Author: Steven E. Sidebotham
Publisher: University of California Press
The legendary overland silk road was not the only way to reach Asia for ancient travelers from the Mediterranean. During the Roman Empire’s heyday, equally important maritime routes reached from the Egyptian Red Sea across the Indian Ocean. The ancient city of Berenike, located approximately 500 miles south of today’s Suez Canal, was a significant port among these conduits. In this book, Steven E. Sidebotham, the archaeologist who excavated Berenike, uncovers the role the city played in the regional, local, and “global” economies during the eight centuries of its existence. Sidebotham analyzes many of the artifacts, botanical and faunal remains, and hundreds of the texts he and his team found in excavations, providing a profoundly intimate glimpse of the people who lived, worked, and died in this emporium between the classical Mediterranean world and Asia.
Author: Andrew Wilson,Alan Bowman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Literary Collections
This volume presents eighteen papers by leading Roman historians and archaeologists discussing trade in the Roman Empire during the period c.100 BC to AD 350. It focuses especially on the role of the Roman state in shaping the institutional framework for trade within and outside the empire, in taxing that trade, and in intervening in the markets to ensure the supply of particular commodities, especially for the city of Rome and for the army. As part of a novel interdisciplinary approach to the subject, the chapters address its myriad facets on the basis of broadly different sources of evidence: historical, papyrological, and archaeological. They are grouped into three sections, covering institutional factors (taxation, legal structures, market regulation, financial institutions); evidence for long-distance trade within the empire in wood, stone, glass, and pottery; and trade beyond the frontiers, with the east (as far as China), India, Arabia, the Red Sea, and the Sahara. Rome's external trade with realms to the east emerges as being of particular significance, but it is in the eastern part of the empire itself where the state appears to have adapted the mechanisms of taxation in collaboration with the elite holders of wealth to support its need for revenue. On the other hand, the price of that collaboration, which was in effect a fiscal partnership, ultimately led in the longer term in slightly different forms in the east and the west to a fundamental change in the political character of the empire.
Author: Stefan Pfeiffer
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
Author: Kathryn A. Bard
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Social Science
This student-friendly introduction to the archaeology of ancientEgypt guides readers from the Paleolithic to the Greco-Romanperiods, and has now been updated to include recent discoveries andnew illustrations. • Superbly illustrated with photographs, maps, and siteplans, with additional illustrations in this new edition • Organized into 11 chapters, covering: thehistory of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology; prehistoric andpharaonic chronology and the ancient Egyptian language; geography,resources, and environment; and seven chapters organizedchronologically and devoted to specific archaeological sites andevidence • Includes sections on salient topics such as theconstructing the Great Pyramid at Giza and the process ofmummification
Author: Timothy Power
This book examines the historic process traditionally referred to as the fall of Rome and rise of Islam from the perspective of the Red Sea, a strategic waterway linking the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean and a distinct region incorporating Africa with Arabia. The transition from Byzantium to the Caliphate is contextualized in the contestation of regional hegemony between Aksumite Ethiopia, Sasanian Iran, and the Islamic Hijaz. The economic stimulus associated with Arab colonization is then considered, including the foundation of ports and roads linking new metropolises and facilitating commercial expansion, particularly gold mining and the slave trade. Finally, the economic inheritance of the Fatimids and the formation of the commercial networks glimpsed in the Cairo Geniza is contextualized in the diffusion of the Abbasid ‘bourgeois revolution’ and resumption of the ‘India trade’ under the Tulunids and Ziyadids. Timothy Power’s careful analysis reveals the complex cultural and economic factors that provided a fertile ground for the origins of the Islamic civilization to take root in the Red Sea region, offering a new perspective on a vital period of history.
Proceedings of Red Sea Project I Held in the British Museum, October 2002
Author: Paul Lunde,Alexandra Porter
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
Category: Social Science
18 papers from the 1st Red Sea Project, held at the British Museum in October 2002. Contents: The Red Sea: the wind regime and location of ports (W. Facey); Arabian trade with ethiopia and the Horn of Africa: from ancient times to the 16th Century (R. Pankhurst); The elusive land of punt revisited (K.A. Kitchen); Pharaonic Egypt and the Red Sea arms trade (D.M. Dixon); Possible connections in Antiquity between the Red Sea coast of Yemen and the Horn of Africa (E.J. Keall); Ancient interaction across the southern Red Sea: new suggestions for investigating cultural exchange and complex societies during the 1st millennium BC (M.C. Curtis); The pre-Aksumite state in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea reconsidered (R. Fattovich); Pre-Aksumite Aksum and its neighbours (J. Phillips); Adulis to Aksum: charting the course of Antiquitys most important trade route in East Africa (W. Raunig); The Egyptp-Graeco-Romans and Panchaea/Azania: sailing in the Erythraean Sea (F. Chami); Reflections of ethnicity in the Red Sea commerce in Antiquity: evidence of trade goods, languages and religions from the excavations at Berenike (S.E Sidebottom); Gold dinars and silver dirhams in the Red Sea trade: the evidence of the Quseir documents (L. Guo); The merchants diet: food remains from Roman and medieval Quseir al-Qadim (M. Van der Veen); What the devil are you doing here? Arabic source for the arrival of the Portugese in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean (P. Lunde); Mamluk and Ottoman activity in Yemen in the 16th Century: coastal security and commercial significance (C. Smith); Quseir Fort and the archaeology of the Hajj (C. LeQuesne); Les echanges commerciaux entre les rives Africaine et Arabe de lespace Mer Rouge Golfe DAden aux seizieme et dix-septieme siecles (M. Tuchscherer); Luxury wares in the Red Sea: the Sadana Island shipwreck (C. Ward).
Author: Edward A. Alpers
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The Indian Ocean remains the least studied of the world's geographic regions. Yet there have been major cultural exchanges across its waters and around its shores from the third millennium B.C.E. to the present day. Historian Edward A. Alpers explores the complex issues involved in cultural exchange in the Indian Ocean Rim region over the course of this long period of time by combining a historical approach with the insights of anthropology, art history, ethnomusicology, and geography. The Indian Ocean witnessed several significant diasporas during the past two millennia, including migrations of traders, indentured laborers, civil servants, sailors, and slaves throughout the entire basin. Persians and Arabs from the Gulf came to eastern Africa and Madagascar as traders and settlers, while Hadramis dispersed from south Yemen as traders and Muslim teachers to the Comoro Islands, Zanzibar, South India, and Indonesia. Southeast Asians migrated to Madagascar, and Chinese dispersed from Southeast Asia to the Mascarene Islands to South Africa. Alpers also explores the cultural exchanges that diasporas cause, telling stories of identity and cultural transformation through language, popular religion, music, dance, art and architecture, and social organization. For example, architectural and decorative styles in eastern Africa, the Red Sea, the Hadramaut, the Persian Gulf, and western India reflect cultural interchanges in multiple directions. Similarly, the popular musical form of taarab in Zanzibar and coastal East Africa incorporates elements of Arab, Indian, and African musical traditions, while the characteristic frame drum (ravanne) of s?ga, the widespread Afro-Creole dance of the Mascarene and Seychelles Islands, probably owes its ultimate origins to Arabia by way of Mozambique. The Indian Ocean in World History also discusses issues of trade and production that show the long history of exchange throughout the Indian Ocean world; politics and empire-building by both regional and European powers; and the role of religion and religious conversion, focusing mainly on Islam, but also mentioning Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity. Using a broad geographic perspective, the book includes references to connections between the Indian Ocean world and the Americas. Moving into the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Alpers looks at issues including the new configuration of colonial territorial boundaries after World War I, and the search for oil reserves.
Author: American Research Center in Egypt
Age of Transition, 7th-9th Century
Author: Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)
Publisher: Metropolitan Museum of Art New York
A groundbreaking investigation of the extraordinary art and material culture of the southern provinces of the Byzantine Empire during the momentous 7th to 9th century
Category: Middle Eastern philology
Report on the Excavations at Berenike, Including Excavations in Wadi Kalalat and Siket, and the Survey of the Mons Smaragdus Region
Author: Willeke Wendrich,Steven E. Sidebotham
Publisher: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology
Category: Social Science
Excavations at Berenike, a Greco-Roman harbor on the Egyptian Red Sea coast, have provided extensive evidence for trade with India, South-Arabia and sub-Saharan Africa. The results of the 1999 and 2000 excavations by the joint mission of the University of Delaware, Leiden University, and UCLA, have been published in a comprehensive report, with specialists' analyses of different object groups and an overview of evidence for the trade route from the Indian perspective. The book is lavishly illustrated with photographs, drawings, plans, and a large foldout map of Berenike and Sikait.
From the Earliest Periods to the Present Time; Or, Universal History: in which the History of Every Nation, Ancient and Modern, is Seperately Given. Illustrated by 70 Stylographic Maps, and 700 Engravings
Author: Samuel Griswold Goodrich
Category: World history
Author: Parameśa Caudhurī
Category: Hindu diaspora
Author: Himanshu Prabha Ray
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This is an archaeological study of the Indian subcontinent's ancient maritime history, before European expansion.
A Maritime History of the World
Author: Lincoln Paine
A monumental retelling of world history through the lens of maritime enterprise, revealing in breathtaking depth how people first came into contact with one another by ocean and river, lake and stream, and how goods, languages, religions, and entire cultures spread across and along the world’s waterways, bringing together civilizations and defining what makes us most human. Lincoln Paine takes us back to the origins of long-distance migration by sea with our ancestors’ first forays from Africa and Eurasia to Australia and the Americas. He demonstrates the critical role of maritime trade to the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley. He reacquaints us with the great seafaring cultures of antiquity like those of the Phoenicians and Greeks, as well as those of India and Southeast and East Asia, who parlayed their navigational skills, shipbuilding techniques, and commercial acumen to establish thriving overseas colonies and trade routes in the centuries leading up to the age of European expansion. And finally, his narrative traces how commercial shipping and naval warfare brought about the enormous demographic, cultural, and political changes that have globalized the world throughout the post–Cold War era. This tremendously readable intellectual adventure shows us the world in a new light, in which the sea reigns supreme. We find out how a once-enslaved East African king brought Islam to his people, what the American “sail-around territories” were, and what the Song Dynasty did with twenty-wheel, human-powered paddleboats with twenty paddle wheels and up to three hundred crew. Above all, Paine makes clear how the rise and fall of civilizations can be linked to the sea. An accomplishment of both great sweep and illuminating detail, The Sea and Civilization is a stunning work of history.
territoires, espaces de la vie et de la mort, objets de prestige et du quotidien
Author: Pascale Ballet
Publisher: Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire - IFAO
Avec l’arrivée des pouvoirs macédonien puis romain, la société de la vallée du Nil et sa culture matérielle connaissent de profondes mutations, bien que les traditions pharaoniques perdurent et continuent même de s’enrichir. L’Égypte est alors l’un des leviers essentiels de l’hellénisation et de la romanisation en Méditerranée orientale et ses confins, notamment grâce au verrou alexandrin. Depuis une vingtaine d’années, l’archéologie de l’Égypte gréco-romaine connaît un net redéploiement, qui permet une réflexion élargie à l’échelle de la Méditerranée. Le colloque organisé par la Société française d’archéologie classique en mars 2008 a souhaité rendre hommage à ce développement récent et fécond. Centrant le propos sur les « formes » spécifiques de la présence grecque et romaine dans la vallée du Nil, il a voulu diffuser ces nouvelles perspectives auprès des spécialistes du monde gréco-romain. La trame de cette rencontre s’organise en trois sections : de nouveaux modes d’appropriation des territoires, en particulier ceux des fronts de mer et des marges ; le cadre spatial, des espaces de la vie à ceux de la mort ; les objets, au sens large, de la statuaire au mobilier. On suivra tout particulièrement la manière dont les « modèles » des mondes grec et romain ont été adoptés et adaptés, livrant souvent des formules spécifiques au terrain égyptien.
history trade, and culture before A.D. 650
Author: Pierre Herman Leonard Eggermont