Benford's Law

Applications for Forensic Accounting, Auditing, and Fraud Detection

Author: Mark Nigrini

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118152859

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 330

View: 8317

A powerful new tool for all forensic accountants, or anyone who analyzes data that may have been altered Benford's Law gives the expected patterns of the digits in the numbers in tabulated data such as town and city populations or Madoff's fictitious portfolio returns. Those digits, in unaltered data, will not occur in equal proportions; there is a large bias towards the lower digits, so much so that nearly one-half of all numbers are expected to start with the digits 1 or 2. These patterns were originally discovered by physicist Frank Benford in the early 1930s, and have since been found to apply to all tabulated data. Mark J. Nigrini has been a pioneer in applying Benford's Law to auditing and forensic accounting, even before his groundbreaking 1999 Journal of Accountancy article introducing this useful tool to the accounting world. In Benford's Law, Nigrini shows the widespread applicability of Benford's Law and its practical uses to detect fraud, errors, and other anomalies. Explores primary, associated, and advanced tests, all described with data sets that include corporate payments data and election data Includes ten fraud detection studies, including vendor fraud, payroll fraud, due diligence when purchasing a business, and tax evasion Covers financial statement fraud, with data from Enron, AIG, and companies that were the target of hedge fund short sales Looks at how to detect Ponzi schemes, including data on Madoff, Waxenberg, and more Examines many other applications, from the Clinton tax returns and the charitable gifts of Lehman Brothers to tax evasion and number invention Benford's Law has 250 figures and uses 50 interesting authentic and fraudulent real-world data sets to explain both theory and practice, and concludes with an agenda and directions for future research. The companion website adds additional information and resources.

Forensic Analytics

Methods and Techniques for Forensic Accounting Investigations

Author: Mark Nigrini

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118087633

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 480

View: 9581

Discover how to detect fraud, biases, or errors in your data using Access or Excel With over 300 images, Forensic Analytics reviews and shows how twenty substantive and rigorous tests can be used to detect fraud, errors, estimates, or biases in your data. For each test, the original data is shown with the steps needed to get to the final result. The tests range from high-level data overviews to assess the reasonableness of data, to highly focused tests that give small samples of highly suspicious transactions. These tests are relevant to your organization, whether small or large, for profit, nonprofit, or government-related. Demonstrates how to use Access, Excel, and PowerPoint in a forensic setting Explores use of statistical techniques such as Benford's Law, descriptive statistics, correlation, and time-series analysis to detect fraud and errors Discusses the detection of financial statement fraud using various statistical approaches Explains how to score locations, agents, customers, or employees for fraud risk Shows you how to become the data analytics expert in your organization Forensic Analytics shows how you can use Microsoft Access and Excel as your primary data interrogation tools to find exceptional, irregular, and anomalous records.

Using Analytics to Detect Possible Fraud

Tools and Techniques

Author: Pamela S. Mantone

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118715985

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 6735

Detailed tools and techniques for developing efficiency and effectiveness in forensic accounting Using Analytics to Detect Possible Fraud: Tools and Techniques is a practical overview of the first stage of forensic accounting, providing a common source of analytical techniques used for both efficiency and effectiveness in forensic accounting investigations. The book is written clearly so that those who do not have advanced mathematical skills will be able to understand the analytical tests and use the tests in a forensic accounting setting. It also includes case studies and visual techniques providing practical application of the analytical tests discussed. Shows how to develop both efficiency and effectiveness in forensic accounting Provides information in such a way that non-practitioners can easily understand Written in plain language: advanced mathematical skills are not required Features actual case studies using analytical tests Essential reading for every investor who wants to prevent financial fraud, Using Analytics to Detect Possible Fraud allows practitioners to focus on areas that require further investigative techniques and to unearth deceptive financial reporting before it's too late.

Benford's Law

Theory and Applications

Author: Steven J. Miller

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400866596

Category: Mathematics

Page: 464

View: 411

Benford's law states that the leading digits of many data sets are not uniformly distributed from one through nine, but rather exhibit a profound bias. This bias is evident in everything from electricity bills and street addresses to stock prices, population numbers, mortality rates, and the lengths of rivers. Here, Steven Miller brings together many of the world’s leading experts on Benford’s law to demonstrate the many useful techniques that arise from the law, show how truly multidisciplinary it is, and encourage collaboration. Beginning with the general theory, the contributors explain the prevalence of the bias, highlighting explanations for when systems should and should not follow Benford’s law and how quickly such behavior sets in. They go on to discuss important applications in disciplines ranging from accounting and economics to psychology and the natural sciences. The contributors describe how Benford’s law has been successfully used to expose fraud in elections, medical tests, tax filings, and financial reports. Additionally, numerous problems, background materials, and technical details are available online to help instructors create courses around the book. Emphasizing common challenges and techniques across the disciplines, this accessible book shows how Benford’s law can serve as a productive meeting ground for researchers and practitioners in diverse fields.

Statistical Techniques for Forensic Accounting

Understanding the Theory and Application of Data Analysis

Author: Saurav K. Dutta

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0133133818

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 262

View: 498

Master powerful statistical techniques for uncovering fraud or misrepresentation in complex financial data. The discipline of statistics has developed sophisticated, well-accepted approaches for identifying financial fraud and demonstrating that it is deliberate. Statistical Techniques for Forensic Accounting is the first comprehensive guide to these tools and techniques. Leading expert Dr. Saurav Dutta explains their mathematical underpinnings, shows how to use them properly, and guides you in communicating your findings to other interested and knowledgeable parties, or assessing others' analyses. Dutta is singularly well-qualified to write this book: he has been engaged as an expert in many of the world's highest-profile financial fraud cases, including Worldcom, Global Crossing, Cendant, and HealthSouth. Here, he covers everything professionals need to know to construct and conduct valid and defensible statistical tests, perform analyses, and interpret others' analyses. Coverage includes: exploratory data analysis to identify the "Fraud Triangle" and other red flags... data mining tools, usage, and limitations... statistical terms and methods applicable to forensic accounting... relevant uncertainty and probability concepts... Bayesian analysis and networks... statistical inference, sampling, sample size, estimation, regression, correlation, classification, prediction, and much more. For all forensic accountants, auditors, investigators, and litigators involved with corporate financial reporting; and for all students interested in forensic accounting and related fields.

Fraud Analytics

Strategies and Methods for Detection and Prevention

Author: Delena D. Spann

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118282736

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 176

View: 6267

Proven guidance for expertly using analytics in fraud examinations, financial analysis, auditing and fraud prevention Fraud Analytics thoroughly reveals the elements of analysis that are used in today's fraud examinations, fraud investigations, and financial crime investigations. This valuable resource reviews the types of analysis that should be considered prior to beginning an investigation and explains how to optimally use data mining techniques to detect fraud. Packed with examples and sample cases illustrating pertinent concepts in practice, this book also explores the two major data analytics providers: ACL and IDEA. Looks at elements of analysis used in today's fraud examinations Reveals how to use data mining (fraud analytic) techniques to detect fraud Examines ACL and IDEA as indispensable tools for fraud detection Includes an abundance of sample cases and examples Written by Delena D Spann, Board of Regent (Emeritus) for the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), who currently serves as Advisory Board Member of the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Board Member of the Education Task Force of the Association of Certified Anti-Money Laundering Specialists ASIS International (Economic Crime Council) and Advisory Board Member of the Robert Morris University (School of Business), Fraud Analytics equips you with authoritative fraud analysis techniques you can put to use right away.

Healthcare Fraud

Auditing and Detection Guide

Author: Rebecca S. Busch

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118240251

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 3384

An invaluable tool equipping healthcare professionals, auditors, and investigators to detect every kind of healthcare fraud According to private and public estimates, billions of dollars are lost per hour to healthcare waste, fraud, and abuse. A must-have reference for auditors, fraud investigators, and healthcare managers, Healthcare Fraud, Second Edition provides tips and techniques to help you spot—and prevent—the "red flags" of fraudulent activity within your organization. Eminently readable, it is your "go-to" resource, equipping you with the necessary skills to look for and deal with potential fraudulent situations. Includes new chapters on primary healthcare, secondary healthcare, information/data management and privacy, damages/risk management, and transparency Offers comprehensive guidance on auditing and fraud detection for healthcare providers and company healthcare plans Examines the necessary background that internal auditors should have when auditing healthcare activities Managing the risks in healthcare fraud requires an understanding of how the healthcare system works and where the key risk areas are. With health records now all being converted to electronic form, the key risk areas and audit process are changing. Read Healthcare Fraud, Second Edition and get the valuable guidance you need to help combat this critical problem.

An Introduction to Benford's Law

Author: Arno Berger,Theodore P. Hill

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400866588

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 4937

This book provides the first comprehensive treatment of Benford's law, the surprising logarithmic distribution of significant digits discovered in the late nineteenth century. Establishing the mathematical and statistical principles that underpin this intriguing phenomenon, the text combines up-to-date theoretical results with overviews of the law’s colorful history, rapidly growing body of empirical evidence, and wide range of applications. An Introduction to Benford’s Law begins with basic facts about significant digits, Benford functions, sequences, and random variables, including tools from the theory of uniform distribution. After introducing the scale-, base-, and sum-invariance characterizations of the law, the book develops the significant-digit properties of both deterministic and stochastic processes, such as iterations of functions, powers of matrices, differential equations, and products, powers, and mixtures of random variables. Two concluding chapters survey the finitely additive theory and the flourishing applications of Benford’s law. Carefully selected diagrams, tables, and close to 150 examples illuminate the main concepts throughout. The text includes many open problems, in addition to dozens of new basic theorems and all the main references. A distinguishing feature is the emphasis on the surprising ubiquity and robustness of the significant-digit law. This text can serve as both a primary reference and a basis for seminars and courses.

A Guide to Forensic Accounting Investigation

Author: Steven L. Skalak,Thomas W. Golden,Mona M. Clayton,Jessica S. Pill

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118017714

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 648

View: 2068

Recent catastrophic business failures have caused some to rethink the value of the audit, with many demanding that auditors take more responsibility for fraud detection. This book provides forensic accounting specialists?experts in uncovering fraud?with new coverage on the latest PCAOB Auditing Standards, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, options fraud, as well as fraud in China and its implications. Auditors are equipped with the necessary practical aids, case examples, and skills for identifying situations that call for extended fraud detection procedures.

Benford's Law

Theory, the General Law of Relative Quantities, and Forensic Fraud Detection Applications

Author: Alex Ely Kossovsky

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated

ISBN: 9789814583688

Category: Mathematics

Page: 649

View: 5775

This book tells the story of a newly discovered and apparently mysterious digital phenomenon of Benford's Law. This phenomenon manifests itself by the empirical finding that not all digits are created equal, but rather that low digits such as 1, 2, 3 occur much more frequently than high digits such as 7, 8, 9, in accounting, financial, scientific, and almost all other data types. This work represents the first ever published work giving a comprehensive and in depth account of all the theoretical aspects and applications of Benford's Law. The reader is subsequently led into a fascinating intellectual journey through the interacting worlds of digits, numbers, and quantities, a journey that ends with the compelling conclusion that the entire phenomenon is truly quantitative in nature, and applicable just as well to the ancient Roman, Mayan, and Egyptian digit-less civilizations. The second section covers the applications of the law in forensic data analysis for the purpose of fraud detection. It is concise, reader-friendly, and can be understood without deep knowledge in statistical theory or difficult mathematics. This fraud detection section gathers all known methods, results, and standards in the accounting and auditing industry, from quite a wide variety of articles on this issue, summarizes and fuses them into a singular coherent whole. In addition, a newly invented (patent-pending) digital algorithm is presented, enabling the auditor to detect such fraud even when the sophisticated and well-educated cheater is aware of the law and attempts to appear as if he or she is innocently complying with the digital pattern. A large portion of the book is devoted to understanding the variety of causes explanations of the phenomenon. Seeing Benford's Law in this bird's eye view enables the reader to see the forest in all its glory and beauty instead of tiring one's self repeatedly checking individual trees.

Fraud and Fraud Detection, + Website

A Data Analytics Approach

Author: Sunder Gee

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118779657

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 6337

This book takes an advanced approach to fraud management, providing step-by-step guidance on automating detection and forensics using CaseWare's IDEA software. Readers will learn to use complex data analysis techniques, including automation scripts, allowing easier and more sensitive detection of anomalies that require further review. You will learn to: understand the different areas of fraud and their specific detection methods; identify anomalies and risk areas using computerized techniques; develop a step-by-step plan for detecting fraud through data analytics; utilize IDEA software to automate detection and identification procedures. The delineation of detection techniques for each type of fraud makes this book a must-have for students and new fraud prevention professionals, and the step-by-step guidance to automation and complex analytics will prove useful for even experienced examiners. --

Financial Forensics Body of Knowledge

Author: Darrell D. Dorrell,Gregory A. Gadawski

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118218981

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 704

View: 5163

The definitive, must-have guide for the forensic accounting professional Financial Forensics Body of Knowledge is the unique, innovative, and definitive guide and technical reference work for the financial forensics and/or forensic accounting professional, including nearly 300 forensic tools, techniques, methods and methodologies apply to virtually all civil, criminal and dispute matters. Many of the tools have never before been published. It defines the profession: "The Art & Science of Investigating People & Money." It defines Forensic Operators: "…financial forensics-capable personnel… possess unique and specific skills, knowledge, experience, education, training, and integrity to function in the financial forensics discipline." It defines why: "If you understand financial forensics you understand fraud, but not vice versa" by applying financial forensics to all aspects of the financial community. It contains a book-within-a-book Companion Section for financial valuation and litigation specialists. It defines foundational financial forensics/forensic accounting methodologies: FAIM, Forensic Accounting Investigation Methodology, ICE/SCORE, CICO, APD, forensic lexicology, and others. It contains a Reader Lookup Table that permits everyone in the financial community to immediately focus on the pertinent issues.

Risk Management in Emerging Markets

Issues, Framework, and Modeling

Author: N.A

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1786354519

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 752

View: 7778

This book addresses three main dimensions of risk management in emerging markets: 1) the effectiveness of risk management practices; 2) current issues and challenges in risk assessment and modelling in emerging market countries; 3) the responses of emerging markets to the recent financial crises and the design of risk management models.

Benford's Law

Theory, the General Law of Relative Quantities, and Forensic Fraud Detection Applications

Author: Alex Ely Kossovsky

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814583707

Category: Mathematics

Page: 672

View: 1111

Contrary to common intuition that all digits should occur randomly with equal chances in real data, empirical examinations consistently show that not all digits are created equal, but rather that low digits such as {1, 2, 3} occur much more frequently than high digits such as {7, 8, 9} in almost all data types, such as those relating to geology, chemistry, astronomy, physics, and engineering, as well as in accounting, financial, econometrics, and demographics data sets. This intriguing digital phenomenon is known as Benford's Law. This book gives a comprehensive and in-depth account of all the theoretical aspects, results, causes and explanations of Benford's Law, with a strong emphasis on the connection to real-life data and the physical manifestation of the law. In addition to such a bird's eye view of the digital phenomenon, the conceptual distinctions between digits, numbers, and quantities are explored; leading to the key finding that the phenomenon is actually quantitative in nature; originating from the fact that in extreme generality, nature creates many small quantities but very few big quantities, corroborating the motto "small is beautiful", and that therefore all this is applicable just as well to data written in the ancient Roman, Mayan, Egyptian, and other digit-less civilizations. Fraudsters are typically not aware of this digital pattern and tend to invent numbers with approximately equal digital frequencies. The digital analyst can easily check reported data for compliance with this digital law, enabling the detection of tax evasion, Ponzi schemes, and other financial scams. The forensic fraud detection section in this book is written in a very concise and reader-friendly style; gathering all known methods and standards in the accounting and auditing industry; summarizing and fusing them into a singular coherent whole; and can be understood without deep knowledge in statistical theory or advanced mathematics. In addition, a digital algorithm is presented, enabling the auditor to detect fraud even when the sophisticated cheater is aware of the law and invents numbers accordingly. The algorithm employs a subtle inner digital pattern within the Benford's pattern itself. This newly discovered pattern is deemed to be nearly universal, being even more prevalent than the Benford phenomenon, as it is found in all random data sets, Benford as well as non-Benford types. Contents:Benford's LawForensic Digital AnalysisFraud DetectionData Compliance TestsConceptual and Mathematical FoundationsBenford's Law in the Physical SciencesTopics in Benford's LawThe Law of Relative Quantities Readership: Professionals, researchers and serious students of financial and data analysis, forensic accounting, fraud investigation, auditing, mathematics and probability and statistics. Key Features:The book is a concise account of practical applications of the phenomenon of fraud detection and it corrects several errors committed in the field where mistaken applications are usedThe perceptive reader interested in knowing about the use of this digital law in fraud detection, would be able to learn about it with a minimal amount of effort and time, without searching through literally hundreds of various small articles on the topicThe book provides numerous new theoretical points-of-view of the phenomenon, new methods for testing data for compliance, and fuses many different aspects of the law into a singular explanationKeywords:Benford's Law;Digits;Quantities;Relative Quantities;Numbers;Fraud;Fraud Detection;Data;Data Analysis;Forensic Analysis;Pattern;Physics;Chemistry;Geology;Astronomy

Advances in Digital Forensics VII

7th IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Orlando, FL, USA, January 31 - February 2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Gilbert Peterson,Sujeet Shenoi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642242111

Category: Computers

Page: 290

View: 4995

Digital forensics deals with the acquisition, preservation, examination, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence. Networked computing, wireless communications and portable electronic devices have expanded the role of digital forensics beyond traditional computer crime investigations. Practically every crime now involves some aspect of digital evidence; digital forensics provides the techniques and tools to articulate this evidence. Digital forensics also has myriad intelligence applications. Furthermore, it has a vital role in information assurance -- investigations of security breaches yield valuable information that can be used to design more secure systems. Advances in Digital Forensics VII describes original research results and innovative applications in the discipline of digital forensics. In addition, it highlights some of the major technical and legal issues related to digital evidence and electronic crime investigations. The areas of coverage include: Themes and Issues, Forensic Techniques, Fraud and Malware Investigations, Network Forensics, and Advanced Forensic Techniques. This book is the 7th volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.9 on Digital Forensics, an international community of scientists, engineers and practitioners dedicated to advancing the state of the art of research and practice in digital forensics. The book contains a selection of 21 edited papers from the 7th Annual IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, held at the National Center for Forensic Science, Orlando, Florida, USA in the spring of 2011. Advances in Digital Forensics VII is an important resource for researchers, faculty members and graduate students, as well as for practitioners and individuals engaged in research and development efforts for the law enforcement and intelligence communities. Gilbert Peterson is an Associate Professor of Computer Engineering at the Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, USA. Sujeet Shenoi is the F.P. Walter Professor of Computer Science at the University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Fraud Analytics Using Descriptive, Predictive, and Social Network Techniques

A Guide to Data Science for Fraud Detection

Author: Bart Baesens,Wouter Verbeke,Veronique Van Vlasselaer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119133122

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 1405

Detect fraud earlier to mitigate loss and prevent cascading damage Fraud Analytics Using Descriptive, Predictive, and Social Network Techniques is an authoritative guidebook for setting up a comprehensive fraud detection analytics solution. Early detection is a key factor in mitigating fraud damage, but it involves more specialized techniques than detecting fraud at the more advanced stages. This invaluable guide details both the theory and technical aspects of these techniques, and provides expert insight into streamlining implementation. Coverage includes data gathering, preprocessing, model building, and post–implementation, with comprehensive guidance on various learning techniques and the data types utilized by each. These techniques are effective for fraud detection across industry boundaries, including applications in insurance fraud, credit card fraud, anti–money laundering, healthcare fraud, telecommunications fraud, click fraud, tax evasion, and more, giving you a highly practical framework for fraud prevention. It is estimated that a typical organization loses about 5% of its revenue to fraud every year. More effective fraud detection is possible, and this book describes the various analytical techniques your organization must implement to put a stop to the revenue leak. Examine fraud patterns in historical data Utilize labeled, unlabeled, and networked data Detect fraud before the damage cascades Reduce losses, increase recovery, and tighten security The longer fraud is allowed to go on, the more harm it causes. It expands exponentially, sending ripples of damage throughout the organization, and becomes more and more complex to track, stop, and reverse. Fraud prevention relies on early and effective fraud detection, enabled by the techniques discussed here. Fraud Analytics Using Descriptive, Predictive, and Social Network Techniques helps you stop fraud in its tracks, and eliminate the opportunities for future occurrence.

Anatomy of a Fraud Investigation

Author: Stephen Pedneault

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470591147

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 1785

A one-of-a-kind resource walking you through one complete fraud investigation, from the original tip to conviction in court Anatomy of a Fraud Investigation is an engrossing read and a valuable resource for fraud investigators, auditors, or anyone who suspects fraud may be occuring in their organizations and is unsure as to how to act. It details all phases of a fraud investigation from the first suspicion of fraud to the final judgment in court, through the eyes of a forensic accountant. In each phase, the author provides insights based on his twenty-two years as a forensic accountant from where to sit at the table when you bring the suspected fraudster in for questioning, to how you protect the key sources of information that the suspect will try to destroy once he or she realizes they are under investigation. In-depth analysis of a fraud investigation Based on an actual investigation conducted by the author Each chapter contains valuable tips and key considerations, providing subtext for why decisions were made and bringing to light potential risks A fascinating, insider look at a fraud investigation, Anatomy of a Fraud Investigation helps you better understand fraud detection, investigation, and prevention-from the inside out.

Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination

Author: William S. Hopwood,Jay J. Leiner,George R. Young

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780071289320

Category: Forensic accounting

Page: 656

View: 1008

Grounded firmly in real-world practice, Forensic Accounting, 2nd Edition, provides the most comprehensive view of fraud investigation on the market. Where other books focus almost entirely on auditing and financial reporting, Hopwood includes a vast range of civil and criminal accounting fraud and related activities, from false business valuations and employer fraud to information security and counter-terrorism. The author team's experience in fraud investigation lends the book a real-world perspective unmatched by any other textbook.

Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination

Author: Mary-Jo Kranacher,Richard Riley,Joseph T. Wells

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047043774X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 542

View: 3747

Forensic Accounting provides comprehensive coverage of fraud detection and deterrence and includes the broader educational material of the forensic accounting field with all the necessary accompaniments. The text follows the model curriculum for education in fraud and forensic funded by the U.S. national Institute of Justice and developed by a Technical Working Group of experts in the field. The text serves as a comprehensive and authoritative resource for teaching forensic accounting concepts and procedures that is also and appropriate and pedagogically ready for class room use. This easy to read, comprehensive textbook includes case study examples to clearly explain technical concepts and bring the material to life.

Forensic and Investigative Accounting

Author: D. Larry Crumbley,Lester E. Heitger

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780808046240

Category: Business & Economics

Page: N.A

View: 7394

"Forensic accounting" is a growing area of practice in which the knowledge, skills and abilities of advanced accounting are combined with investigative expertise and applied to legal problems. Forensic accountants are often asked to provide litigation support where they are called on to give expert testimony about financial data and accounting activities. In other more proactive engagements, they probe situations using special investigative accounting skills and techniques. Some even see forensic accounting as practiced by skilled accounting specialists becoming part and parcel of most financial audits--an extra quality control step in the auditing process that will help reduce financial statement fraud.