Author: Professor of Law Paul Nihoul,Nicolas Charbit,Elisa Ramundo
In this book, ten prominent authors offer eleven contributions that provide their varying perspectives on the subject of consumer choice in the EU, Member States, and in the US. Various aspects of consumer choice are covered, such as the concept of freedom of choice in the application of EU competition law; the antitrust enforcement application of consumer choice by agencies; the historical origin of consumer choice as a concept grounded in German ordoliberalism; the economic approach adopted as well as the use of consumer welfare and consumer choice in EU competition law to reconcile it with intellectual property law; consumer choice as a mean to facilitate convergence between US antitrust law and EU competition law, etc. This volume offers readers an exhaustive and multifaceted discussion of the crucial concept of consumer choice and its relevance for modern competition law.
How Markets Manipulate Us and What the Law Can Do about It
Author: Adrian Kuenzler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Business & Economics
In today's highly concentrated marketplaces, social and cultural values--such as the lifestyle connotations that manufacturers and sellers confer upon their goods--often shape consumers' prior beliefs and attitudes and affect the weight given to new information by consumers who make purchasing decisions in the marketplace. Such consumer goods present the largely unexplored problem of contemporary market regulatory theory according to which an increased amount of product differentiation has rendered everyday purchasing decisions such as the choice between an iPhone or a Samsung Galaxy Note as much a matter of personal identity rather than merely one of tangible product attributes. The basic challenge for market regulators and courts in such an environment is to make markets work effectively by providing a more efficient exchange of information about consumer preferences relating to tangible product features, functions, and quality. This book demonstrates that improved legal policy can assist consumers and increase market efficiency. It acknowledges that once particular beliefs held by consumers have become culturally or socially entrenched, they are very difficult to change. What is more, changing such beliefs is no longer simply a matter of educating people through the provision of additional information. Developing a novel framework through a detailed analysis of case law relating to consumer goods markets, this book delivers an accessible introduction to the law and economics of consumer decision-making, and a forceful critique of contemporary market regulatory policy.
A New Intellectual History of Neoliberalism
Author: Niklas Olsen
Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
This book presents a new intellectual history of neoliberalism through the exploration of the sovereign consumer. Invented by neoliberal thinkers in the interwar period, this figure has been crucial to the construction and legimitization of neoliberal ideology and politics.Analysis of the sovereign consumer across time and space demonstrates how neoliberals have linked the figure both to the idea of democracy as a method of choice, and also to a re-invention of the market as the democratic forum par excellence. Moreover, Olsen contemplates how the sovereign consumer has served to marketize politics and functioned as a major driver in a wide-ranging transformation in political thinking, subjecting traditional political values to the narrow pursuit of economic growth. A politically timely project, The Sovereign Consumer will have a wide appeal in academic circles, especially for those interested in consumer and welfare studies, and in political, economic and cultural thought in the twentieth century.
Author: Barry Rodger,Angus Macculloch
Competition Law and Policy in the EU and UK provides a focused guide to the main provisions and policies at issue in the EU and UK, including topics such as enforcement, abuse of dominance, anti-competitive agreements, cartels, mergers, and market investigations. The book’s contents are tailored to cover all major topics in competition law teaching, and the authors’ clear and accessible writing style offers an engaging and easy to follow overview of the subject for course use. The fifth edition provides a full update for this well-established title, presenting and contextualising the impact of key cases, as well as changes to enforcement practice, and at a legislative and institutional level. There are new, separate chapters in this edition on private enforcement and UK market investigations to reflect the increasing significance of these key areas of competition law practice. Competition Law and Policy in the EU and UK integrates useful pedagogical features to help clarify topics and reinforce important points: chapter overviews and summaries highlight the key points to take away from each chapter to structure student learning discussion questions facilitate self-testing and seminar discussions of the major issues covered in each chapter, to help reinforce understanding of these topics further reading lists additional resources in order to guide research and develop subject knowledge a new glossary provides succinct explanations of competition law terminology, ideal for those studying the topic for the first time Clear, focused and student-friendly, this title offers a comprehensive resource for students taking competition law courses, and is supported online by updates to the law offered on Angus MacCulloch’s blog, Who’s Competing (http://whoscompeting.wordpress.com/).
Author: Andrea Lista
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Competition law is a complex and constantly evolving area of law which affects every aspect of the market economy, including the financial services sector. This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the application of the EU competition rules to banking and insurance industries. This book is divided into two parts: the first part explores the application of Articles 101, 102 and 107 TFEU to the insurance industry. Emphasis is placed on recent changes which have progressively eroded the block exemption regime that traditionally benefited the insurance industry. In the second part of the book, focus is on the application of the Articles of TFEU to the banking industry, with specific reference to card payment systems, which give rise to some of the most intricate antitrust issues in the financial services sector. Relevant Commission decisions and European Court of Justice case law are discussed and suggestions are made for an alternative regulatory framework through comparative analysis of US regulations. This book will be an invaluable reference point for legal practitioners specialising in EU Competition law, as well as postgraduate students and academic researchers working in competition law and the financial services sector.
Author: Pia Letto-Vanamo,Jan Smits
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
One of the most important characteristics of today’s private law is that it increasingly flows from different sources: Next to national legislation and case law, it is also shaped by European and supranational sources and rapidly becoming a mixture of differently oriented rules and principles. This development can be described as one from coherence to fragmentation. The aim of the new book is to consider how this important shift has worked out in different subfields of the law like in contract and property law, in competition, insurance, marketing and private international law as well as in the law of intellectual property. This cross-disciplinary approach shows how pervasive legal fragmentation has become, and points out how to remedy the adverse effects it brings with it. The volume is therefore indispensable for anyone interested in how Europeanisation affects national private laws.
Author: Robert H. Bork
Publisher: Free Press
Since it first appeared in 1978, this seminal work by one of the foremost American legal minds of our age has dramatically changed the way the courts view government's role in private affairs. Now reissued with a new introduction and epilogue by the author, this classic shows how antitrust suits adversely affect the consumer by encouraging a costly form of protection for inefficient and uncompetitive small businesses. Robert Bork's view of antitrust law has had a profound impact on how the law has been both interpreted and applied. The Antitrust Paradox illustrates how the purpose and integrity of law can be subverted by those who do not understand the reality law addresses or who seek to make it serve unintended political and social ends. - Back cover.
Competition Policy for the Twenty-first Century
Author: Andrew I. Gavil,Harry First
Publisher: MIT Press
A comprehensive account of the decades-long, multiple antitrust actions against Microsoft and an assessment of the effectiveness of antitrust law in the digital age.
Author: Femi Alese
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
This book provides the reader with a comprehensive analysis of US Federal Antitrust and EC Competition Law. It is encyclopaedic in coverage: examining every constituent element of the law and landmark decisions from the perspectives of economics and policy goals, explaining their implications for commercial operations and advocating policy reforms where necessary.
Author: Josef Drexl,Warren S. Grimes,Clifford A. Jones
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
'This volume contains many excellent chapters on some of the most cutting edge topics in competition law today. Among the contributions are assessments of new approaches to competition law analysis, analyses of central and controversial topics in the relationship between competition law and intellectual property, and explorations of new transnational developments in China and elsewhere. The chapters range from studies of specific cases to broad interpretations of major trends. I found many of them to be highly insightful and very useful.' – David J. Gerber, Chicago-Kent College of Law, US 'This fresh collection of essays by scholars from around the world lives up to its title: it stakes out more common ground for the competition law systems of nations. The chapters result from the fourth annual conference of the Academic Society for Competition Law (ASCOLA). The essays cover major issues that reverberate around the world today, including: How should we think about the economic foundations of competition law in view of new research on behavioral economics and consumer choice? What is the future of the treatment of resale price maintenance? What is the proper fit of intellectual property with competition law? And how do we promote competition law and policy across borders? The collection offers insight from law, economics, political science, business strategy, and history.' – Eleanor Fox, New York University, US In recent years, an impressive proliferation of competition laws has been seen around the world. Whilst this development may lead to greater diversity of approaches, economic arguments may promote convergence. The contributions to this book look at a number of most topical issues by asking whether the competition world is turning more towards convergence or diversity. These issues include, among others, the changing role of economics in times of economic crises and political change, the introduction of criminal sanctions, resale-price maintenance, unilateral conduct and the application of competition law to intellectual property and state-owned enterprises. More Common Ground for International Competition Law will appeal to academics, PhD students, and postgraduate students law and economics, members of competition agencies, legal practice and international business.
Reconciling Individual Liberty With The Common Good
Author: Richard A. Epstein,A Epstein
Category: Political Science
The country's leading libertarian scholar sets forth the essential principles for a legal system that best balances individual liberty versus the common good.
A Retrospective Analysis of U.S. Policy
Author: John Kwoka
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Business & Economics
In recent decades, antitrust investigations and cases targeting mergers -- including those involving Google, Ticketmaster, and much of the domestic airline industry -- have reshaped industries and changed business practices profoundly. And yet there has been a relative dearth of detailed evaluations of the effects of mergers and the effectiveness of merger policy. In this book, John Kwoka, a noted authority on industrial organization, examines all reliable empirical studies of the effect of specific mergers and develops entirely new information about the policies and remedies of antitrust agencies regarding these mergers. Combined with data on outcomes, this policy information enables analysis of, and creates new insights into, mergers, merger policies, and the effectiveness of remedies in preventing anticompetitive outcomes.After an overview of mergers, merger policy, and a common approach to merger analysis, Kwoka offers a detailed analysis of the studied mergers, relevant policies, and chosen remedies. Kwoka finds, first and foremost, that most of the studied mergers resulted in competitive harm, usually in the form of higher product prices but also with respect to various non-price outcomes. Other important findings include the fact that joint ventures and code sharing arrangements do not result in such harm and that policies intended to remedy mergers -- especially conduct remedies -- are not generally effective in restraining price increases. The book's uniquely comprehensive analysis advances our understanding of merger decisions and policies, suggests policy improvements for competition agencies and remedies, and points the way to future research.
A Synthesis of Eu and National Leading Cases
Author: Nicolas Charbit
This 3rd edition of the Competition Law Digest provides a synthesis of EU and national leading antitrust cases from 1990 to 2016. The book is structured in two parts: Part I deals with competition rules in general (cartels, unilateral practices, mergers...), whereas Part II is dedicated to specific sectors (automobile, energy, insurance, sports...). The Digest is to date the sole publication which allows lawyers, economists, in-house counsels, academics, and government officials to draw comparisons between competition case law and policies in the EU and in the Member States, and, in some instances, US antitrust law. This is an essential guide to learn about the most recent competition law trends.
A New Standard for American Dining
Author: Saru Jayaraman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Business & Economics
A restaurant critic can tell you about the chef. A menu can tell you about the farm-sourced ingredients. Now who's going to tell you about the people preparing your meal? From James Beard Leadership Award winner Saru Jayaraman, Forked is an enlightening examination of what we don't talk about when we talk about restaurants: Is the line cook working through a case of stomach flu because he doesn't get paid sick days? Is the busser not being promoted because he speaks with an accent? Is the server tolerating sexual harassment because tips are her only income? As most corporate restaurants continue to set low standards for worker wages and benefits, a new class of chefs and restaurateurs is working to foster sustainability in their food and their employees. Forked offers an insider's view of the highest--and lowest--scoring restaurants for worker pay and benefits in each sector of the restaurant industry, and with it, a new way of thinking about how and where we eat.
Author: Oda Essens,Anna Gerbrandy,S. A. C. M. Lavrijssen-Heijmans
Publisher: Europa Law Publishing
From a comparative perspective, this book deals with the question of the impact of European law, especially the Tetra Laval case-law, on the standard of review applied by national courts in the area of competition law and economic regulation. The book is a follow-up to the conference on 'Judicial review in competition law and economic regulation, ' held by the Europa Institute at Utrecht on May 23-24, 2008. It contains contributions by academics and practitioners from EU Member States and from European institutions. The book analyzes the differences and the similarities between the crucial concepts related to judicial review and the way judicial review functions in practice in different EU Member States. It examines the question as to whether a more common approach towards judicial review is needed, and if so, how this can be achieved
Safeguarding the Consumer Interest : a Comparative Analysis of US Antitrust Law and EC Competition Law
Author: Eugène Buttigieg
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Although it is commonly assumed that consumers benefit from the application of competition law, this is not necessarily always the case. Economic efficiency is paramount; thus, competition law in Europe and antitrust law in the United States are designed primarily to protect business competitors (and in Europe to promote market integration), and it is only incidentally that such law may also serve to protect consumers. That is the essential starting point of this penetrating critique. The author explores the extent to which US antitrust law and EC competition law adequately safeguard consumer interests. Specifically, he shows how the two jurisdictions have gone about evaluating collusive practices, abusive conduct by dominant firms and merger activity, and how the policies thus formed have impacted upon the promotion of consumer interests. He argues that unless consumer interests are directly and specifically addressed in the assessment process, maximization of consumer welfare is not sufficiently achieved. Using rigorous analysis he develops legal arguments that can accomplish such goals as the following: replace the economic theory of 'consumer welfare' with a principle of consumer well-being; build consumer benefits into specific areas of competition policy; assess competition cases so that income distribution effects are more beneficial to consumers; and control mergers in such a way that efficiencies are passed directly to consumers. The author argues that, in the last analysis, the promotion of consumer well-being should be the sole or at least the primary goal of any antitrust regime. Lawyers and scholars interested in the application and development and reform of competition law and policy will welcome this book. They will find not only a fresh approach to interpretation and practice in their field - comparing and contrasting two major systems of competition law - but also an extremely lucid analysis of the various economic arguments used to highlight the consumer welfare enhancing or welfare reducing effects of business practices.
Author: Mihail Danov,Florian Becker,Paul Beaumont
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
This book, written within the framework of a research project funded by the European Commission Civil Justice Programme, identifies the ways in which cross-border EU competition law actions can best be handled in Europe. Employing traditional library-based legal research methods as well as qualitative interviews with legal practitioners in Germany and England (countries sharing different legal traditions) and policy-makers in Brussels, the book considers how private EU competition law actions are functioning at the moment and how they could and should be developed. The study proposes solutions for some of the most pressing practical problems, and includes chapters by the following academics, legal practitioners and judges: Judge I PelikÃ¡novÃ¡ (General Court of the EU); J Lawrence and A Morfey (Freshfields); P Lasok QC (Monckton Chambers); H Mercer QC (Essex Court Chambers); J Webber (Shearman & Sterling); T Reher (CMS Hasche Sigle, Germany); P Bos and J MÃ¶hlmann (BarentsKrans, the Netherlands); P Beaumont (Aberdeen); S Bariatti (Milan); G Howells (Manchester); D Fairgrieve (BIICL); J Fitchen (Aberdeen); A Andreangeli (Edinburgh); D Tzakas (Athens Bar, Greece); S Dnes (Sidley Austin, Brussels); F Becker and J Kammin (Kiel University, Germany); and M Danov (Brunel University).
Author: Ariel Ezrachi,Maurice E. Stucke
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Ariel Ezrachi and Maurice Stucke take a hard look at today’s app-assisted paradise of digital shopping. The algorithms and data-crunching that make online purchasing so convenient are also changing the nature of the market by shifting power into the hands of the few, with risks to competition, our democratic ideals, and our overall well-being.
Author: Katalin Judit Cseres
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
The assumption that competition law and consumer protection are mutually reinforcing is rarely challenged. The theory seems uncontroversial. However, because a positive interaction between the two is presumed to be self-evident, the frequent conflicts that do in fact arise are often dealt with on an ad hoc basis, with no overarching legal authority. There is a clear need for a detailed and coherent understanding of exactly where the complements and tensions between the two policy areas exist. Dr Cseres in-depth analysis provides that understanding. Proceeding from the dual perspective of law and economics that is, of justice, fairness, and reasonableness on the one hand, and of efficiency of the other she fully considers such underlying issues as the following: the role of competition law and consumer law in a free market economy; the notion of consumer welfare; the effect of the modernisation of EC competition law for consumers; economics theories of information, bounded rationality, and transaction costs; the special significance of vertical agreements and merger control; and, how consumers are affected by information asymmetries. The ultimate focus of the book is on current and emerging EC law, in which a rapprochement between the two areas seems to be under way. Dr. Cseres provides a knowledgeable guide to the various strands of theory, policy, and jurisprudence that (she shows) ought to be taken into account in the process, including schools of thought and law and policy experience in both Europe and the United States. A special chapter on Hungary, where post-1989 law and practice reveal a fresh and distinctly forward-looking understanding of the matter, is one of the book's most extraordinary features. Competition Law and Consumer Protection stands alone as a committed contribution to bridging a gap in legal knowledge the significance of which grows daily. It will be of immeasurable value to a wide range of professionals from academics and researchers to officials, policymakers, and practitioners in competition law, consumer protection advocacy, economic theory and planning, business administration, and various pertinent government authorities.
Law and Economic Approaches
Author: Pinar Akman
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The objective(s) of Article 102 TFEU, what exactly makes a practice abusive and the standard of harm under Article 102 TFEU have not yet been settled. This lack of clarity creates uncertainty for businesses and, coupled with the current state of economics in this area, raises an important question of legitimacy. Using law and economic approaches, this book inquires into the possible objectives of Article 102 TFEU and proposes a modern approach to interpreting 'abuse'. In doing so, this book establishes an overarching concept of 'abuse' that conforms to the historical roots of the provision, to the text of the provision itself, and to modern economic thinking on unilateral conduct. This book therefore inquires into what Article 102 TFEU is about, what it can be about and what it should be about regarding both objectives and scope. The book demonstrates that the separation of exploitative abuse from exclusionary abuse is artificial and unsound. It examines the roots of Article 102 TFEU and the historical context of the adoption of the Treaty, the case law, policy and literature on exploitative abuses and, where relevant, on exclusionary abuses. The book investigates potential objectives, such as fairness and welfare, as well as the potential conflict between such objectives. Finally, it critically assesses the European Commission's modernisation of Article 102 TFEU, before proposing a reformed approach to 'abuse' which is centred on three necessary and sufficient conditions: exploitation, exclusion and a lack of an increase in efficiency.