Health and Social Justice

Author: Jennifer Prah Ruger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019955997X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 276

View: 4825

Health and Social Justice provides a theoretical framework for health ethics, public policy and law in which Dr Ruger introduces the health capability paradigm, an innovative and unique approach which considers the capability of health as a moral imperative. This book is the culmination ofmore than a decade and a half of work to develop the health capability paradigm, with a vision of a world where all have the capability to be healthy. This vision is grounded in the Aristotelian view of human flourishing and also Amartya Sen's capability approach. In this new paradigm, not justhealth care, or even just health alone, but the capability for health itself is a moral imperative, as is ensuring the conditions that allow all individuals the means to achieve central health capabilities. Key tenets of health capability include health agency, shared health governance, where individuals, providers and institutions work together to create a social system enabling all to be healthy, and the use of theorized agreements and shared reasoning to guide social choice and shape health policyand decision-making. This book provides philosophical justification for the direct moral importance of health and the capability for health and follows a norms-based approach to health promotion. It employs a joint scientific and deliberative approach to guide health system development and reform,and the allocation of scarce health resources. The health capability paradigm integrates both proceduralist and consequentialist approaches to justice, and both moral and political legitimacy are critical.

The World Health Organization (WHO)

Author: Kelley Lee

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134199899

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 4806

The World Health Organization (WHO), as the United Nations specialized agency for health, has been at the centre of international health cooperation for over sixty years. With origins dating from the nineteenth century, WHO’s mandate is the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health. The huge challenge of fulfilling this objective has not only required high-level technical skills, but has led the organization to engage with a broad range of political and economic interests. WHO has enjoyed many high-profile successes such as the global eradication of smallpox and SARS, and ongoing campaigns against polio and other diseases. On other issues, such as essential drugs, tobacco control and diet and nutrition, efforts to tackle the broader determinants of health has brought the organization into contact with issues such as globalization, poverty, social justice and human rights. Kelley Lee analyzes the WHO’s role in international cooperation, examining its changing structures, key programmes and individuals. Of particular focus are the challenges WHO has faced in recent years given the emergence of other global health initiatives and how WHO has sought to remain effective as the "world’s health conscience" within an increasingly complex global context.

WHO Child Growth Standards

Head Circumference-for-age, Arm Circumference-for-age, Triceps Skinfold-for-age and Subscapular Skinfold-for-age : Methods and Development

Author: World Health Organization,World Health Organization. Nutrition for Health and Development

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241547189

Category: Medical

Page: 217

View: 7976

A comprehensive review of the uses and interpretation of anthropometric references undertaken by WHO in the early 1990s concluded that new growth curves were needed to replace the existing international reference. To develop new standards, a multi-country study was carried out to collect primary growth data and related information from 8440 healthy breastfed infants and young children from diverse ethnic backgrounds and cultural settings (Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman, and the USA). The first set of growth standards (length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age) was published in April 2006. This report presents the second set of growth standards (head circumference-for-age, arm circumference-for-age, triceps skinfold-for-age, and subscapular skinfold-for-age). The standards depict normal early childhood growth under optimal environmental conditions and can be used to assess children everywhere, regardless of ethnicity socioeconomic status and type of feeding. This report will be useful to pediatricians and other healthcare providers, nutritionists, policy makers, researchers, national institutes of health, schools of medicine, and professional associations. Companion volume: WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/Height-for-age Weight-for-age Weight-for-length Weight-for-height and Body Mass Index-for age. Methods and Development


Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: N.A



Page: N.A

View: 3815

Handbook on Health Inequality Monitoring

With a Special Focus on Low- and Middle-income Countries

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241548630

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 105

View: 6247

Monitoring health inequality is a practice that fosters accountability and continuous improvement within health systems. The cycle of health inequality monitoring helps to identify and track health differences between subgroups, providing evidence and feedback to strengthen equity-oriented policies, programs and practices. Through inequality monitoring and the use of disaggregated data, countries gain insight into how health is distributed in the population, looking beyond what is indicated by national averages. Data about health inequalities underlie health interventions that aim to reach vulnerable populations. Furthermore, they constitute an evidence base to inform and promote equity-oriented health initiatives, including the movement towards equitable universal health coverage. This Handbook is a user-friendly resource developed to help countries establish and strengthen health inequality monitoring practices. The handbook elaborates on the steps of health inequality monitoring, including selecting relevant health indicators and equity stratifiers, obtaining data, analyzing data, reporting results and implementing changes. Throughout the handbook, examples from low- and middle-income countries are presented to illustrate how concepts are relevant and applied in real-world situations; informative text boxes provide the context to better understand the complexities of the subject. The final section of the handbook presents an expanded example of national-level health inequality monitoring of reproductive, maternal and child health.

Toman's Tuberculosis

Case Detection, Treatment, and Monitoring : Questions and Answers

Author: K. Toman,World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241546034

Category: Medical

Page: 332

View: 2284

This is the second edition of a reference work aimed at all those concerned with dealing with tuberculosis control in developing countries. The book follows in the tradition of Kurt Toman's original work in this field, with the text set out in a question and answer format, grouped under three headings: case detection; treatment, and monitoring. The threat of tuberculosis is still potent, with two million deaths globally. This new edition, containing contributions from a number of experts in this field, addresses the resurgence of tuberculosis, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacilli, and the growth of HIV-infected individuals with tuberculosis, as well as recent scientific developments.

Private Health Providers in Developing Countries

Serving the Public Interest?

Author: Sara Bennett,Barbara McPake,Anne Mills

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781856494953

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 318

View: 5425

This work presents the results from a co-ordinated programme of research on the private health care sector including studies carried out by Asian, African and Latin American researchers. It draws upon both industrialized and developing country literature to describe the intellectual terrain, analyze the key issues and summarize experience.

Circles of Recovery

Self-Help Organizations for Addictions

Author: Keith Humphreys

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139439572

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 5089

Self-help organizations across the world, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, Croix D'Or, The Links, Moderation Management, Narcotics Anonymous, and SMART Recovery, have attracted tens of millions of individuals seeking to address addiction problems with drugs or alcohol. This book, originally published in 2004, provides an integrative, international review of research on these organizations, focusing in particular on the critical questions of how they affect individual members and whether self-help groups and formal health care systems can work together to combat substance abuse. Keith Humphreys reviews over 500 studies into the efficacy of self-help groups as an alternative and voluntary form of treatment. In addition to offering a critical review of the international body of research in this area, he provides practical strategies for how individual clinicians and treatment systems can interact with self-help organizations in a way that improves outcomes for patients and for communities as a whole.

Fundamentals of Cancer Epidemiology

Author: Philip C. Nasca,Harris Pastides

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780834217768

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 368

View: 5562

Public Health

Maternal Care and Mental Health

Author: John Bowlby

Publisher: Jason Aronson

ISBN: 9781568217574

Category: Social Science

Page: 194

View: 3171

John Bowlby demonstrates the devastating effects on children of maternal deprivation - effects that ripple through the generations as neglected children often become neglectful parents.

The Challenge of Obesity in the WHO European Region and the Strategies for Response


Author: Francesco Branca,Haik Nikogosian,Tim Lobstein,World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9289013885

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 60

View: 4587

In a brief, clear and easily accessible way, this summary illustrates the dynamics of the obesity epidemic and its impact on public health throughout the WHO European Region, particularly in eastern countries. It describes how factors that increase the risk of obesity are shaped in different settings, such as the family, school, community and workplace. It makes both ethical and economic arguments for accelerating action against obesity, and analyses effective programs and policies in different government sectors, such as education, health, agriculture and trade, urban planning and transport. The summary also describes how to design policies and programs to prevent obesity and how to monitor progress, and calls for specific action by stakeholders: not only government sectors but also the private sector - including food manufacturers, advertisers and traders - and professional consumers' and international and intergovernmental organizations such as the European Union.

The Lugano Report - New Edition

On Preserving Capitalism in the Twenty-first Centu

Author: Susan George

Publisher: Pluto Press

ISBN: 9780745322063

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 213

View: 8606

This is a new edition of Susan George's acclaimed satire on capitalism. Fictional experts recruited by world leaders to discuss the future of global capitalism provide their assessment of the dire state of the current economy and put forward new ideas for ensuring the survival of the system. But at what cost? Susan George provides a brilliant and chilling vision of the way the winners in the globalisation game profit from poverty and reveals, with relentless logic, the dark future that lies ahead under capitalism. This new edition features a new introduction from the author.

Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance in the World

Fourth Global Report : the World Health Organization/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (WHO/UNION) Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance, 2002-2007

Author: Abigail Wright,Matteo Zignol

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241563613

Category: Medical

Page: 151

View: 8234

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been recorded at the highest rates ever, according to this new report that presents findings from the largest survey to date on the scale of drug resistance in tuberculosis. This fourth global report is based on information collected between 2002 and 2006 on 90,000 TB patients in 81 countries. It also found that extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), a virtually untreatable form of the respiratory disease, has been recorded in 45 countries. The primary aim of this report is to share survey and surveillance data on drug resistance in TB. The data presented here are supplied largely by the program managers who have led the work on surveys, but also heads of reference laboratories as well as principle investigators that may have been hired to assist the national Tuberculosis Program with the study.

Priorities in Health

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821362615

Category: Medical

Page: 217

View: 1291

"This companion guide to Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition speeds the diffusion of life-saving knowledge by distilling the contents of the larger volume into an easily read format. Policy makers, practitioners, academics, and other interested readers will get an overview of the messages and analysis in Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition; be alerted to the scope of major diseases; learn strategies to improve policies and choices to implement cost-effective interventions; and locate chapters of immediate interest."

WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies

Second Report

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241209828

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 139

View: 5622

"Although there is debate about the estimated health burden of rabies, the estimates of direct mortality and the DALYs due to rabies are among the highest of the neglected tropical diseases. Poor surveillance, underreporting in many developing countries, frequent misdiagnosis of rabies, and an absence of coordination among all the sectors involved are likely to lead to underestimation of the scale of the disease It is clear, however, that rabies disproportionately affects poor rural communities, and particularly children. Most of the expenditure for post- exposure prophylaxis is borne by those who can least afford it. As a result of growing dog and human populations, the burden of human deaths from rabies and the economic costs will continue to escalate in the absence of concerted efforts and investment for control. Since the first WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies in 2004, WHO and its network of collaborating centres on rabies, specialized national institutions, members of the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on Rabies and partners such as the Gates Foundation, the Global Alliance for Rabies Control and the Partnership for Rabies Prevention, have been advocating the feasibility of rabies elimination regionally and globally and promoting research into sustainable cost-effective strategies. Those joint efforts have begun to break the cycle of rabies neglect, and rabies is becoming recognized as a priority for investment. This Consultation concluded that human dog-transmitted rabies is readily amenable to control, regional elimination in the medium term and even global elimination in the long term. A resolution on major neglected tropical diseases, including rabies, prepared for submission to the World Health Assembly in May 2013 aims at securing Member States' commitment to the control, elimination or eradication of these diseases. Endorsement of the resolution would open the door for exciting advances in rabies prevention and control."--Publisher's description.

Surgeonfishes of the World

Author: John E. Randall

Publisher: Bishop Museum Press


Category: Science

Page: 123

View: 7690

Traditional Medicine

A Global Perspective

Author: Steven B. Kayne

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780853699514

Category: Medical

Page: 347

View: 7191

This is a contributed text on traditional medicines throughout the world. Over one-third of the population in developing countries lack access to essential medicines. The provision of safe and effective traditional medicine therapies could become a critical tool to increase access to health care.

Health Literacy

The Solid Facts

Author: Who Regional Office for Europe,Ilona Kickbusch,Jürgen M. Pelikan,Franklin Apfel,Agis D. Tsouros

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789289000154

Category: Medical

Page: 85

View: 7827

As societies grow more complex and people are increasingly bombarded with health information and misinformation, health literacy becomes essential. People with strong health literacy skills enjoy better health and well-being, while those with weaker skills tend to engage in riskier behavior and have poorer health. With evidence from the recent European Health Literacy Survey, this report identifies practical and effective ways public health and other sector authorities and advocates can strengthen health literacy in a variety of settings, including educational settings, workplaces, marketplaces, health systems, new and traditional media and political arenas. The report can be used as a tool for spreading awareness, stimulating debate and research and, above all, for informing policy development and action.