# A Beginner's Further Guide to Mathematical Logic

Principles and Applications (with Companion Media Pack)Fourth Edition of Rapid Prototyping Fourth Edition

Author: Raymond Smullyan

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814733016

Category:

Page: 288

View: 5536

This is the final book written by the late great puzzle master and logician, Dr. Raymond Smullyan. This book is a sequel to my Beginner's Guide to Mathematical Logic. The previous volume deals with elements of propositional and first-order logic, contains a bit on formal systems and recursion, and concludes with chapters on Gödel's famous incompleteness theorem, along with related results. The present volume begins with a bit more on propositional and first-order logic, followed by what I would call a "fein" chapter, which simultaneously generalizes some results from recursion theory, first-order arithmetic systems, and what I dub a "decision machine." Then come five chapters on formal systems, recursion theory and metamathematical applications in a general setting. The concluding five chapters are on the beautiful subject of combinatory logic, which is not only intriguing in its own right, but has important applications to computer science. Argonne National Laboratory is especially involved in these applications, and I am proud to say that its members have found use for some of my results in combinatory logic. This book does not cover such important subjects as set theory, model theory, proof theory, and modern developments in recursion theory, but the reader, after studying this volume, will be amply prepared for the study of these more advanced topics. Request Inspection Copy

# A Beginner's Guide to Mathematical Logic

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486492370

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 6476

Written by a creative master of mathematical logic, this introductory text combines stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic. Author Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts. He highlights each subject with inventive explanations and unique problems. Smullyan's accessible narrative provides memorable examples of concepts related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, incompleteness theorems, and incompleteness proofs. Additional topics include undecidability, combinatoric logic, and recursion theory. Suitable for undergraduate and graduate courses, this book will also amuse and enlighten mathematically minded readers. Dover (2014) original publication. See every Dover book in print at www.doverpublications.com

# A Profile of Mathematical Logic

Author: Howard DeLong

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486139158

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 947

This introduction to mathematical logic explores philosophical issues and Gödel's Theorem. Its widespread influence extends to the author of Gödel, Escher, Bach, whose Pulitzer Prize–winning book was inspired by this work.

# First-order Logic

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486683706

Category: Mathematics

Page: 158

View: 534

Considered the best book in the field, this completely self-contained study is both an introduction to quantification theory and an exposition of new results and techniques in "analytic" or "cut free" methods. The focus in on the tableau point of view. Topics include trees, tableau method for propositional logic, Gentzen systems, more. Includes 144 illustrations.

# Mathematical Logic

Author: Stephen Cole Kleene

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486317072

Category: Mathematics

Page: 416

View: 7233

Contents include an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order; formal number theory; surveys of the work by Church, Turing, and others, including Gödel's completeness theorem, Gentzen's theorem, more.

# First-order Logic

An Introduction

Author: Leigh S. Cauman

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110157666

Category: Philosophy

Page: 343

View: 7592

An introduction to principles and notation of modern symbolic logic, for those with no prior courses. The structure of material follows that of Quine's Methods of Logic, and may be used as an introduction to that work, with sections on truth-functional logic, predicate logic, relational logic, and identity and description. Exercises are based on problems designed by authors including Quine, John Cooley, Richard Jeffrey, and Lewis Carroll. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

# Set Theory and its Philosophy

A Critical Introduction

Author: Michael Potter

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191556432

Category: Philosophy

Page: 360

View: 1969

Michael Potter presents a comprehensive new philosophical introduction to set theory. Anyone wishing to work on the logical foundations of mathematics must understand set theory, which lies at its heart. Potter offers a thorough account of cardinal and ordinal arithmetic, and the various axiom candidates. He discusses in detail the project of set-theoretic reduction, which aims to interpret the rest of mathematics in terms of set theory. The key question here is how to deal with the paradoxes that bedevil set theory. Potter offers a strikingly simple version of the most widely accepted response to the paradoxes, which classifies sets by means of a hierarchy of levels. What makes the book unique is that it interweaves a careful presentation of the technical material with a penetrating philosophical critique. Potter does not merely expound the theory dogmatically but at every stage discusses in detail the reasons that can be offered for believing it to be true. Set Theory and its Philosophy is a key text for philosophy, mathematical logic, and computer science.

# An Introduction to Formal Logic

Author: Peter Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521008044

Category: Mathematics

Page: 357

View: 1587

Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for evaluating arguments translated into these languages, concentrating on the easily comprehensible 'tree' method. His discussion is richly illustrated with worked examples and exercises. A distinctive feature is that, alongside the formal work, there is illuminating philosophical commentary. This book will make an ideal text for a first logic course, and will provide a firm basis for further work in formal and philosophical logic.

# Introduction to Metamathematics

Author: Stephen Cole Kleene

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781258442460

Category:

Page: 560

View: 6978

# Recursion Theory for Metamathematics

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195344813

Category: Mathematics

Page: 184

View: 7195

This work is a sequel to the author's G?del's Incompleteness Theorems, though it can be read independently by anyone familiar with G?del's incompleteness theorem for Peano arithmetic. The book deals mainly with those aspects of recursion theory that have applications to the metamathematics of incompleteness, undecidability, and related topics. It is both an introduction to the theory and a presentation of new results in the field.

# Set Theory and the Continuum Problem

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan,Melvin Fitting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780486474847

Category: Mathematics

Page: 315

View: 9681

A lucid, elegant, and complete survey of set theory, this three-part treatment explores axiomatic set theory, the consistency of the continuum hypothesis, and forcing and independence results. 1996 edition.

# Beyond Infinity

An expedition to the outer limits of the mathematical universe

Author: Eugenia Cheng

Publisher: Profile Books

ISBN: 1782830812

Category: Mathematics

Page: 204

View: 832

SHORTLISTED FOR THE 2017 ROYAL SOCIETY SCIENCE BOOK PRIZE Even small children know there are infinitely many whole numbers - start counting and you'll never reach the end. But there are also infinitely many decimal numbers between zero and one. Are these two types of infinity the same? Are they larger or smaller than each other? Can we even talk about 'larger' and 'smaller' when we talk about infinity? In Beyond Infinity, international maths sensation Eugenia Cheng reveals the inner workings of infinity. What happens when a new guest arrives at your infinite hotel - but you already have an infinite number of guests? How does infinity give Zeno's tortoise the edge in a paradoxical foot-race with Achilles? And can we really make an infinite number of cookies from a finite amount of cookie dough? Wielding an armoury of inventive, intuitive metaphor, Cheng draws beginners and enthusiasts alike into the heart of this mysterious, powerful concept to reveal fundamental truths about mathematics, all the way from the infinitely large down to the infinitely small.

# Forever Undecided

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan

Publisher: Knopf

ISBN: 0307962466

Category: Mathematics

Page: 257

View: 7267

Forever Undecided is the most challenging yet of Raymond Smullyan’s puzzle collections. It is, at the same time, an introduction—ingenious, instructive, entertaining—to Gödel’s famous theorems. With all the wit and charm that have delighted readers of his previous books, Smullyan transports us once again to that magical island where knights always tell the truth and knaves always lie. Here we meet a new and amazing array of characters, visitors to the island, seeking to determine the natives’ identities. Among them: the census-taker McGregor; a philosophical-logician in search of his flighty bird-wife, Oona; and a regiment of Reasoners (timid ones, normal ones, conceited, modest, and peculiar ones) armed with the rules of propositional logic (if X is true, then so is Y). By following the Reasoners through brain-tingling exercises and adventures—including journeys into the “other possible worlds” of Kripke semantics—even the most illogical of us come to understand Gödel’s two great theorems on incompleteness and undecidability, some of their philosophical and mathematical implications, and why we, like Gödel himself, must remain Forever Undecided!

# The Gödelian Puzzle Book

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486315770

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

View: 7847

These logic puzzles provide entertaining variations on Gödel's incompleteness theorems, offering ingenious challenges related to infinity, truth and provability, undecidability, and other concepts. No background in formal logic necessary.

# Godel's Incompleteness Theorems

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195364376

Category: Computers

Page: 160

View: 2105

Kurt Godel, the greatest logician of our time, startled the world of mathematics in 1931 with his Theorem of Undecidability, which showed that some statements in mathematics are inherently "undecidable." His work on the completeness of logic, the incompleteness of number theory, and the consistency of the axiom of choice and the continuum theory brought him further worldwide fame. In this introductory volume, Raymond Smullyan, himself a well-known logician, guides the reader through the fascinating world of Godel's incompleteness theorems. The level of presentation is suitable for anyone with a basic acquaintance with mathematical logic. As a clear, concise introduction to a difficult but essential subject, the book will appeal to mathematicians, philosophers, and computer scientists.

# Logical Labyrinths

Author: Raymond Smullyan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 143986537X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 275

View: 3772

This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author’s puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. The book includes a journey through the amazing labyrinths of infinity, which have stirred the imagination of mankind as much, if not more, than any other subject.

# Principia Mathematica

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: N.A

View: 6193

# How to Prove It

A Structured Approach

Author: Daniel J. Velleman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139450972

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 1235

Many students have trouble the first time they take a mathematics course in which proofs play a significant role. This new edition of Velleman's successful text will prepare students to make the transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory, to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for a step-by-step breakdown of the most important techniques used in constructing proofs. The author shows how complex proofs are built up from these smaller steps, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about the natural numbers, relations, functions, and infinite sets. To give students the opportunity to construct their own proofs, this new edition contains over 200 new exercises, selected solutions, and an introduction to Proof Designer software. No background beyond standard high school mathematics is assumed. This book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and of course mathematicians.

# Probability Theory

The Logic of Science

Author: E. T. Jaynes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139435167

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6049

The standard rules of probability can be interpreted as uniquely valid principles in logic. In this book, E. T. Jaynes dispels the imaginary distinction between 'probability theory' and 'statistical inference', leaving a logical unity and simplicity, which provides greater technical power and flexibility in applications. This book goes beyond the conventional mathematics of probability theory, viewing the subject in a wider context. New results are discussed, along with applications of probability theory to a wide variety of problems in physics, mathematics, economics, chemistry and biology. It contains many exercises and problems, and is suitable for use as a textbook on graduate level courses involving data analysis. The material is aimed at readers who are already familiar with applied mathematics at an advanced undergraduate level or higher. The book will be of interest to scientists working in any area where inference from incomplete information is necessary.

# Philosophy and Model Theory

Author: Tim Button,Sean Walsh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198790392

Category: Mathematics

Page: 544

View: 8277

Model theory is used in every theoretical branch of analytic philosophy: in philosophy of mathematics, in philosophy of science, in philosophy of language, in philosophical logic, and in metaphysics. But these wide-ranging uses of model theory have created a highly fragmented literature. On the one hand, many philosophically significant results are found only in mathematics textbooks: these are aimed squarely at mathematicians; they typically presuppose that the reader has a serious background in mathematics; and little clue is given as to their philosophical significance. On the other hand, the philosophical applications of these results are scattered across disconnected pockets of papers. The first aim of this book, then, is to explore the philosophical uses of model theory, focusing on the central topics of reference, realism, and doxology. Its second aim is to address important questions in the philosophy of model theory, such as: sameness of theories and structure, the boundaries of logic, and the classification of mathematical structures. Philosophy and Model Theory will be accessible to anyone who has completed an introductory logic course. It does not assume that readers have encountered model theory before, but starts right at the beginning, discussing philosophical issues that arise even with conceptually basic model theory. Moreover, the book is largely self-contained: model-theoretic notions are defined as and when they are needed for the philosophical discussion, and many of the most philosophically significant results are given accessible proofs.