Cartographies of Disease

Maps, Mapping, and Medicine

Author: Tom Koch

Publisher: Esri Press

ISBN: 9781589481206

Category: Medical

Page: 389

View: 1382

Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine, new expanded edition, is a comprehensive survey of the technology of mapping and its relationship to the battle against disease. This look at medical mapping advances the argument that maps are not merely representations of spatial realities but a way of thinking about relationships between viral and bacterial communities, human hosts, and the environments in which diseases flourish. Cartographies of Disease traces the history of medical mapping from its growth in the 19th century during an era of trade and immigration to its renaissance in the 1990s during a new era of globalization. Referencing maps older than John Snow's famous cholera maps of London in the mid-19th century, this survey pulls from the plague maps of the 1600s, while addressing current issues concerning the ability of GIS technology to track diseases worldwide. The original chapters have some minor updating, and two new chapters have been added. Chapter 13 attempts to understand how the hundreds of maps of Ebola revealed not simply disease incidence but the way in which the epidemic itself was perceived. Chapter 14 is about the spatiality of the disease and the means by which different cartographic approaches may affect how infectious outbreaks like ebola can be confronted and contained.

Disease Maps

Epidemics on the Ground

Author: Tom Koch

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226449351

Category: History

Page: 330

View: 6782

In the seventeenth century, a map of the plague suggested a radical idea—that the disease was carried and spread by humans. In the nineteenth century, maps of cholera cases were used to prove its waterborne nature. More recently, maps charting the swine flu pandemic caused worldwide panic and sent shockwaves through the medical community. In Disease Maps, Tom Koch contends that to understand epidemics and their history we need to think about maps of varying scale, from the individual body to shared symptoms evidenced across cities, nations, and the world. Disease Maps begins with a brief review of epidemic mapping today and a detailed example of its power. Koch then traces the early history of medical cartography, including pandemics such as European plague and yellow fever, and the advancements in anatomy, printing, and world atlases that paved the way for their mapping. Moving on to the scourge of the nineteenth century—cholera—Koch considers the many choleras argued into existence by the maps of the day, including a new perspective on John Snow’s science and legacy. Finally, Koch addresses contemporary outbreaks such as AIDS, cancer, and H1N1, and reaches into the future, toward the coming epidemics. Ultimately, Disease Maps redefines conventional medical history with new surgical precision, revealing that only in maps do patterns emerge that allow disease theories to be proposed, hypotheses tested, and treatments advanced.

Mapping the Nation

History and Cartography in Nineteenth-Century America

Author: Susan Schulten

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226740706

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 3126

In the nineteenth century, Americans began to use maps in radically new ways. For the first time, medical men mapped diseases to understand and prevent epidemics, natural scientists mapped climate and rainfall to uncover weather patterns, educators mapped the past to foster national loyalty among students, and Northerners mapped slavery to assess the power of the South. After the Civil War, federal agencies embraced statistical and thematic mapping in order to profile the ethnic, racial, economic, moral, and physical attributes of a reunified nation. By the end of the century, Congress had authorized a national archive of maps, an explicit recognition that old maps were not relics to be discarded but unique records of the nation’s past. All of these experiments involved the realization that maps were not just illustrations of data, but visual tools that were uniquely equipped to convey complex ideas and information. In Mapping the Nation, Susan Schulten charts how maps of epidemic disease, slavery, census statistics, the environment, and the past demonstrated the analytical potential of cartography, and in the process transformed the very meaning of a map. Today, statistical and thematic maps are so ubiquitous that we take for granted that data will be arranged cartographically. Whether for urban planning, public health, marketing, or political strategy, maps have become everyday tools of social organization, governance, and economics. The world we inhabit—saturated with maps and graphic information—grew out of this sea change in spatial thought and representation in the nineteenth century, when Americans learned to see themselves and their nation in new dimensions.

International Encyclopedia of Human Geography

A 12-Volume Set

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080449107

Category: Social Science

Page: 8250

View: 1540

The International Encyclopedia of Human Geography provides an authoritative and comprehensive source of information on the discipline of human geography and its constituent, and related, subject areas. The encyclopedia includes over 1,000 detailed entries on philosophy and theory, key concepts, methods and practices, biographies of notable geographers, and geographical thought and praxis in different parts of the world. This groundbreaking project covers every field of human geography and the discipline’s relationships to other disciplines, and is global in scope, involving an international set of contributors. Given its broad, inclusive scope and unique online accessibility, it is anticipated that the International Encyclopedia of Human Geography will become the major reference work for the discipline over the coming decades. The Encyclopedia will be available in both limited edition print and online via ScienceDirect - featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit http://info.sciencedirect.com/content/books/ref_works/coming/ Available online on ScienceDirect and in limited edition print format Broad, interdisciplinary coverage across human geography: Philosophy, Methods, People, Social/Cultural, Political, Economic, Development, Health, Cartography, Urban, Historical, Regional Comprehensive and unique - the first of its kind in human geography

Mapping Cultures

Place, Practice, Performance

Author: L. Roberts

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137025050

Category: Social Science

Page: 309

View: 1568

An interdisciplinary collection exploring the practices and cultures of mapping in the arts, humanities and social sciences. It features contributions from scholars in critical cartography, social anthropology, film and cultural studies, literary studies, art and visual culture, marketing, museum studies, architecture, and popular music studies.

Ecologies and Politics of Health

Author: Brian King,Kelley A. Crews

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136295534

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 9503

Human health exists at the interface of environment and society. Decades of work by researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers has shown that health is shaped by a myriad of factors, including the biophysical environment, climate, political economy, gender, social networks, culture, and infrastructure. Yet while there is emerging interest within the natural and social sciences on the social and ecological dimensions of human disease and health, there have been few studies that address them in an integrated manner. Ecologies and Politics of Health brings together contributions from the natural and social sciences to examine three key themes: the ecological dimensions of health and vulnerability, the socio-political dimensions of human health, and the intersections between the ecological and social dimensions of health. The thirteen case study chapters collectively present results from Africa, Asia, Latin America, the United States, Australia, and global cities. Section one interrogates the utility of several theoretical frameworks and conventions for understanding health within complex social and ecological systems. Section two concentrates upon empirically grounded and quantitative work that collectively redefines health in a more expansive way that extends beyond the absence of disease. Section three examines the role of the state and management interventions through historically rich approaches centering on both disease- and non-disease-related examples from Latin America, Eastern Africa, and the United States. Finally, Section four highlights how health vulnerabilities are differentially constructed with concomitant impacts for disease management and policy interventions. This timely volume advances knowledge on health-environment interactions, disease vulnerabilities, global development, and political ecology. It offers theoretical and methodological contributions which will be a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners in geography, public health, biology, anthropology, sociology, and ecology.

Textbook of Children's Environmental Health

Author: Philip J. Landrigan,Ruth A. Etzel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199336660

Category: Medical

Page: 608

View: 3107

Over the past four decades, the prevalence of autism, asthma, ADHD, obesity, diabetes, and birth defects have grown substantially among children around the world. Not coincidentally, more than 80,000 new chemicals have been developed and released into the global environment during this same period. Today the World Health Organization attributes 36% of all childhood deaths to environmental causes. Children's environmental health is a new and expanding discipline that studies the profound impact of chemical and environmental hazards on child health. Amid mounting evidence that children are exquisitely sensitive to their environment-and that exposure during their developmental "windows of susceptibility" can trigger cellular changes that lead to disease and disability in infancy, childhood, and across the life span-there is a compelling need for continued scientific study of the relationship between children's health and environment. The Textbook of Children's Environmental Health codifies the knowledge base and offers an authoritative and comprehensive guide to this important new field. Edited by two internationally recognized pioneers in the area, this volume presents up-to-date information on the chemical, biological, physical, and societal hazards that confront children in today's world: pesticides, indoor and outdoor air pollution, lead, arsenic, phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, and the built environment. It presents carefully documented data on rising rates of disease in children, offers a critical summary of new research linking pediatric disease with environmental exposures, and explores the cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying diseases of environmental origin. With this volume's emphasis upon integrating theory and practice, readers will find practical approaches to channeling scientific findings into evidence-based strategies for preventing and identifying the environmental hazards that cause disease in children. It is a landmark work that will serve as the field's benchmark for years to come.

Thieves of Virtue

When Bioethics Stole Medicine

Author: Tom Koch

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262017989

Category: Medical

Page: 350

View: 3004

An argument against the "lifeboat ethic" of contemporary bioethics that views medicine as a commodity rather than a tradition of care and caring. Bioethics emerged in the 1960s from a conviction that physicians and researchers needed the guidance of philosophers in handling the issues raised by technological advances in medicine. It blossomed as a response to the perceived doctor-knows-best paternalism of the traditional medical ethic and today plays a critical role in health policies and treatment decisions. Bioethics claimed to offer a set of generally applicable, universally accepted guidelines that would simplify complex situations. In Thieves of Virtue, Tom Koch contends that bioethics has failed to deliver on its promises. Instead, he argues, bioethics has promoted a view of medicine as a commodity whose delivery is predicated not on care but on economic efficiency. At the heart of bioethics, Koch writes, is a "lifeboat ethic" that assumes "scarcity" of medical resources is a natural condition rather than the result of prior economic, political, and social choices. The idea of natural scarcity requiring ethical triage signaled a shift in ethical emphasis from patient care and the physician's responsibility for it to neoliberal accountancies and the promotion of research as the preeminent good. The solution to the failure of bioethics is not a new set of simplistic principles. Koch points the way to a transformed medical ethics that is humanist, responsible, and defensible.

A Place in Time

Care Givers for Their Elderly

Author: Tom Koch

Publisher: Praeger Publishers

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 9152

Records the experiences of people who have chosen to care for aging and ill relatives at home and examines how these personal experiences reflect important issues of elder care

The Power of Knowledge

How Information and Technology Made the Modern World

Author: Jeremy Black

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 030019854X

Category: History

Page: 504

View: 3323

Information is power. For more than five hundred years the success or failure of nations has been determined by a country’s ability to acquire knowledge and technical skill and transform them into strength and prosperity. Leading historian Jeremy Black approaches global history from a distinctive perspective, focusing on the relationship between information and society and demonstrating how the understanding and use of information have been the primary factors in the development and character of the modern age. Black suggests that the West’s ascension was a direct result of its institutions and social practices for acquiring, employing, and retaining information and the technology that was ultimately produced. His cogent and well-reasoned analysis looks at cartography and the hardware of communication, armaments and sea power, mercantilism and imperialism, science and astronomy, as well as bureaucracy and the management of information, linking the history of technology with the history of global power while providing important indicators for the future of our world.

Mirrored Lives

Aging Children and Elderly Parents

Author: Tom Koch

Publisher: Praeger Publishers

ISBN: 9780275936716

Category: Social Science

Page: 217

View: 1093

Records the emotional struggles of an elderly father in geriatric decline and his aging son as the care-giver, exploring the issues of their changed relationship

ARC User

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Geographic information systems

Page: N.A

View: 1984

Cartographic Perspectives

Bulletin of the North American Cartographic Information Society

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Cartography

Page: N.A

View: 6464

The Natures of Maps

Cartographic Constructions of the Natural World

Author: Denis Wood,John Fels

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 3882

A compelling exploration of a wide range of maps answers the question of why maps have gotten away with reflecting the agendas and intentions of their creators by analyzing maps of nature, including species habitats, bird migration routes, and the stars of the Milky Way.

Mapping the Cold War

Cartography and the Framing of America’s International Power

Author: Timothy Barney

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469618559

Category: History

Page: 338

View: 858

In this fascinating history of Cold War cartography, Timothy Barney considers maps as central to the articulation of ideological tensions between American national interests and international aspirations. Barney argues that the borders, scales, projections, and other conventions of maps prescribed and constrained the means by which foreign policy elites, popular audiences, and social activists navigated conflicts between North and South, East and West. Maps also influenced how identities were formed in a world both shrunk by advancing technologies and marked by expanding and shifting geopolitical alliances and fissures. Pointing to the necessity of how politics and values were "spatialized" in recent U.S. history, Barney argues that Cold War–era maps themselves had rhetorical lives that began with their conception and production and played out in their circulation within foreign policy circles and popular media. Reflecting on the ramifications of spatial power during the period, Mapping the Cold War ultimately demonstrates that even in the twenty-first century, American visions of the world--and the maps that account for them--are inescapably rooted in the anxieties of that earlier era.

Geographic Information Analysis

Author: David O'Sullivan,David Unwin

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 7816

Clear, up-to-date coverage of methods for analyzing geographical information in a GIS context Geographic Information Analysis, Second Edition is fully updated to keep pace with the most recent developments of spatial analysis in a geographic information systems (GIS) environment. Still focusing on the universal aspects of this science, this revised edition includes new coverage on geovisualization and mapping as well as recent developments using local statistics. Building on the fundamentals, this book explores such key concepts as spatial processes, point patterns, and autocorrelation in area data, as well as in continuous fields. Also addressed are methods for combining maps and performing computationally intensive analysis. New chapters tackle mapping, geovisualization, and local statistics, including the Moran Scatterplot and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). An appendix provides a primer on linear algebra using matrices. Complete with chapter objectives, summaries, "thought exercises," explanatory diagrams, and a chapter-by-chapter bibliography, Geographic Information Analysis is a practical book for students, as well as a valuable resource for researchers and professionals in the industry.

Medical Geography

Author: Melinda S. Meade,Michael Emch

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1606230166

Category: Social Science

Page: 498

View: 1651

The leading text in the field, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to geographic approaches to studying disease and promoting health. It presents cutting-edge techniques of spatial and social analysis and explores their relevance for understanding cultural and political ecology, disease systems, and public health issues across the globe. Essential topics include how new diseases emerge and epidemics develop in particular places; the intersecting influences on health of biological processes, culture, environment, and behavior; and the changing landscape of health care planning and service delivery. The text is richly illustrated with tables, figures, and maps, including 16 color plates. New to This Edition: thoroughly updated in response to the challenges of globalization, development, and demographic changes incorporates the latest data and conceptual frameworks chapters on neighborhood analysis and the use of GIS in modeling health and disease GIS applications and examples are integrated throughout. This book will be important reading for students and instructors in geography, public health, epidemiology, international health policy and planning, medical sociology, and related fields. It will also serve as a primary text in advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level courses such as Medical Geography and Health Geography.

Geography and Vision

Seeing, Imagining and Representing the World

Author: Denis Cosgrove

Publisher: I B Tauris & Company Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 4827

Geography and Vision is a series of personal reflections by leading cultural geographer, Denis Cosgrove, on the complex connections between seeing, imagining and representing the world geographically. Ranging historically from the sixteenth century to the present day, the essays include reflections upon discovery and the role of imagination in giving it meaning; colonisation and sixteenth century gardening; the shaping of American landscapes; wilderness, imperial mappings and masculinity; urban cartography and utopian visions; conceptions of the Pacific; the cartography of John Ruskin; and the imaginative grip of the Equator. Extensively illustrated, this engaging work reveals the richness and complexity of the geographical imagination as expressed over the past five centuries.