Atmospheric Convection

Author: Kerry A. Emanuel

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195066302

Category: Nature

Page: 580

View: 2660

This graduate-level meteorology text and reference provides a scientifically rigorous description of the many types of convective circulations in the Earth's atmosphere. These range from small-scale, convectively driven turbulences in the boundary layer to precipitating systems covering many thousands of square kilometers. The text introduces the principal techniques used in understanding and predicting convective motion: theory, field experiment, and numerical modelling. Part I explores dry convection, including turbulent plumes and thermals from isolated buoyancy sources, Raleigh-Benard convection, and turbulent convection in the planetary boundary layer. Emphasis is placed on applying theoretical understanding and lessons from experiments. Part II offers a complete treatment of the thermodynamics of moist and cloudy air, including fundamental laws, conserved quantities, graphical techniques, and stability. Part III explores the characteristics of individual convective clouds, thunderstorms, squall lines, mesoscale convective systems, and slantwise convection. Part IV studies the ensemble effects of convective clouds, including stratocumulus at trade cumulus boundary layers and the representation of convective clouds in numerical models. Each chapter is followed by a set of exercises.

The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection

Author: R.K. Smith

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401588287

Category: Science

Page: 498

View: 7837

An up-to-date summary of our understanding of the dynamics and thermodynamics of moist atmospheric convection, with a strong focus on recent developments in the field. The book also reviews ways in which moist convection may be parameterised in large-scale numerical models - a field in which there is still some controversy - and discusses the implications of convection for large-scale flow. Audience: The book is aimed at the graduate level and research meteorologists as well as scientists in other disciplines who need to know more about moist convection and its representation in numerical models.

Parameterization of Atmospheric Convection

(In 2 Volumes)Volume 1: Theoretical Background and FormulationVolume 2: Current Issues and New Theories

Author: Robert S Plant,Jun-Ichi Yano

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1783266929

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1172

View: 3404

Precipitating atmospheric convection is fundamental to the Earth's weather and climate. It plays a leading role in the heat, moisture and momentum budgets. Appropriate modelling of convection is thus a prerequisite for reliable numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. The current standard approach is to represent it by subgrid-scale convection parameterization. Parameterization of Atmospheric Convection provides, for the first time, a comprehensive presentation of this important topic. The two-volume set equips readers with a firm grasp of the wide range of important issues, and thorough coverage is given of both the theoretical and practical aspects. This makes the parameterization problem accessible to a wider range of scientists than before. At the same time, by providing a solid bottom-up presentation of convection parameterization, this set is the definitive reference point for atmospheric scientists and modellers working on such problems. Volume 1 of this two-volume set focuses on the basic principles: introductions to atmospheric convection and tropical dynamics, explanations and discussions of key parameterization concepts, and a thorough and critical exploration of the mass-flux parameterization framework, which underlies the methods currently used in almost all operational models and at major climate modelling centres. Volume 2 focuses on the practice, which also leads to some more advanced fundamental issues. It includes: perspectives on operational implementations and model performance, tailored verification approaches, the role and representation of cloud microphysics, alternative parameterization approaches, stochasticity, criticality, and symmetry constraints. Contents:Volume 1:Basic Parameterization Concepts and Issues:Moist Atmospheric Convection: An Introduction and Overview (Á Horváth)Sub-Grid Parameterization Problem (J-I Yano)Scale Separation (J-I Yano)Quasi-Equilibrium (R S Plant and J-I Yano)Tropical Dynamics: Large-Scale Convectively Coupled Waves (Ž Fuchs)Mass-Flux Parameterization:Hot-Tower Hypothesis and Mass-Flux Formulation (J-I Yano)Formulation of the Mass-Flux Convective Parameterization (J-I Yano)Thermodynamic Effects of Convection under the Mass-Flux Formulation (J-I Yano)Spectral and Bulk Mass-Flux Representations (R S Plant and O Martínez-Alvarado)Entrainment and Detrainment Formulations for Mass-Flux Parameterization (W C de Rooy, J-I Yano, P Bechtold and S J Böing)Closure (J-I Yano and R S Plant)Convective Vertical Velocity (J-I Yano)Downdraughts (J-I Yano)Momentum Transfer (J-I Yano)Volume 2:Operational Issues:Convection in Global Numerical Weather Prediction (P Bechtold)Satellite Observations of Convection and Their Implications for Parameterizations (J Quaas and P Stier)Convection and Waves on Small Planets and the Real Earth (P Bechtold, N Semane and S Malardel)Microphysics of Convective Cloud and Its Treatment in Parameterization (V T J Phillips and J-I Yano)Model Resolution Issues and New Approaches in the Convection-Permitting Regimes (L Gerard)Stochastic Aspects of Convective Parameterization (R S Plant, L Bengtsson and M A Whitall)Verification of High-Resolution Precipitation Forecast with Radar-Based Data (D Řezáčová, B Szintai, B Jakubiak, J-I Yano and S Turner)Unification and Consistency:Formulations of Moist Thermodynamics for Atmospheric Modelling (P Marquet and J-F Geleyn)Representation of Microphysical Processes in Cloud-Resolving Models (A P Khain)Cumulus Convection as a Turbulent Flow (A Grant)Clouds and Convection as Subgrid-Scale Distributions (E Machulskaya)Towards a Unified and Self-Consistent Parameterization Framework (J-I Yano, L Bengtsson, J-F Geleyn and R Brozkova)Theoretical Physics Perspectives:Regimes of Self-Organized Criticality in Atmospheric Convection (F Spineanu, M Vlad and D Palade)Invariant and Conservative Parameterization Schemes (A Bihlo, E Dos Santos Cardoso-Bihlo and R O Popovych)Conclusions:Conclusions (R S Plant and J-I Yano) Readership: Atmospheric scientists and modellers. Key Features:The first coherent book to focus on convective parameterization for climate modelling and numerical weather predictionClear focus on the underpinning theory of parameterization, and its possible extensionsPlaces current efforts to improve parameterizations firmly into the theoretical context rather than focusing on details of the technical implementation or changes to overall model performanceKeywords:Atmospheric Convection;Parameterization;Numerical Modelling;Numerical Weather Prediction;Global Climate Modelling

Atmospheric Convection: Research and Operational Forecasting Aspects

Author: Dario B. Giaiotti,Reinhold Steinacker,Fulvio Stel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3211692916

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 222

View: 5037

This book treats atmospheric convection from different angles including the theoretical aspects of atmospheric deep convection and the weather phenomena related to convection. The problem of boundary conditions that result in severe convective weather patterns is explored within the framework of worldwide climatology. The book bridges the gap between theory and its operational application both within the fields of weather forecasting and that of risk management.

Parameterization of Atmospheric Convection

Author: Robert S. Plant,Jun-Ichi Yano

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781783266937

Category: Atmospheric physics

Page: 617

View: 6113

"This two-volume set combines theoretical and statistical physics ideas on convective parameterization with a wealth of information on the practical and operational use of parameterizations in weather forecast and climate models. The motivation for this approach is the assumption that future advances in the subject are most likely to arise from the application of theoretical concepts to practical problems, a feeling within the community that has led to the EU-funded COST Action investigative project. Contributors to the book are leading participants in Action, all of whom have devoted much attention over the last few years to building up a thorough knowledge of both theory and practice. Parameterization of Atmospheric Convection intends to equip theoretically oriented scientists with a firm grasp of the important practical issues, and vice versa to equip application-oriented scientists with a firm grasp of the important theoretical tools. This makes the parameterization problem accessible to a wider range of scientists than before. At the same time, by providing a solid bottom-up presentation of the principles and practice of parameterization, this two-volume set is the definitive reference point for current atmospheric scientists and modellers working on such problems"--

Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and Circulation Models

Author: Masaki Satoh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540426387

Category: Nature

Page: 643

View: 2704

This book describes the methods used to construct general circulation models of the atmosphere, and how such models perform in applications relating to the real climate and environmental systems. The author describes the fundamental dynamics of the atmospheric circulation, modelling of the general circulation, and applications of GCMs. The book consists of three parts: - Part 1 summarizes the physical processes involved, including basic equations, waves and instabilities; - Part 2 covers atmospheric structures, including various types of one- and two-dimensional structures and circulations; - Part 3 describes the basic notions for construction of general circulation models of the atmosphere and their applications. Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and General Circulation Methods includes an appendix incorporating the basic data and mathematical formulae required to enable readers to construct GCMs for themselves.

Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows

Author: Erich J. Plate,E.E. Fedorovich,Domingos X. Viegas,J.C. Wyngaard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401150583

Category: Science

Page: 491

View: 6514

Studies of convection in geophysical flows constitute an advanced and rapidly developing area of research that is relevant to problems of the natural environment. During the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the field as a result of both experimental studies and numerical modelling. This led to the principal revision of the widely held view on buoyancy-driven turbulent flows comprising an organised mean component with superimposed chaotic turbulence. An intermediate type of motion, represented by coherent structures, has been found to play a key role in geophysical boundary layers and in larger scale atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations driven by buoyant forcing. New aspects of the interaction between convective motions and rotation have recently been discovered and investigated. Extensive experimental data have also been collected on the role of convection in cloud dynamics and microphysics. New theoretical concepts and approaches have been outlined regarding scaling and parameterization of physical processes in buoyancy-driven geophysical flows. The book summarizes interdisciplinary studies of buoyancy effects in different media (atmosphere and hydrosphere) over a wide range of scales (small scale phenomena in unstably stratified and convectively mixed layers to deep convection in the atmosphere and ocean), by different research methods (field measurements, laboratory simulations, numerical modelling), and within a variety of application areas (dispersion of pollutants, weather forecasting, hazardous phenomena associated with buoyant forcing).

Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling

A Course held in The Hague, 21–25 September, 1981

Author: F.T. Nieuwstadt,H. Van Dop

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401091129

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 1351

The study of turbulence in the atmosphere has seen considerable progress in the last decade. To put it briefly: boundary-layer meteorology, the branch of atmospheric science that concentrates on turbulence in the lower atmosphere, has moved from the surface layer into the boundary layer itself. The progress has been made on all fronts: theoretical, numerical and observational. On the other hand, air pollution modeling has not seen such a rapid evolution. It has not benefited as much as it should have from the increasing knowledge in the field of atmospheric turbulence. Air pollution modeling is still in many ways based on observations and theories of the surface layer only. This book aims to bring the reader up to date on recent advances in boundary-layer meteorology and to pave the path for applications in air pollution dispersion problems. The text originates from the material presented during a short course on Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modeling held in The Hague during September 1981. This course was sponsored and organized by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, xi xii PREFACE to which both editors are affiliated. The Netherlands Government Ministry of Health and Environmental Protection and the Council of Europe also gave support.

Observation, Theory and Modeling of Atmospheric Variability

Selected Papers of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology Alumni in Commemoration of Professor Jijia Zhang

Author: Xun Zhu

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812387042

Category: Science

Page: 612

View: 8761

This book contains tutorial and review articles as well as specific research letters that cover a wide range of topics: (1) dynamics of atmospheric variability from both basic theory and data analysis, (2) physical and mathematical problems in climate modeling and numerical weather prediction, (3) theories of atmospheric radiative transfer and their applications in satellite remote sensing, and (4) mathematical and statistical methods. The book can be used by undergraduates or graduate students majoring in atmospheric sciences, as an introduction to various research areas; and by researchers and educators, as a general review or quick reference in their fields of interest.

Atmospheric Turbulence and Mesoscale Meteorology

Scientific Research Inspired by Doug Lilly

Author: Evgeni Fedorovich,Richard Rotunno,Bjorn Stevens

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521835886

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 872

A summary of current research by leading workers in the field.

Intraseasonal Variability in the Atmosphere-Ocean Climate System

Author: William K.-M. Lau,Duane E. Waliser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540272502

Category: Science

Page: 437

View: 8258

This is the first comprehensive review of intra-seasonal variability (ISV); the contents are balanced between observation, theory and modeling. Starting with an overview of ISV and historical observations, the book addresses the coupling between ocean and atmosphere, and the worldwide role of ISV in monsoon variability. Also considered are the connections between oscillations like the Madden, Julian and El Nino/Southern and short-term climate.

Cloud-Resolving Modeling of Convective Processes

Author: Shouting Gao,Xiaofan Li

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402082764

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 3204

Clouds and cloud systems and their interactions with larger scales of motion, radiation, and the Earth’s surface are extremely important parts of weather and climate systems. Their treatment in weather forecast and climate models is a significant source of errors and uncertainty. As computer power increases, it is beginning to be possible to explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation processes in these models, presenting opportunities for improving precipitation forecasts and larger-scale phenomena such as tropical cyclones which depend critically on cloud and precipitation physics. This book by Professor Shouting Gao of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Beijing and Xiaofan Li of NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Services (NESDIS) presents an update and review of results of high-resolution, mostly two-dimensional models of clouds and precipitation and their interactions with larger scales of motion and the Earth’s surface. It provides a thorough description of cloud and precipitation physics, including basic governing equations and related physics, such as phase changes of water, radiation and mixing. Model results are compared with observations from the 1992-93 Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) experiment. The importance of the ocean to tropical convective systems is clearly shown here in the numerical results of simulations with their air-sea coupled modeling system. While the focus is on tropical convection, the methodology and applicability can be extended to cloud and precipitation processes elsewhere. The results described in this well-written book form a solid foundation for future high-resolution model weather forecasts and climate simulations that resolve clouds explicitly in three dimensions—a future that has great promise for the understanding and prediction of weather and climate for the great benefit of society.

Atmospheric Radiation

Theoretical Basis

Author: R. M. Goody,Y. L. Yung

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195356106

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4218

A complete revision of Goody's classic 1964 work, this volume offers a systematic discussion of atmospheric radiation processes that today are at the center of worldwide study and concern. It deals with the ways in which incident solar radiation is transformed into scattered and thermal radiation, and the thermodynamic consequences for the Earth's gaseous envelope, identifying aspects of the interaction between radiation and atmospheric motions as the central theme for atmospheric radiation studies. As a complete treatment of physical and mathematical foundations, the text assumes no prior knowledge of atmospheric physics. The theoretical discussion is systematic, and can therefore be applied with minor extension to any planetary atmosphere.