Classical Descriptive Set Theory

Author: Alexander Kechris

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461241901

Category: Mathematics

Page: 404

View: 2142

Descriptive set theory has been one of the main areas of research in set theory for almost a century. This text presents a largely balanced approach to the subject, which combines many elements of the different traditions. It includes a wide variety of examples, more than 400 exercises, and applications, in order to illustrate the general concepts and results of the theory.

Descriptive Set Theory

Author: Yiannis N. Moschovakis

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821848135

Category: Mathematics

Page: 502

View: 8200

Descriptive Set Theory is the study of sets in separable, complete metric spaces that can be defined (or constructed), and so can be expected to have special properties not enjoyed by arbitrary pointsets. This subject was started by the French analysts at the turn of the 20th century, most prominently Lebesgue, and, initially, was concerned primarily with establishing regularity properties of Borel and Lebesgue measurable functions, and analytic, coanalytic, and projective sets. Its rapid development came to a halt in the late 1930s, primarily because it bumped against problems which were independent of classical axiomatic set theory. The field became very active again in the 1960s, with the introduction of strong set-theoretic hypotheses and methods from logic (especially recursion theory), which revolutionized it. This monograph develops Descriptive Set Theory systematically, from its classical roots to the modern ``effective'' theory and the consequences of strong (especially determinacy) hypotheses. The book emphasizes the foundations of the subject, and it sets the stage for the dramatic results (established since the 1980s) relating large cardinals and determinacy or allowing applications of Descriptive Set Theory to classical mathematics. The book includes all the necessary background from (advanced) set theory, logic and recursion theory.

Discovering Modern Set Theory: The basics

Author: Winfried Just,Martin Weese

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821802666

Category: Mathematics

Page: 210

View: 1872

This book is an introduction to set theory for beginning graduate students who want to get a sound grounding in those aspects of set theory used extensively throughout other areas of mathematics. Topics covered include formal languages and models, the power and limitation of the Axiomatic Method, the Axiom of Choice, including the fascinating Banach-Tarski Paradox, applications of Zorn's Lemma, ordinal arithmetic, including transfinite induction, and cardinal arithmetic. The style of writing, more a dialogue with the reader than that of the Master indoctrinating the pupil, makes this also very suitable for self-study.

Combinatorial Set Theory

With a Gentle Introduction to Forcing

Author: Lorenz J. Halbeisen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781447121732

Category: Mathematics

Page: 456

View: 1997

This book provides a self-contained introduction to modern set theory and also opens up some more advanced areas of current research in this field. The first part offers an overview of classical set theory wherein the focus lies on the axiom of choice and Ramsey theory. In the second part, the sophisticated technique of forcing, originally developed by Paul Cohen, is explained in great detail. With this technique, one can show that certain statements, like the continuum hypothesis, are neither provable nor disprovable from the axioms of set theory. In the last part, some topics of classical set theory are revisited and further developed in the light of forcing. The notes at the end of each chapter put the results in a historical context, and the numerous related results and the extensive list of references lead the reader to the frontier of research. This book will appeal to all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics, but will be of particular use to graduates in this field.

A Course in the Theory of Groups

Author: Derek Robinson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468401289

Category: Mathematics

Page: 481

View: 599

" A group is defined by means of the laws of combinations of its symbols," according to a celebrated dictum of Cayley. And this is probably still as good a one-line explanation as any. The concept of a group is surely one of the central ideas of mathematics. Certainly there are a few branches of that science in which groups are not employed implicitly or explicitly. Nor is the use of groups confined to pure mathematics. Quantum theory, molecular and atomic structure, and crystallography are just a few of the areas of science in which the idea of a group as a measure of symmetry has played an important part. The theory of groups is the oldest branch of modern algebra. Its origins are to be found in the work of Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813), Paulo Ruffini (1765-1822), and Evariste Galois (1811-1832) on the theory of algebraic equations. Their groups consisted of permutations of the variables or of the roots of polynomials, and indeed for much of the nineteenth century all groups were finite permutation groups. Nevertheless many of the fundamental ideas of group theory were introduced by these early workers and their successors, Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857), Ludwig Sylow (1832-1918), Camille Jordan (1838-1922) among others. The concept of an abstract group is clearly recognizable in the work of Arthur Cayley (1821-1895) but it did not really win widespread acceptance until Walther von Dyck (1856-1934) introduced presentations of groups.

Invariant Descriptive Set Theory

Author: Su Gao

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781584887942

Category: Mathematics

Page: 392

View: 6988

Presents Results from a Very Active Area of Research Exploring an active area of mathematics that studies the complexity of equivalence relations and classification problems, Invariant Descriptive Set Theory presents an introduction to the basic concepts, methods, and results of this theory. It brings together techniques from various areas of mathematics, such as algebra, topology, and logic, which have diverse applications to other fields. After reviewing classical and effective descriptive set theory, the text studies Polish groups and their actions. It then covers Borel reducibility results on Borel, orbit, and general definable equivalence relations. The author also provides proofs for numerous fundamental results, such as the Glimm–Effros dichotomy, the Burgess trichotomy theorem, and the Hjorth turbulence theorem. The next part describes connections with the countable model theory of infinitary logic, along with Scott analysis and the isomorphism relation on natural classes of countable models, such as graphs, trees, and groups. The book concludes with applications to classification problems and many benchmark equivalence relations. By illustrating the relevance of invariant descriptive set theory to other fields of mathematics, this self-contained book encourages readers to further explore this very active area of research.

Dynamics of Linear Operators

Author: Frédéric Bayart,Étienne Matheron

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521514967

Category: Mathematics

Page: 337

View: 1312

The first book to assemble the wide body of theory which has rapidly developed on the dynamics of linear operators. Written for researchers in operator theory, but also accessible to anyone with a reasonable background in functional analysis at the graduate level.

Evolving Computability

11th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2015, Bucharest, Romania, June 29-July 3, 2015. Proceedings

Author: Arnold Beckmann,Victor Mitrana,Mariya Soskova

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319200283

Category: Computers

Page: 363

View: 7470

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2015, held in Bucharest, Romania, in June/July 2015. The 26 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 64 submissions and included together with 10 invited papers in this proceedings. The conference CiE 2015 has six special sessions: two sessions, Representing Streams and Reverse Mathematics, were introduced for the first time in the conference series. In addition to this, new developments in areas frequently covered in the CiE conference series were addressed in the further special sessions on Automata, Logic and Infinite Games; Bio-inspired Computation; Classical Computability Theory; as well as History and Philosophy of Computing.

Handbook of Set Theory

Author: Matthew Foreman,Akihiro Kanamori

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402057644

Category: Mathematics

Page: 2230

View: 7999

Numbers imitate space, which is of such a di?erent nature —Blaise Pascal It is fair to date the study of the foundation of mathematics back to the ancient Greeks. The urge to understand and systematize the mathematics of the time led Euclid to postulate axioms in an early attempt to put geometry on a ?rm footing. With roots in the Elements, the distinctive methodology of mathematics has become proof. Inevitably two questions arise: What are proofs? and What assumptions are proofs based on? The ?rst question, traditionally an internal question of the ?eld of logic, was also wrestled with in antiquity. Aristotle gave his famous syllogistic s- tems, and the Stoics had a nascent propositional logic. This study continued with ?ts and starts, through Boethius, the Arabs and the medieval logicians in Paris and London. The early germs of logic emerged in the context of philosophy and theology. The development of analytic geometry, as exempli?ed by Descartes, ill- tratedoneofthedi?cultiesinherentinfoundingmathematics. Itisclassically phrased as the question ofhow one reconciles the arithmetic with the geom- ric. Arenumbers onetypeofthingand geometricobjectsanother? Whatare the relationships between these two types of objects? How can they interact? Discovery of new types of mathematical objects, such as imaginary numbers and, much later, formal objects such as free groups and formal power series make the problem of ?nding a common playing ?eld for all of mathematics importunate. Several pressures made foundational issues urgent in the 19th century.

Topics in Orbit Equivalence

Author: Alexander Kechris,Benjamin D. Miller

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540445080

Category: Mathematics

Page: 138

View: 3021

This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

Ramsey Theory for Product Spaces

Author: Pandelis Dodos,Vassilis Kanellopoulos

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470428083

Category: Combinatorial analysis

Page: 245

View: 9489

Ramsey theory is a dynamic area of combinatorics that has various applications in analysis, ergodic theory, logic, number theory, probability theory, theoretical computer science, and topological dynamics. This book is devoted to one of the most important areas of Ramsey theory—the Ramsey theory of product spaces. It is a culmination of a series of recent breakthroughs by the two authors and their students who were able to lift this theory to the infinite-dimensional case. The book presents many major results and methods in the area, such as Szemerédi's regularity method, the hypergraph removal lemma, and the density Hales–Jewett theorem. This book addresses researchers in combinatorics but also working mathematicians and advanced graduate students who are interested in Ramsey theory. The prerequisites for reading this book are rather minimal: it only requires familiarity, at the graduate level, with probability theory and real analysis. Some familiarity with the basics of Ramsey theory would be beneficial, though not necessary.

A Course on Borel Sets

Author: S.M. Srivastava

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642854737

Category: Mathematics

Page: 0

View: 1451

The roots of Borel sets go back to the work of Baire [8]. He was trying to come to grips with the abstract notion of a function introduced by Dirich let and Riemann. According to them, a function was to be an arbitrary correspondence between objects without giving any method or procedure by which the correspondence could be established. Since all the specific functions that one studied were determined by simple analytic expressions, Baire delineated those functions that can be constructed starting from con tinuous functions and iterating the operation 0/ pointwise limit on a se quence 0/ functions. These functions are now known as Baire functions. Lebesgue [65] and Borel [19] continued this work. In [19], Borel sets were defined for the first time. In his paper, Lebesgue made a systematic study of Baire functions and introduced many tools and techniques that are used even today. Among other results, he showed that Borel functions coincide with Baire functions. The study of Borel sets got an impetus from an error in Lebesgue's paper, which was spotted by Souslin. Lebesgue was trying to prove the following: Suppose / : )R2 -- R is a Baire function such that for every x, the equation /(x,y) = 0 has a. unique solution. Then y as a function 0/ x defined by the above equation is Baire.

Set theory

recent trends and applications

Author: Alessandro Andretta,II Università di Napoli. Dipartimento di matematica

Publisher: N.A


Category: Mathematics

Page: 239

View: 5434

Fundamentals of Mathematical Logic

Author: Peter G. Hinman

Publisher: A K Peters/CRC Press

ISBN: 9781568812625

Category: Mathematics

Page: 896

View: 4188

This introductory graduate text covers modern mathematical logic from propositional, first-order and infinitary logic and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems to extensive introductions to set theory, model theory and recursion (computability) theory. Based on the author's more than 35 years of teaching experience, the book develops students' intuition by presenting complex ideas in the simplest context for which they make sense. The book is appropriate for use as a classroom text, for self-study, and as a reference on the state of modern logic.

Set Theory An Introduction To Independence Proofs

Author: K. Kunen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080570585

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 7452

Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Volume 102: Set Theory: An Introduction to Independence Proofs offers an introduction to relative consistency proofs in axiomatic set theory, including combinatorics, sets, trees, and forcing. The book first tackles the foundations of set theory and infinitary combinatorics. Discussions focus on the Suslin problem, Martin's axiom, almost disjoint and quasi-disjoint sets, trees, extensionality and comprehension, relations, functions, and well-ordering, ordinals, cardinals, and real numbers. The manuscript then ponders on well-founded sets and easy consistency proofs, including relativization, absoluteness, reflection theorems, properties of well-founded sets, and induction and recursion on well-founded relations. The publication examines constructible sets, forcing, and iterated forcing. Topics include Easton forcing, general iterated forcing, Cohen model, forcing with partial functions of larger cardinality, forcing with finite partial functions, and general extensions. The manuscript is a dependable source of information for mathematicians and researchers interested in set theory.

Set Theory and Its Applications

Annual Boise Extravaganza in Set Theory, Boise, Idaho, 1995-2010

Author: Liljana Babinkostova

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821848127

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 3866

This book consists of several survey and research papers covering a wide range of topics in active areas of set theory and set theoretic topology. Some of the articles present, for the first time in print, knowledge that has been around for several years and known intimately to only a few experts. The surveys bring the reader up to date on the latest information in several areas that have been surveyed a decade or more ago. Topics covered in the volume include combinatorial and descriptive set theory, determinacy, iterated forcing, Ramsey theory, selection principles, set-theoretic topology, and universality, among others. Graduate students and researchers in logic, especially set theory, descriptive set theory, and set-theoretic topology, will find this book to be a very valuable reference.

Statistics & Decisions

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A


Category: Mathematical statistics

Page: N.A

View: 2260