Cold War Energy

A Transnational History of Soviet Oil and Gas

Author: Jeronim Perović

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319495321

Category: History

Page: 425

View: 4941

This book examines the role of Soviet energy during the Cold War. Based on hitherto little known documents from Western and Eastern European archives, it combines the story of Soviet oil and gas with general Cold War history. This volume breaks new ground by framing Soviet energy in a multi-national context, taking into account not only the view from Moscow, but also the perspectives of communist Eastern Europe, the US, NATO, as well as several Western European countries – namely Italy, France, and West Germany. This book challenges some of the long-standing assumptions of East-West bloc relations, as well as shedding new light on relations within the blocs regarding the issue of energy. By bringing together a range of junior and senior historians and specialists from Europe, Russia and the US, this book represents a pioneering endeavour to approach the role of Soviet energy during the Cold War in transnational perspective.

Cold War Energy

The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union

Author: Douglas B. Reynolds

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780692630617

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 6890

Every great empire, from the Roman to the British and to the Soviet Empire, has had, at its economic heart, an energy source that is integral to that empire's ability to produce, transport, and use goods and services. Without energy nothing can move, run, or work in any economy, particularly an imperial one. Energy is an often overlooked key to understanding economics in general and understanding the Soviet Union's remarkable economic growth in particular, from the challenging era of collectivization, to the spectacular technological era of Sputnik and to the expansionist era of Soviet-Afghan aggression. Energy is central and integral to understanding Soviet economic growth as well as our own current, Western economic growth. However, a rise and decline in available energy must be considered as a factor in the incredible rise and then decline and fall of the Soviet Union's Empire. In this book, we will look at how the Soviet Union's economy relied on energy every bit as much as our own Western-oriented economies do today and how the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) should be analyzed as a cohesive and synergetic economic/energy system, which parallels today's global, trade-oriented, Western centric economic/energy system almost exactly. The book provides an overview of the many theories that seek to explain the fall of the Soviet Union, including an energy theory, and challenges the prevailing status quo hypothesis promoted by many economists and much of academia for how the fall of the Soviet Union happened--that it was caused by a mismanaged economy. We will look at the Soviet Empire's economic history just before the collapse in order to understand how growth and decline occur in general and how it occurred in Easter Europe and Central Asia specifically. Then we will explore, in laymen's terms, standard, economic growth orthodoxy, often called neo-classical growth theory, and relate it to the rise of Soviet power. The book also goes into the theories of peak oil including the economic and physical reasons for why peak oil occurs and how it progresses.

A House in the Sun

Modern Architecture and Solar Energy in the Cold War

Author: Daniel A. Barber

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199394016

Category: Architecture

Page: 352

View: 7383

"A House in the Sun describes a number of solar house experiments in the 1940s and 1950s. The houses relied on the materials and ideas of modern architecture for both energy efficiency and claims to cultural relevance, and also developed out of a growing concern over global resource limits"--Provided by publisher.

Energy and US Foreign Policy

The Quest for Resource Security After the Cold War

Author: Ahmed Mahdi

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857730681

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 9039

The US consumes a quarter of the world’s oil, two thirds of which must be imported - a proportion which is growing every year. The quest for this precious natural resource can be seen as the defining principle of American diplomacy, an imperative which has shaped and redefined the practice of politics, especially in the wake of 9/11. In Energy and US Foreign Policy, Ahmed Mahdi relates the military expansion of the world’s biggest superpower to its quest to gain preferential access to the world’s most important commodity. Charting the links between oil, energy and foreign policy in the actions of three presidents, George Bush Sr., Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, Mahdi demonstrates how and why oil has played a central role in US relations with the wider world. Focusing on American foreign policy in the Middle East in the post-9/11 age, which has seen US military deployment in the so-called ‘war on terror’, Energy and US Foreign Policy utilizes a unique combination of policy documents, diplomatic and economic theory. Examining the intersections of energy and foreign policy in Iraq, Mahdi analyses the security concerns of the US in the Middle East, a region from which the US imports vast amounts of oil every year. Mahdi builds a compelling picture of America trying, and failing, to secure its energy supplies - with enormous and sobering consequences, as Madhi argues that Washington’s quest for oil has actually weakened and undermined its global influence and destabilised the world’s economic prosperity and security. By dissecting the failures of the US to secure its own economic and energy interests, and by demonstrating the impact this has had on the rest of the world, especially in the Middle East, Mahdi offers vital analysis for researchers and students of International Relations, Diplomacy, Security and Energy Studies, and those interested in the future of US foreign policy in the Middle East.

The Colder War

How the Global Energy Trade Slipped from America's Grasp

Author: Marin Katusa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118799941

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 6442

Describes how Putin's rise to power has led to a shift in the world's energy market and what Russia's plans for dominance in that market would mean for the United States and the other G7 countries.

Energy And Environment In The Transition Economies

Between Cold War And Global Warming

Author: William Chandler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429980442

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 8863

Energy and environmental issues in the former Soviet sphere rank as global policy priorities for three reasons. First, civilian application of military nuclear materials multiplies the threat of terrorism. Second, Russian and Caspian oil resources affect world markets, Western energy security, and regional stability. Third, climate change may become a global challenge commensurate with the Cold War, and the transition economies--the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe--offer the world's largest and cheapest near-term opportunities for curbing greenhouse gas emissions. Yet, the region remains unprepared to deal with these issues, and Western assistance has failed to help. A "second generation" of reform efforts is needed, led from within, but supported by the West. In Energy and Environmental Policies in the Transition Economies William Chandler synthesizes disparate, specialized analyses and publications. He draws on a relatively large body of research on energy technology, oil and gas markets, geopolitics, finance, economic reform, and environmental science specific to Russia, eastern Europe, and the transition economies. In successive chapters Chandler reviews energy use, energy efficiency, nuclear safety and security, petroleum geoeconomics, coal, utility monopoly and competition, and environmental and climatic change in the former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe. Chandler also considers options for a "second generation" of reform efforts. The subject matter of the book is significant not only for the energy and environmental policies themselves, important though they are, but because those policies in turn affect regional political stability and Western energy security. Energy and Environmental Policies in the Transition Economies will be of considerable interest to policymakers in government, to private-sector actors, to academic scholars, and to students of international energy and environmental politics.

Uranium

War, Energy, and the Rock That Shaped the World

Author: Tom Zoellner

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101024526

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 4884

The fascinating story of the most powerful source of energy the earth can yield Uranium is a common element in the earth's crust and the only naturally occurring mineral with the power to end all life on the planet. After World War II, it reshaped the global order-whoever could master uranium could master the world. Marie Curie gave us hope that uranium would be a miracle panacea, but the Manhattan Project gave us reason to believe that civilization would end with apocalypse. Slave labor camps in Africa and Eastern Europe were built around mine shafts and America would knowingly send more than six hundred uranium miners to their graves in the name of national security. Fortunes have been made from this yellow dirt; massive energy grids have been run from it. Fear of it panicked the American people into supporting a questionable war with Iraq and its specter threatens to create another conflict in Iran. Now, some are hoping it can help avoid a global warming catastrophe. In Uranium, Tom Zoellner takes readers around the globe in this intriguing look at the mineral that can sustain life or destroy it.

Oil Exploration, Diplomacy, and Security in the Early Cold War

The Enemy Underground

Author: Roberto Cantoni

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315531518

Category: History

Page: 308

View: 6769

The importance of oil for national military-industrial complexes appeared more clearly than ever in the Cold War. This volume argues that the confidential acquisition of geoscientific knowledge was paramount for states, not only to provide for their own energy needs, but also to buttress national economic and geostrategic interests and protect energy security. By investigating the postwar rebuilding and expansion of French and Italian oil industries from the second half of the 1940s to the early 1960s, this book shows how successive administrations in those countries devised strategies of oil exploration and transport, aiming at achieving a higher degree of energy autonomy and setting up powerful oil agencies that could implement those strategies. However, both within and outside their national territories, these two European countries had to confront the new Cold War balances and the interests of the two superpowers.

Red Gas

Russia and the Origins of European Energy Dependence

Author: P. Högselius

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137286156

Category: History

Page: 279

View: 6470

This book applies a systems and risk perspective on international energy relations, author Per Högselius investigates how and why governments, businesses, engineers and other actors sought to promote – and oppose– the establishment of an extensive East-West natural gas regime that seemed to overthrow the fundamental logic of the Cold War.

Oil, Illiberalism, and War

An Analysis of Energy and US Foreign Policy

Author: Andrew T. Price-Smith

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262029065

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 2480

An argument that America's addiction to crude oil has driven a foreign policy of intervention and exploitation hidden behind a facade of liberal internationalism.

Oil Exploration, Diplomacy, and Security in the Early Cold War

The Enemy Underground

Author: Roberto Cantoni

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315531526

Category: History

Page: 290

View: 3845

The importance of oil for national military-industrial complexes appeared more clearly than ever in the Cold War. This volume argues that the confidential acquisition of geoscientific knowledge was paramount for states, not only to provide for their own energy needs, but also to buttress national economic and geostrategic interests and protect energy security. By investigating the postwar rebuilding and expansion of French and Italian oil industries from the second half of the 1940s to the early 1960s, this book shows how successive administrations in those countries devised strategies of oil exploration and transport, aiming at achieving a higher degree of energy autonomy and setting up powerful oil agencies that could implement those strategies. However, both within and outside their national territories, these two European countries had to confront the new Cold War balances and the interests of the two superpowers.

Project Plowshare

The Peaceful Use of Nuclear Explosives in Cold War America

Author: Scott Kaufman

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801465397

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 4517

Inspired by President Dwight D. Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" speech, scientists at the Atomic Energy Commission and the University of California's Radiation Laboratory began in 1957 a program they called Plowshare. Joined by like-minded government officials, scientists, and business leaders, champions of "peaceful nuclear explosions" maintained that they could create new elements and isotopes for general use, build storage facilities for water or fuel, mine ores, increase oil and natural gas production, generate heat for power production, and construct roads, harbors, and canals. By harnessing the power of the atom for nonmilitary purposes, Plowshare backers expected to protect American security, defend U.S. legitimacy and prestige, and ensure access to energy resources. Scott Kaufman's extensive research in nearly two dozen archives in three nations shows how science, politics, and environmentalism converged to shape the lasting conflict over the use of nuclear technology. Indeed, despite technological and strategic promise, Plowshare's early champions soon found themselves facing a vocal and powerful coalition of federal and state officials, scientists, industrialists, environmentalists, and average citizens. Skeptical politicians, domestic and international pressure to stop nuclear testing, and a lack of government funding severely restricted the program. By the mid-1970s, Plowshare was, in the words of one government official, "dead as a doornail." However, the thought of using the atom for peaceful purposes remains alive.

Geopolitics

From the Cold War to the 21st Century

Author: Francis Sempa

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351517686

Category: Political Science

Page: 131

View: 6134

Writers, observers, and practitioners of international politics frequently invoke the term "geopolitics" to describe, explain, or analyze specific foreign policy issues and problems. Such generalized usage ignores the fact that geopolitics as a method of understanding international relations has a history that includes a common vocabulary, well-established if sometimes conflicting concepts, an extensive body of thought, and a recognized group of theorists and scholars. In Geopolitics, Francis P. Sempa presents a history of geopolitical thought and applies its classical analyses to Cold War and post-Cold War international relations. While mindful of the impact of such concepts as "globalization" and the "information revolution" on our understanding of contemporary events, Sempa emphasizes traditional geopolitical theories in explaining the outcome of the Cold War. He shows that, the struggle between the Western allies and the Soviet empire was unique in its ideological component and nuclear standoff, the Cold War fits into a recurring geopolitical pattern. It can be seen as a consequence of competition between land powers and sea powers, and between a potential Eurasian hegemonic power and a coalition of states opposed to that would-be hegemony. The collapse of the Soviet empire ended the most recent threat to global stability. Acting as a successor to the British Empire, the United States organized, funded, and led a grand coalition that successfully countered the Soviet quest for domination. No power or alliance posed an immediate threat to the global balance of power. Indeed, the end of the Cold War generated hopes for a "new world order" and predictions that economics would replace geopolitics as the driving force in international politics. Russian instability, the nuclear dimension of the India-Pakistan conflict, and Chinese bids for dominance have turned the Asia-Pacific region into what Mahan called "debatable and debated ground." Russi

The Origins of the Cold War in the Near East

Great Power Conflict and Diplomacy in Iran, Turkey, and Greece

Author: Bruce Robellet Kuniholm

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400855756

Category: Political Science

Page: 536

View: 4580

Bruce Kuniholm takes a regional perspective to focus on postwar diplomacy in Iran, Turkey, and Greece and efforts in these countries to maintain their independence from the Great Powers. Drawing on a wide variety of secondary sources, government documents, private papers, unpublished memoirs, and extensive interviews with key figures, he shows how the traditional struggle for power along the Northern Tier was a major factor in the origins and development of the Cold War between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Originally published in 1980. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

A Journey through the Cold War

A Memoir of Containment and Coexistence

Author: Raymond L. Garthoff

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815798521

Category: Political Science

Page: 432

View: 6069

In this memoir, Ambassador Ray Garthoff paints a dynamic diplomatic history of the cold war, tracing the life of the conflict from the vantage points of an observant insider. His intellectually formative years coincided with the earliest days of the cold war, and during his forty-year career, Garthoff participated in some of the most important policymaking of the twentieth century: • In the late 1950s he carried out pioneering research on Soviet military affairs at the Rand Corporation. • During his four-year tenure at the CIA (1957-61), in addition to drafting national intellingence estimates, Garthoff made trips to the Soviet Union with Vice President Richard Nixon and as an interpreter for a delegation from the Atomic Energy Commission. • As a special assistant in the State Department, Garthoff worked with Secretary Dean Rusk., and he was directly involved in the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Later he served as executive officer and senior State Department adviser for the strategic arms limitation talks (SALT) delegation. • In the 1970s he served as a senior Foreign Service inspector, leading missions to a number of countries around the globe. • As U.S. Ambassador to Bulgaria (1977-79), Garthoff gained first-hand knowledge of the workings of a communist state and of the Soviet bloc. • In the 1980s, Garthoff wrote two major studies of American-Soviet relations. He traveled to the Soviet Union nearly a dozen times in the final decade of the cold war, and in the early 1990s he had access to the former Soviet Communist Party archives in Moscow. Garthoff¡'s journey through the Cold War informs the views, positions, and actions of the past. His anecdotes and observations will be of great value to those anticipating the challenges of reevaluating American post-cold war security policy.

Secrets of Cold War Technology

Project HAARP and Beyond

Author: Gerry Vassilatos

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780932813800

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 3623

The death knell has struck. Wave Radio is dead. How have 70 years of Military Research succeeded in producing a completely new and superior communications technology? Radio History gives a stranger walk than paranoid writers ever tell! While citizens were watching television, military research was directed to create an amazing radiation technology far in advance of any system known. Currently and routinely utilised, it has remained a well guarded 'open secret' for decades. The proof patents and relevant research papers have just been retrieved. Facts quell hysteria, but Truth is stranger than fiction. Want the answers? The complete technical history of military projects will show the development of every relevant project preceding HAARP. Only the facts. No hysteria. Complete with communications and weapons patent citations, this book will forever change your view of world events and technology.

Competing with the Soviets

Science, Technology, and the State in Cold War America

Author: Audra J. Wolfe

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 142140771X

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 5819

For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the supposedly objective scholarly enterprise. Based on the assumption that scientists are participants in the culture in which they live, Competing with the Soviets looks beyond the debate about whether military influence distorted science in the Cold War. Scientists’ choices and opportunities have always been shaped by the ideological assumptions, political mandates, and social mores of their times. The idea that American science ever operated in a free zone outside of politics is, Wolfe argues, itself a legacy of the ideological Cold War that held up American science, and scientists, as beacons of freedom in contrast to their peers in the Soviet Union. Arranged chronologically and thematically, the book highlights how ideas about the appropriate relationships among science, scientists, and the state changed over time. -- Michael D. Gordin, Princeton University

The Cold War Reference Guide

A General History and Annotated Chronology, with Selected Biographies

Author: Richard Alan Schwartz

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476610789

Category: History

Page: 327

View: 5638

For over forty years much of the world was held captive by a conflict between two wholly incompatible economic ideologies--capitalism and communism--and the two primary superpower countries who practiced them, the United States and the Soviet Union. Written in accessible language for readers with little or no previous knowledge about the subject, this work is first a general history of the Cold War, with an overview of its root causes and the policies and theories that were in place from 1947 through 1990. A thoroughly annotated chronology of important Cold War events follows. Short biographies of some of the major United States political figures and world leaders conclude the work.

NSC 68 and the Political Economy of the Early Cold War

Author: Curt Cardwell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139498231

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 3347

NSC 68 and the Political Economy of the Early Cold War re-examines the origins and implementation of NSC 68, the massive rearmament program that the United States embarked upon beginning in the summer of 1950. Curt Cardwell reinterprets the origins of NSC 68 to demonstrate that the aim of the program was less about containing communism than ensuring the survival of the nascent postwar global economy, upon which rested postwar US prosperity. The book challenges most studies on NSC 68 as a document of geostrategy and argues instead that it is more correctly understood as a document rooted in concerns for the US domestic political economy.

Stalin and the Bomb

The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956

Author: David Holloway

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300066647

Category: Political Science

Page: 464

View: 1818

'Stalin and the Bomb' represents a comprehensive history of Soviet nuclear policy, from developments in physics in the 1920s to the emergence of nuclear deterrence in the 1950s. The author looks at how the bombs were built, and the role that espionage played.