Breakdown in Human Adaptation to ‘Stress'

Towards a multidisciplinary approach

Author: J. Cullen,J. Siegrist,H. M. Wegmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400932839

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 622

View: 8389

The widespread interest in "stressful" aspects of contemporary society which contribute to its burden of illness and diseases (e.g. gastro intestinal, cardiovascular) has led to a large number of state ments and reports which relate the manifestations to a maladaptation of the individual. Furthermore, recent research suggests that under some condi tions stress may have a more generalized effect of decreasing the body's ability to combat destructive forces and expose it to a variety of diseases. Breakdown in adaptation occurs when an individual cannot cope with demands inherent in his environment. These may be due to an excessive mental or physical load, including factors of a social or psychological nature and task performance requirements ranging from those which are monotonous, simple and repetitive to complex, fast, decision-taking ones. Experience shows however that not all people placed under the same condi tions suffer similarly, and it follows that to the social and psychological environment should be added a genetic factor influencing, through the brain, the responses of individuals. It is clear that, besides human suffering, this "breakdown in adaptation" causes massive losses of revenue to industry and national health authorities. Thus a reduction in "stress", before "breakdown" occurs, or an improvement in coping with it would be very valuable.

Breakdown in Human Adaptation to ‘Stress’ Volume II

Towards a multidisciplinary approach

Author: J. Cullen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400932855

Category: Science

Page: 441

View: 9997

The widespread interest in "stressful" aspects of contemporary society which contribute to its burden of illness and diseases (e.g. gastro intestinal, cardiovascular) has led to a large number of state ments and reports which relate the manifestations to a maladaptation of the individual. Furthermore, recent research suggests that under some condi tions stress may have a more generalized effect of decreasing the body IS ability to combat destructive forces and expose it to a variety of diseases. Breakdown in adaptation occurs when an individual cannot cope with demands inherent in his environment. These may be due to an excessive mental or physical load, including factors of a social or psychological nature and task performance requirements ranging from those which are monotonous, simple and repetitive to complex, fast, decision-taking ones. Experience shows however that not all people placed under the same condi tions suffer similarly, and it follows that to the social and psychological environment should be added a genetic factor influencing, through the brain, the responses of individuals. It is clear that, besides human suffering, this "breakdown in adaptation" causes massive losses of revenue to industry and national heal th authorities. Thus a reduction in "stress", before "breakdown" occurs, or an improvement in coping with it would be very valuable.

Biology of Stress in Farm Animals: An Integrative Approach

A seminar in the CEC programme of coordination research on animal welfare, held on April 17–18, 1986, at the Pietersberg Conference Centre, Oosterbeek, The Netherlands

Author: P.R. Wiepkema,P.W.M. van Adrichem

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400933398

Category: Medical

Page: 198

View: 2181

This book contains the contributions to a workshop on stress in farm animals held on April 17-18,1986 at the Pietersberg Con ference Centre Oosterbeek. The workshop was financed by the Commis sion of the European Communities from its budget for the coordina tion of Community Agricultural Research and the Agricultural Uni versity of Wageningen (The Netherlands). Its aim was to bring together experts from different disciplines all having in common that in one way or another they were involved in stress research. Such a multidisciplinary encounter should not only provide an interesting description of present day knowledge on stress, but also promote a more integrated view on stress phenomena as they occur in higher vertebrates. In the course of this workshop the following fields of research were related to stress: endocrinology, immunology, pathology, neurobiology, ethology and theoretical bio logy. Each of these relationships was introduce& by one speaker presenting a concise state of the art. The same relationship was elaborated by a second speaker implementing the available knowledge as far as possible to the farm animal situation. Therefore in this book each discipline is represented by a duo and introduced by some integrating remarks.

Psychobiology of Stress

Author: Stefano Puglisi-Allegra,A. Oliverio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400919905

Category: Medical

Page: 256

View: 4363

From a historical point of view the first studies on the response of the organism to stressful situations in general, and on the psychobiology of stress in particular, are probably those of Cannon and de la Paz, the physiologists who showed in 1911 that the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic system are involved in emergency situations. Cannon noted that the venous blood of cats frightened by barking dogs contained adrenaline, a response of the organism which was prevented by adrenalectomy or by section of the splanchnic nerve innervating the adrenal medulla. Cannon suggested that the adrenal medulla was acting in concert with the sympathetic nervous system, so that both systems were activated during stress. The role of the sympathetic system in response to stressful events was later emphasized by the experiments carried out by Maickel et al. (1967) and by Mason (1968): these authors clearly showed that stressors activate the sympathetic system causing it to release adrenaline and noradrenaline. This line of research may be contrasted with that carried out by Hans Selye, centered on of the adrenal cortex in the stress response. Selye's findings and theories originated the role the so-called hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal cortex (HPA) model of stress: in short, during stress adrenocorticotropic hormone is released from cells of the anterior pituitary and elicits secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.

Neurobehavioral Plasticity

Learning, Development, and Response to Brain Insults

Author: Norman E. Spear,Linda P. Spear,Michael Lester Woodruff,Robert L. Isaacson

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780805814255

Category: Medical

Page: 472

View: 4813

This book describes a unique combination of research programs based on a striking variety of hypotheses and procedures directed toward understanding the sources and consequences of neurobehavioral plasticity. This remarkable attribute of the nervous system -- to be pliable and capable of being shaped or formed by natural or artificial sources toward adaptation or maladaptation -- is considered in terms of the neurochemical forces and neuroanatomical structure that has been found to be pivotal for this function. The impetus for this volume was a symposium held to honor Robert L. Isaacson for his scientific and pedagogical achievements as well as his contributions to behavioral neuroscience. Corresponding to his three major research interests, the book is divided into three sections as follows: * the first explores the relationship between the limbic system and behavior, with an emphasis on learning and memory; * the second considers -- through a wide range of approaches -- issues of plasticity in behavior and brain; and * the third deals with neural and chemical determinants of normal and abnormal behavior. This volume is not only a fitting tribute to Isaacson, but also an unusual collection of new evidence, procedures, and theories destined to have significant influence on behavioral neuroscience.

Experimental Foundations of Behavioral Medicines

Conditioning Approaches

Author: Robert Ader,Herbert Weiner,,Andrew S. Baum,,Andrew S. Baum

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1317844459

Category: Psychology

Page: 234

View: 7578

A new attempt to acknowledge and rekindle interest in the experimental foundation of behavioral medicine, this volume focuses on the relevance of conditioning processes in the development of clinically relevant intervention strategies. It provides illustrations of the basic conditioning effects in the regulation of physiological responses, the role of conditioning in selected disease models, the precise application of conditioning principles, and speculative analyses of the potential of conditioning in the modification of clinically relevant responses. Issues involved in teaching both the fundamentals and the applied components of behavioral medicine are addressed.

Mosby's Complementary & Alternative Medicine

Author: Lyn W. Freeman

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323075487

Category: Medical

Page: 640

View: 6658

Providing a comprehensive overview, this text includes practical, clinically relevant coverage of complementary and alternative medicine, with commentary by well-known experts, descriptions of recent medical advances, case studies, and the history and philosophy of each discipline, along with indications, contraindications, practical application, and clinical trials for each topic. Research is critically reviewed, with examples of exceptional and flawed studies. You’ll gain an understanding of the most commonly used alternative therapies, as well as those most likely to be integrated with conventional medical treatment. More than 200 photographs and illustrations and 15 new line drawings clarify the material and make learning easier. A highly readable style simplifies complex concepts and keeps the material interesting. Current, research-based information explores the efficacy of many therapies so you can make decisions with confidence. Healing methods are emphasized, rather than systems. A topical organization lets you use what you need for your own practice, without having to read through extraneous detail. Chapter openers show why the content of the chapter is important, what is covered, and what objectives will be met. Features include: Why Read this Chapter? Chapter at a Glance Chapter Objectives An Expert Speaks boxes highlight the personal experience of well-known researchers and practitioners in each discipline, discussing the historical context of research, current contributions, and future directions. Critical Thinking and Clinical Application Questions show real-world situations so you can test and apply your knowledge. Points to Ponder help you tie together and interpret facts. A Closer Look boxes expand upon case study reviews and clinical application examples. Learning Opportunities suggest activities for interacting with health care professionals. Summary tables show outcomes from important clinical trials at a glance. Appendices provide information on CAM resources and contacts. A free Evolve companion website includes regular updates of content, student activities, and full-color images. Three new chapters: Reiki describes this popular CAM therapy and how it can be used along with related ethical and legal issues. Measurement of the Human Biofield explores cutting-edge technology and research into the biofield as well as theories about the implications of mind-body regulation. The Future of Ethnomedicine offers views of health and sickness from around the world, including perspectives that differ from traditional instruction and media portrayals. Includes the latest information on professional licensing. Seven new interviews are included, plus updates to previous interviews.

The Brain and Host Defense

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444535450

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 9836

It is now well recognized that the brain, and especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the regulation of immune reactions and inflammation. This book aims to review our current state of knowledge of this important field. Key historical findings are presented, and the reciprocal interactions between the brain and the immune system are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on inflammation, a critical host defense reaction that serves as an effector response for both the adaptive and innate immune systems. Mechanisms implicated in brain defense, as well as in more general host defense, are discussed. The regulatory influences of the brain on inflammatory responses are included with particular reference to the role of the hypothalamus, which is also the main director the hormonal regulation of immune/inflammatory. Gender-related differences in immune responsiveness, circadian modulator of immune responses, and evidence that behavioral conditioning (e.g. reward) of immune responses is possible are used as examples to reinforce the notion that the neuroendocrine system exerts a fundamental and complex regulatory influence on the immune system. * Presents timely issues such as immunological aspects of the blood-brain-barrier and the role of inflammatory mediators in the evolution of strokes and degenerative diseases * Includes analysis of the role of the brain in the adaptive responses to disease * Evaluates the argument that further knowledge of the influence of the brain on the immune system will provide new insights to the pathophysiology infectious and autoimmune diseases

Current Catalog

Author: National Library of Medicine (U.S.)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medicine

Page: N.A

View: 6313

First multi-year cumulation covers six years: 1965-70.

Advances in Medical Biology

Author: C. Baya

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9789051991468

Category: Medical

Page: 276

View: 5711

This text presents the final reports of the 17 research groups supervised by the CEC programme COMAC-BIOLOGY, relating applications such as: standardization of diagnostic procedures; application of new biological techniques to health problems; sharing of technologies and reagents; provision of special biological systems; evaluation of effectiveness of measures aiming at health care; and collection, storage and dissemination of information.

Human Adaptation to Extreme Stress

From the Holocaust to Vietnam

Author: John P. Wilson,Zev Harel,Wilson,Boaz Kahana

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306428739

Category: Psychology

Page: 397

View: 9278

Organized into three sections, theory, research, and treatment, the 24 contributions to the book represent a multi-disciplinary effort to understand war-related traumatic stress and its impact on life-course development, the aging process, and the diverse coping mechanisms employed by the victims. S

Stress in Health and Disease, An Issue of Psychiatric Clinics of North America,

Author: Daniel L. Kirsch

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323326773

Category: Medical

Page: 281

View: 5576

Stress in the DSM is referred to only in the sense of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, some research studies estimate up to two thirds of illnesses seen by general practitioners are ‘stress related’–GI problems, sleep disturbance, mental concentration, headaches, fatigue, shortness of breath, high blood pressure, dermatitis, illnesses from lowered immune system, and vague aches and pains – all can be symptoms and outcomes of the elusive stress factor. This issue of Psychiatric Clinics of North America discusses the scientific medical facets of stress, written by mental health and medical practitioners. It looks at the brain-body connection of stress – what the body does to result in stress and varying results stress has on the body. This fascinating cross-discipline look at stress is intended for psychiatrists, general practitioners, cardiologists, GI specialists, neurologists, sleep medicine specialists, respiratory specialists, and others who diagnose and treat patients with stress suspected as part of the illness equation or with self-reported stress. Topics include: Measurement of stress; Anxiety and stress-how they work together; Relationship between genetics and stress; Role of glia in stress; Sleep and stress; Diet and stress; Supplements and stress; Effect of severe stress on early brain development, attachment, and emotions; Role of stress and fear on the development of psychopathology; Expressions of stress in psychiatric illness; Dermatologic manifestations of stress in normal and psychiatric populations; Humor and the psychological buffers of stress; Stress expression in children and adolescents; Stress in service members; Stress in the geriatric population.

Quick Physiology Review: Metabolism in Humans

Study review notes for students and health professionals

Author: E Staff

Publisher: Examville Study Guides

ISBN: N.A

Category: Study Aids

Page: 6

View: 2525

Learn and review on the go! Use Quick Review Anatomy & Physiology Study Notes to help you learn or brush up on the subject quickly. You can use the review notes as a reference, to understand the subject better and improve your grades. Easy to remember facts to help you perform better. Perfect study notes for all health sciences, premed, medical and nursing students.

Advances in Space Biology and Medicine

Author: S.L. Bonting

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080877310

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 2450

During the past several years there has been a shortage of flight opportunities for biological and medical projects. And those that were available usually had severe restrictions on instrumentation, number of subjects, duration, time allotted for performing the experiments, a possibility for repetition of experiments. It is our hope and expectation that this will change once the international Space Station is in full operation. The advantages of a permanent space station, already demonstrated by the Russian Mir station, are continuous availability of expert crew and a wide range of equipment, possibility of long-term experiments where this is waranted, increased numbers of subjects through larger laboratory space, proper controls in the large 1-G centrifuge, easier repeatability of experiments when needed. The limited number of flight opportunities during recent years probably explains why it has taken so long to acquire a sufficient number of high quality contributions for this seventh volume of Advances in Space Biology and Medicine. While initially the series wassailed at annually appearing volumes, we are now down to a biannual appearance. Hopefully, it will be possible to return to annual volumes in the future when results from space station experimentation at beginning to pour in. The first three chapters of this volume deal with muscle. Fejtek and Wassersug provide a survey of all studies on muscle of rodents flown in space, and include an interesting demography of this aspect of space research. Riley reviews our current knowledge of the effects of long-term spaceflight and re-entry on skeletal muscle, and considers the questions still to be answered before we can be satisfied that long-term space missions, such as on the space station, can be safely undertaken. Stein reviews our understanding of the nutritional and hormonal aspects of muscle loss in spaceflight, and concludes that the protein loss in space could be deleterious to health during flight and after return. Strollo summarizes our understanding of the major endocrine systems on the ground, then considers what we know about their functioning in space, concluding that there is much to be learned about the changes taking place during spaceflight. The many problems of providing life support (oxygen regeneration and food supply) during extended stay on the Moon, on Mars, or in space by means of plant cultivation are discussed by Salisbury. The challenges of utilizing electrophoresis in microgravity for the separation of cells and proteins are illustrated and explained by Bauer and colleagues. Finally, the chapter on teaching of space life sciences by Schmitt shows that this field of science has come of age, but also that its multidisciplinary character poses interesting challenges to teaching it.

Human Services in Contemporary America

Author: William Burger

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 049511524X

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 4682

HUMAN SERVICES IN CONTEMPORARY AMERICA, Seventh Edition, is a thorough examination of the Human Services system in the United States. Providing students a realistic portrayal of the field of human services, the book's multidisciplinary approach presents a complete overview of the helping field, its available programs, and the practical skills workers can employ. The book's unique focus on presenting the history and practice of human services through the lens of a social problems and policy perspective truly sets the book apart from its competitors. Real-life examples in every chapter highlight material on social policy, and useful information on selected careers within the field is discussed along with the necessary training and licensor information. Throughout the text, Burger integrates the theme of understanding how social, economic and political issues affect the human service worker and the people served in human services. In order to highlight the social policy material throughout the text, examples are given in each chapter that highlight personal experiences and other options available to legislators (for example, national health care). Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 1338

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Operator Functional State

The Assessment and Prediction of Human Performance Degradation in Complex Tasks

Author: G. Robert J. Hockey

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781586033620

Category: Functional analysis

Page: 379

View: 7041

Reliability and Safety In Hazardous Work Systems

Approaches To Analysis And Design

Author: Bernhard Wilpert,Qvale Thoralf

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134833148

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 4330

This volume contains a selection of original contributions from internationally reputed scholars in the field of risk management in socio?technical systems with high hazard potential. Its first major section addresses fundamental psychological and socio?technical concepts in the field of risk perception, risk management and learning systems for safety improvement. The second section deals with the variety of procedures for system safety analysis. It covers strategies of analyzing automation problems and of safety culture as well as the analysis of social dynamics in field settings and of field experiments. Its third part then illustrates the utilization of basic concepts and analytic approaches by way of case studies of designing man?machine systems and in various industrial sectors such as intensive care wards, aviation, offfshore oil drilling and chemical industry. In linking basic theoretical conceptual notions and analytic strategies to detailed case studies in the area of hazardous work organizations the volume differs from and complements more theoretical works such as Human Error (J. Reason, 1990) and more general approaches such as New Technologies and Human Error (J. Rasmussen, K. Duncan, J. Leplat, Eds.)