisciplinary analysis of recent research on the physical, chemical, and biological processes in aquatic systems. Coverage includes: distribution of elements and compounds in water and sediments; sedimentation and sediment accumulation of nutrients and pollutants; eurtophication and acidification; atmospheric deposition; redox-related geochemistry and sediment-water exchange of nutrients and metals; sediment dating and paleolimnology; and steady-state and dynamic models. Most chapters focus on the role of biological processes and the coupling of elemental cycles by organisms. 1985 (0 471-88261-5) 435 pp. Principles of Aquatic Chemistry Francois M. M. Morel Here is a quantitative treatment of the chemical principles that govern the composition of natural waters. Features include an in-depth examination of the use of conservation principles in chemical systems, a review of thermodynamic and kinetic principles applicable to aquatic systems, and a novel presentation of a systematic methodology for equilibrium calculations. Detailed coverage is provided on the topic of aquatic chemistry, following the traditional divisions of acid-base, precipitation-dissolution, coordination, redox and surface reactions. 1983 (0 471-08683-5) 446 pp.

Phosphorus: Polluter and Resource of the Future

Motivations, Technologies and Assessment of the Elimination and Recovery of Phosphorus from Wastewater

Author: Christian Schaum

Publisher: IWA Publishing

ISBN: 1780408358

Category: Science

Page: 450

View: 825

This comprehensive book provides an up-to-date and international approach that addresses the Motivations, Technologies and Assessment of the Elimination and Recovery of Phosphorus from Wastewater. This book is part of the Integrated Environmental Technology Series.

Chemistry and Ecotoxicology of Pollution

Author: Des W. Connell,Gregory J. Miller

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471862499

Category: Science

Page: 444

View: 1464

Systems Ecology An Introduction Howard T. Odum An integrated theoretical and applied approach to systems ecology, using diagrammatic language to explain basic concepts of systems, modeling, and simulation. It presents simple and moderate complexity models as the ones of primary utility in theory and practice; combines energetics and kinetics, rather than viewing them separately; and generalizes concepts of ecosystems and economic systems, among its many vital features. (0 471 65277-6) 1983 Ecogenetics Genetic Variation in Susceptibility to Environmental Agents Edward J. Calabrese The most comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of how genetic factors affect susceptibility to environmental agents. The book provides an objective critical evaluation of current scientific literature on the subject, with particular emphasis on those a gents typically considered pollutants. (0 471 89112-6) 1984 Chemodynamics Environmental Movement of Chemicals in Air, Water and Soil Louis J. Thibodeaux This book describes the nature and processes of the transport of pollutants throughout the environment. It examines equilibrium at environmental interfaces, transport fundamentals, and the chemical exchange rates between air and water, water and the adjoining earthen material, air and soil, as well as intraphase chemical exchange rates. (0 471 04720-1) 1979 Environmental Engineering and Sanitation, 3rd Edition Joseph A. Salvato A totally updated edition of the standard guide to sanitary and environmental engineering principles and their practical applications. It covers virtually every problem encountered in the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of sanitation plants and structures. New features include updated material on water reclamation and reuse, on-site sewage disposal, protection of groundwater quality, and more. (0 471 04942-5) 1982 Aquatic Chemistry An Introduction Emphasizing Chemical Equilibria in Natural Waters, 2nd Edition Werner J. Stumm & James J. Morgan This new edition of the recognized classic crystallizes the enormous and growing flood of data and theory that has accompanied the maturation of this field. New features include increased attention to steady-state and dynamic models employing mass-balance approaches and kinetic information; a new chapter on environmental considerations; expanded compilation of thermodynamic data; and more. (0 471 04831-3) 1981 Cloth (0 471 09173-1) 1981 Paper

Chemistry of the Climate System

Author: Detlev Möller

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 311038230X

Category: Science

Page: 806

View: 9539

Klimawandel ist eine der größten Herausforderungen unserer Zeit. Schwerpunkt dieses integrativen Handbuchs ist die Luftchemie im Kontext des Klimasystems und seiner Veränderungen. Dieses Buch präsentiert einen problemorientierten Ansatz zur Darstellung atmosphärischer Prozesse und der möglichen Einfluss- und Änderungsfaktoren und somit auch zur Bewertung des Zustands des Klimasystems. Darüber hinaus bietet das Buch Lösungsansätze für unerwünschte Änderungen im Klimasystem.

Environmental Chemodynamics

Movement of Chemicals in Air, Water, and Soil

Author: Louis J. Thibodeaux

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471612957

Category: Science

Page: 593

View: 7508

What happens to a chemical once it enters the natural environment? How do its physical and chemical properties influence its transport, persistence, and partitioning in the biosphere? How do natural forces influence its distribution? How are the answers to these questions useful in making toxicological and epidemiological forecasts? Environmental Chemodynamics, Second Edition introduces readers to the concepts, tools, and techniques currently used to answer these and other critical questions about the fate and transport of chemicals in the natural environment. Like its critically acclaimed predecessor, its main focus is on the mechanisms and rates of movement of chemicals across the air/soil, soil/water, and water/air interfaces, and on how natural processes work to mobilize chemicals near and across interfaces––information vital to performing human and ecological risk assessments. Also consistent with the first edition, Environmental Chemodynamics, Second Edition is organized to accommodate readers of every level of experience. The first section is devoted to theoretical underpinnings and includes discussions of mass balance, thermodynamics, transport science concepts, and more. The second section concentrates on practical aspects, including the movement between bed–sediment and water, movement between soil and air, and intraphase chemical behavior. This revised and updated edition of Louis J. Thibodeaux′s 1979 classic features new or expanded coverage of: ∗ Equilibrium models for environmental compartments ∗ Dry deposition of particles and vapors onto water and soil surfaces ∗ Chemical profiles in rivers and estuaries, particles and porous media ∗ Fate and transport in the atmospheric boundary layer and within subterranean media ∗ Chemical exchange between water column and bed–sediment ∗ Intraphase chemical transport and fate This Second Edition of Environmental Chemodynamics also includes twice as many references and 50% more exercises and practice problems.

Environmental modeling

fate and transport of pollutants in water, air, and soil

Author: Jerald L. Schnoor

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: 9780471124368

Category: Science

Page: 682

View: 5815

A comprehensive, thoroughly modern approach to environmental quality assessment The only textbook to combine engineering transport fundamentals and equilibrium aquatic chemistry, Environmental Modeling brings a uniquely contemporary perspective to the assessment of environmental quality. Addressing key questions about fate, transport, and long-term effects of chemical pollutants in the environment, this inherently practical text gives readers the important tools they need to develop and solve their own mathematical models. Contains detailed examples from a wide range of crucial water quality areas-conventional pollutants in rivers, eutrophication of lakes, and toxic organic chemicals and heavy metals in both surface and groundwaters Examines current global issues, including atmospheric deposition, hazardous wastes, soil pollution, global change, and more Features over 200 high-quality illustrations, plus skill-building problems in every chapter Fresh in approach and broad in scope, Environmental Modeling is must reading for today's graduate and advanced undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering-a rich, invaluable, and superlative new resource.

Aquatic Surface Chemistry

Chemical Processes at the Particle-Water Interface

Author: Werner Stumm

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471829959

Category: Science

Page: 520

View: 4733

The solid-solution interface. Adsorption mechanisms in aquatic surface chemistry. Adsorption mechanisms. Organic compounds. Inorganic compounds. The electric double layer at the solid-solution interface. Electronic work function and potential of zero charge. Single-crystal electrodes. The problem of polycrystalline electrodes. Specific ionic adsorption. Adsorption of neutral molecules. Chemisorption and surface mobility. A two-phase model for the interpretation of proton and metal ion interaction with charged polyelectrolyte gels and their linear analogs. Development of the unified model. Application of the unified model to the interpretation of proton and metal-ion interaction with various charged polymeric systems. The surface chemistry of oxides, hydroxides, and oxide minerals. Coordination chemistry of the oxide-water interface. Acid-base characteristics of surface hydroxyl groups. Metal complexes. Adsorption of anions. Ternary surface complexes. Aspects of the molecular structure in surface complexes; spectroscopic investigations. Cation adsorption. Anion and organic ligand adsorption. Final considerations. Surface chemical processes in soil. Soil materials. Available models. Applicability of the models to the soil water system. The formation and dissolution of solid phases. The hydrolysis of iron in synthetic, biological, and aquatic media. Mononuclear aquahydroxo complexes of iron (III) and the primary steps of polynuclear growth. Hydrolysis in salt solutions. Iron hydrolysis in cells. Aquatic media: hydrolysis induced by oxidation of ferrous ions. The morphological variety of hydrolysis products. The dissolution of oxides and aluminum silicates; examples of surface-coordination-controlled kinetics. Surface-controlled dissolution. The ligand-promoted dissolution of ... The proton-promoted dissolution of hydrous oxides. Kinetic dependence on solute concentrations; fractional reaction orders. Weathering. The role of chemical weathering in the neutralization of acids. Reductive dissolution of metal oxides. Oxidation state and solubility. The geochemical setting. Dissolution without changes in oxidation state. Mechanism of reductive dissolution. Kinetics of reductive dissolution: simple models. Kinetics of reductive dissolution: additional considerations. Adsorption of redox-inert species. Effects of oxide mineralogy and surface structure. Experimental verification of theory. Monte Carlo simulations of surface reaction rate laws. Surface reaction rate laws: simple models. Dislocations. Monte Carlo model. Results and discussion. Dislocations with a strain field included. New evidence for the mechanisms of dissolution of silicate minerals. Evidence of surface reaction control during dissolution of silicate minerals. New data on the dissolution of silicates and the surface reaction hypothesis. Concluding remarks. Regulating the composition of natural waters. Surface chemical aspects of the distribution and fate of metal ions in lakes. Interactions of metal ions with surfaces of natural particles. Interaction of metal ions with biota: simple chemical models. The role of settling particles in the vertical transport of metal ions in lakes. Interpretation of metal complexation by heterogeneous complexants. Background: metals and ligands. Measurement of metal-ligand complexation equilibrium data. Representation of complexation equilibria. Application of the G(K') function to interpretation of heterogeneous complexant properties (Using Metal-Fulvic Interaction). Particle-particle interactions. Particle transport. Chemical aspects. A physicochemical synthesis. Environmental applications. The role of colloids in the partitioning of solutes in natural waters. Surface reactions of ions and polar compounds. Organic film solvation of hydrophobic compounds. Strange observations. Experimental artifacts. Reversibility of colloid aggregation. Artifacts and reality. Coagulation kinetics and simulations of particle-size distributions. Size distributions in peptizable suspensions. Apparent partition coefficients in natural waters. Abiotic transformation of organic chemicals at the particle-water interface. Kinetic models and equations. Heterogeneous organic reactions in sediment suspensions. Heterogeneous photoreactions. The role particles in regulating the composition of seawater. Particle in the ocean. Classification of deep-ocean profiles. Deep-ocean profiles of the elements. From molecules to planetary environments: understanding global change. Change. Observation. Earth convection: megaprocesses: geochemical cycles. Erosion. Bioprecipitation.

Biochar for Environmental Management

Science, Technology and Implementation

Author: Johannes Lehmann,Stephen Joseph

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134489536

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 944

View: 5956

Biochar is the carbon-rich product which occurs when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its persistence in soil and nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with potentially major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. The first edition of this book, published in 2009, was the definitive work reviewing the expanding research literature on this topic. Since then, the rate of research activity has increased at least ten-fold, and biochar products are now commercially available as soil amendments. This second edition includes not only substantially updated chapters, but also additional chapters: on environmental risk assessment; on new uses of biochar in composting and potting mixes; a new and controversial field of studying the effects of biochar on soil carbon cycles; on traditional use with very recent discoveries that biochar was used not only in the Amazon but also in Africa and Asia; on changes in water availability and soil water dynamics; and on sustainability and certification. The book therefore continues to represent the most comprehensive compilation of current knowledge on all aspects of biochar.

Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis

Butterworths Series in Chemical Engineering

Author: Rutherford Aris

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 1483135802

Category: Science

Page: 366

View: 3389

Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis focuses on the processes, reactions, methodologies, and approaches involved in chemical reactor analysis, including stoichiometry, adiabatic reactors, external mass transfer, and thermochemistry. The publication first takes a look at stoichiometry and thermochemistry and chemical equilibrium. Topics include heat of formation and reaction, measurement of quantity and its change by reaction, concentration changes with a single reaction, rate of generation of heat by reaction, and equilibrium of simultaneous and heterogeneous reactions. The manuscript then offers information on reaction rates and the progress of reaction in time. Discussions focus on systems of first order reactions, concurrent reactions of low order, general irreversible reaction, variation of reaction rate with extent and temperature, and heterogeneous reaction rate expressions. The book examines the interaction of chemical and physical rate processes, continuous flow stirred tank reactor, and adiabatic reactors. Concerns include multistage adiabatic reactors, adiabatic stirred tank, stability and control of the steady state, mixing in the reactor, effective reaction rate expressions, and external mass transfer. The publication is a dependable reference for readers interested in chemical reactor analysis.

Journal

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Sewage

Page: N.A

View: 8169

Riverbank Filtration

Improving Source-Water Quality

Author: C. Ray,G. Melin,R.B. Linsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306481545

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 366

View: 6847

Chittaranjan Ray, Ph. D. , P. E. University of Hawaii at Mãnoa Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Jürgen Schubert, M. Sc. Stadtwerke Düsseldorf AG Düsseldorf, Germany Ronald B. Linsky National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States Gina Melin National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States 1. What is Riverbank Filtration? The purpose ofthis book is to show that riverbank filtration (RBF) isa low-cost and efficient alternative water treatment for drinking-water applications. There are two immediate benefits to the increased use of RBF: Minimized need for adding chemicals like disinfectants and coagulants to surface water to control pathogens. Decreased costs to the community without increased risk to human health. Butwhat,exactly, isRBF? In humid regions, river water naturally percolates through the ground into aquifers (which are layers of sand and gravel that contain water underground) during high-flow conditions. In arid regions, most rivers lose flow, and the percolating water passes through soil and aquifer material until it reaches the water table. During these percolation processes, potential contaminants present in river water are filtered and attenuated. If there are no other contaminants present in the aquifer or ifthe respective contaminants are present at lower concentrations, the quality of water in the aquifer can be ofhigher quality than that found in theriver. In RBF, production wells — which are placed near the banks ofrivers —pump large quantities ofwater.

Chemical Analysis

Modern Instrumentation Methods and Techniques

Author: Francis Rouessac,Annick Rouessac

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118681878

Category: Science

Page: 600

View: 5364

Completely revised and updated, Chemical Analysis: Second Edition is an essential introduction to a wide range of analytical techniques and instruments. Assuming little in the way of prior knowledge, this text carefully guides the reader through the more widely used and important techniques, whilst avoiding excessive technical detail. Provides a thorough introduction to a wide range of the most important and widely used instrumental techniques Maintains a careful balance between depth and breadth of coverage Includes examples, problems and their solutions Includes coverage of latest developments including supercritical fluid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

Drinking Water and Health,

Author: Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards,Safe Drinking Water Committee,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council,Commission on Life Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309031982

Category: Science

Page: 299

View: 2210

Mass Spectrometry

Principles and Applications

Author: Edmond de Hoffmann,Vincent Stroobant

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118681940

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 2475

The latest edition of a highly successful textbook, Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition provides students with a complete overview of the principles, theories and key applications of modern mass spectrometry. All instrumental aspects of mass spectrometry are clearly and concisely described: sources, analysers and detectors. Tandem mass spectrometry is introduced early on and then developed in more detail in a later chapter. Emphasis is placed throughout the text on optimal utilisation conditions. Various fragmentation patterns are described together with analytical information that derives from the mass spectra. This new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and has been redesigned to give the book a more contemporary look. As with previous editions it contains numerous examples, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding. Updates include: Increased coverage of MALDI and ESI, more detailed description of time of flight spectrometers, new material on isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and an expanded range of applications. Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition is an invaluable resource for all undergraduate and postgraduate students using this technique in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, material science and food science. It is also of interest for researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.

Aquatic Redox Chemistry

Author: Paul Tratnyek,Timothy Grundl,Stefan Haderlein

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 9780841226524

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 632

View: 1453

This volume provides a comprehensive overview of aquatic redox chemistry through chapters contributed by many of the leading investigators in the field.

Oceans

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Hydrography

Page: N.A

View: 5070