Cold War Energy

A Transnational History of Soviet Oil and Gas

Author: Jeronim Perović

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319495321

Category: History

Page: 425

View: 344

This book examines the role of Soviet energy during the Cold War. Based on hitherto little known documents from Western and Eastern European archives, it combines the story of Soviet oil and gas with general Cold War history. This volume breaks new ground by framing Soviet energy in a multi-national context, taking into account not only the view from Moscow, but also the perspectives of communist Eastern Europe, the US, NATO, as well as several Western European countries – namely Italy, France, and West Germany. This book challenges some of the long-standing assumptions of East-West bloc relations, as well as shedding new light on relations within the blocs regarding the issue of energy. By bringing together a range of junior and senior historians and specialists from Europe, Russia and the US, this book represents a pioneering endeavour to approach the role of Soviet energy during the Cold War in transnational perspective.

Cold War Energy

The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union

Author: Douglas B. Reynolds

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780692630617


Page: N.A

View: 6839

Every great empire, from the Roman to the British and to the Soviet Empire, has had, at its economic heart, an energy source that is integral to that empire's ability to produce, transport, and use goods and services. Without energy nothing can move, run, or work in any economy, particularly an imperial one. Energy is an often overlooked key to understanding economics in general and understanding the Soviet Union's remarkable economic growth in particular, from the challenging era of collectivization, to the spectacular technological era of Sputnik and to the expansionist era of Soviet-Afghan aggression. Energy is central and integral to understanding Soviet economic growth as well as our own current, Western economic growth. However, a rise and decline in available energy must be considered as a factor in the incredible rise and then decline and fall of the Soviet Union's Empire. In this book, we will look at how the Soviet Union's economy relied on energy every bit as much as our own Western-oriented economies do today and how the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) should be analyzed as a cohesive and synergetic economic/energy system, which parallels today's global, trade-oriented, Western centric economic/energy system almost exactly. The book provides an overview of the many theories that seek to explain the fall of the Soviet Union, including an energy theory, and challenges the prevailing status quo hypothesis promoted by many economists and much of academia for how the fall of the Soviet Union happened--that it was caused by a mismanaged economy. We will look at the Soviet Empire's economic history just before the collapse in order to understand how growth and decline occur in general and how it occurred in Easter Europe and Central Asia specifically. Then we will explore, in laymen's terms, standard, economic growth orthodoxy, often called neo-classical growth theory, and relate it to the rise of Soviet power. The book also goes into the theories of peak oil including the economic and physical reasons for why peak oil occurs and how it progresses.

Aufstieg zur Energiemacht

Der sowjetische Weg ins Erdölzeitalter, 1930er bis 1950er Jahre

Author: Felix Rehschuh

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 3412504319

Category: History

Page: 373

View: 1188

Russland zählt seit Jahrzehnten zu den führenden Produzenten, Verbrauchern und Exporteuren von Erdöl und anderen fossilen Energieträgern. Besonders für die brennstoffarmen europäischen Volkswirtschaften ist der östliche Nachbar deshalb von essentieller Bedeutung. Doch obwohl schon das Zarenreich als gewichtiger Erdölexporteur auftrat und die Bolschewiki dieses Erbe bereitwillig antraten, fristete der Energieträger in der Sowjetunion lange Zeit ein Nischendasein. Erst die Entwicklungen der späten 1940er Jahre gaben die entscheidenden Impulse, den Weg ins Erdölzeitalter endgültig zu beschreiten. Dieses Buch thematisiert aus der Perspektive der Moskauer Machtzentralen die wenig beleuchtete, aber entscheidende Phase sowjetischer Energiepolitik zwischen 1938 und 1953. Im Kontext innenpolitischer und internationaler Entwicklungen fragt es nach den Hintergründen des sowjetischen Aufstiegs zur globalen Energiemacht.

Oil Exploration, Diplomacy, and Security in the Early Cold War

The Enemy Underground

Author: Roberto Cantoni

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315531526

Category: History

Page: 290

View: 2162

The importance of oil for national military-industrial complexes appeared more clearly than ever in the Cold War. This volume argues that the confidential acquisition of geoscientific knowledge was paramount for states, not only to provide for their own energy needs, but also to buttress national economic and geostrategic interests and protect energy security. By investigating the postwar rebuilding and expansion of French and Italian oil industries from the second half of the 1940s to the early 1960s, this book shows how successive administrations in those countries devised strategies of oil exploration and transport, aiming at achieving a higher degree of energy autonomy and setting up powerful oil agencies that could implement those strategies. However, both within and outside their national territories, these two European countries had to confront the new Cold War balances and the interests of the two superpowers.

Energy And Environment In The Transition Economies

Between Cold War And Global Warming

Author: William Chandler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429980442

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 9866

Energy and environmental issues in the former Soviet sphere rank as global policy priorities for three reasons. First, civilian application of military nuclear materials multiplies the threat of terrorism. Second, Russian and Caspian oil resources affect world markets, Western energy security, and regional stability. Third, climate change may become a global challenge commensurate with the Cold War, and the transition economies--the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe--offer the world's largest and cheapest near-term opportunities for curbing greenhouse gas emissions. Yet, the region remains unprepared to deal with these issues, and Western assistance has failed to help. A "second generation" of reform efforts is needed, led from within, but supported by the West. In Energy and Environmental Policies in the Transition Economies William Chandler synthesizes disparate, specialized analyses and publications. He draws on a relatively large body of research on energy technology, oil and gas markets, geopolitics, finance, economic reform, and environmental science specific to Russia, eastern Europe, and the transition economies. In successive chapters Chandler reviews energy use, energy efficiency, nuclear safety and security, petroleum geoeconomics, coal, utility monopoly and competition, and environmental and climatic change in the former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe. Chandler also considers options for a "second generation" of reform efforts. The subject matter of the book is significant not only for the energy and environmental policies themselves, important though they are, but because those policies in turn affect regional political stability and Western energy security. Energy and Environmental Policies in the Transition Economies will be of considerable interest to policymakers in government, to private-sector actors, to academic scholars, and to students of international energy and environmental politics.

The Cold War Reference Guide

A General History and Annotated Chronology, with Selected Biographies

Author: Richard Alan Schwartz

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476610789

Category: History

Page: 327

View: 1349

For over forty years much of the world was held captive by a conflict between two wholly incompatible economic ideologies—capitalism and communism—and the two primary superpower countries who practiced them, the United States and the Soviet Union. Written in accessible language for readers with little or no previous knowledge about the subject, this work is first a general history of the Cold War, with an overview of its root causes and the policies and theories that were in place from 1947 through 1990. A thoroughly annotated chronology of important Cold War events follows. Short biographies of some of the major United States political figures and world leaders conclude the work.

Export Controls in Transition

Perspectives, Problems, and Prospects

Author: Gary K. Bertsch,Steven Elliott-Gower

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822311911

Category: Law

Page: 355

View: 2843

Like many cold war artifacts, the West’s export control policies and institutions are being reevaluated after the tumult in the communist world at the end of the 1980s. Policymakers and scholars are being forced to reexamine the premises of export control policy and the very concept of export controls as a tool of national security and foreign policy. This volume brings together expert scholars and government officials who provide contrasting perspectives and address the prospects for export controls. The contributors discuss the role and function of export control policies from a variety of perspectives—security, commerce, diplomacy, the European region, and that of the newly industrialized countries. Among the topics covered are the problems the United States and the Western export regime will face in the 1990s in light of changing international political alliances and dependencies, in defining strategic exports, in enforcing export controls, and the role of the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls. Contributors. Sumner Benson, Beverly Crawford, Richard t. Cupitt, Dorinda G. Dallmeyer, Paul Freedenberg, Martin J. Hillenbrand, Hanns-Dieter Jacobsen, Bruce W. Jentleson, Kevin J. Lasher, William J. Long, Janne Haaland Matlary, Jere W. Morehead, Henry R. Nau, Han S. Park, Kevin F. F. Quigley, Alen B. Sherr, Christine Westbrook

A House in the Sun

Modern Architecture and Solar Energy in the Cold War

Author: Daniel A. Barber

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199394016

Category: Architecture

Page: 352

View: 328

"A House in the Sun describes a number of solar house experiments in the 1940s and 1950s. The houses relied on the materials and ideas of modern architecture for both energy efficiency and claims to cultural relevance, and also developed out of a growing concern over global resource limits"--Provided by publisher.

Controversial Issues in Energy Policy

Author: Alfred A. Marcus

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452245967

Category: Political Science

Page: 158

View: 4646

How has the world coped with past energy crises? In this volume, Marcus reveals both the shortcomings and failures and the surprising successes of past efforts. With the decline of the Cold War, energy policy issues are among the most important factors in world politics. Energy policies provide a new context for the evolution of other internationally significant policies; namely, global trade, new Eastern European economies and emerging environmental issues. Introducing energy issues by reviewing events which transpired in the Persian Gulf after August 1990, Marcus then examines trends in energy productionnsumption worldwide since the first energy supply crisis of 1973. Ensuing chapters discuss the economics and the politics of energy polic

Russia–Iran Relations Since the End of the Cold War

Author: Eric D. Moore

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131780824X

Category: Social Science

Page: 228

View: 5944

This book presents a comprehensive, systematic analysis of Russia– Iran relations in the period following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. It discusses the key areas – such as trade, arms sales, nuclear developments, and potential areas of friction in the Caspian Sea – where co-operation is possible; charts different phases of increasing and declining co-operation; and relates these changes to security considerations and domestic factors in both countries. Throughout, the book argues that the potential for co-operation between the two countries is much greater than people realize, and it concludes by assessing how Russia–Iran relations are likely to develop in future.

China, Oil and Global Politics

Author: Philip Andrews-Speed,Dr Philip Andrews-Speed,Roland Dannreuther

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136732357

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 248

View: 1670

This book provides a critical overview of how China’s growing need for oil imports is shaping its international economic and diplomatic strategy and how this affects global political relations and behaviour. It draws together the various dimensions of China’s international energy strategy, and provides insights into the impact of this on China’s growing presence across the world.

Argonne National Laboratory, 1946-96

Author: Jack M. Holl,Richard G. Hewlett,Ruth R. Harris

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252023415

Category: Science

Page: 644

View: 7231

Offers an overview of the history, function, mission, and politics surrounding the center responsible for the development of nuclear reactors

Oil and Gas in China

The New Energy Superpower's Relations with Its Region

Author: Tai-Wei Lim

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814277959

Category: Political Science

Page: 161

View: 2399

This title looks at the emergence of China as a major importer and consumer of energy. It examines the Chinese oil industry from a cross-disciplinary political economy as well as an international relations perspective.

Nuclear Material

DoE Needs to Take Action to Reduce Risks Before Processing Additional Nuclear Material at the Savannah River Site's H-Canyon

Author: Gene Aloise

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437908462


Page: N.A

View: 9553

During the Cold War, the Dept. of Energy (DoE) produced nuclear materials for nuclear weapons at its Savannah River Site (SRS) by dissolving highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel from reactors in a facility known as H-Canyon. DoE planned to end H-Canyon operations in 2007 but now plans to continue H-Canyon operations until 2019 to process additional nuclear material. This report: (1) identifies the types of nuclear materials DoE will process using H-Canyon and its associated costs of operation; (2) determine whether SRS¿s radioactive waste storage tanks and associated nuclear waste facilities are capable of handling the additional waste generated by H-Canyon; and (3) describe H-Canyon¿s compliance with safety and environ. requirements. Illus.

A Review of the Department of Energy Classification

Policy and Practice

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Declassification of Information for the Department of Energy Environmental Remediation and Related Programs

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309176279

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 128

View: 4591

With the end of the Cold War, the Department of Energy is engaged in a review of its policies regarding the classification of information. In 1994, the Secretary of Energy requested the assistance of the National Research Council in an effort to "lift the veil of Cold War secrecy." This book recommends fundamental principles to guide declassification policy. It also offers specific suggestions of ways to improve public access while protecting truly sensitive information.

Business and Security

Public-private Sector Relationships in a New Security Environment

Author: Alyson J. K. Bailes,Isabel Frommelt,Research Assistant Isabel Frommelt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199274505

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 328

View: 4288

The private business sector suffered both directly and indirectly from the terrorist strikes of September 11th. Many business workers perished in the New York WOrld Trade Center, and the insurance, transport, and tourism industries were hard hit by the aftermath. Restrictions imposed in the name of security made business travel and the movement of goods more complicated. The private sector was called upon to support the fight against terrorism actively with tougher controls on money transfers and onthe export of dangerous materials and technologies. These events offered a striking case of the growing interdependence of the private and public sectors in takling present-day security challenges. The impact of the private sector, for good or ill, in areas of conflict has long been recognized. Private business is at the centre of the latest concerns over the vulnerability of crucial infrastructures, including energy supply. Systematic public-private sector consultation and partnership are needed to tackle these problems, but neither the principles nor comprehensive mechanisms for such cooperation have yet been identified. This book brings together reflections on general and specific aspects of public-private sector interaction, from a variety of experts in business, government, international organizations and the academic world. For completeness and balance, it also inquires into the costs of security and includes perspectives from Africa and the Arab World. It offers new reference material to help in the further exploration of this important subject.

Energy and US Foreign Policy

The Quest for Resource Security After the Cold War

Author: Ahmed Mahdi

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857730681

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 6697

The US consumes a quarter of the world’s oil, two thirds of which must be imported - a proportion which is growing every year. The quest for this precious natural resource can be seen as the defining principle of American diplomacy, an imperative which has shaped and redefined the practice of politics, especially in the wake of 9/11. In Energy and US Foreign Policy, Ahmed Mahdi relates the military expansion of the world’s biggest superpower to its quest to gain preferential access to the world’s most important commodity. Charting the links between oil, energy and foreign policy in the actions of three presidents, George Bush Sr., Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, Mahdi demonstrates how and why oil has played a central role in US relations with the wider world. Focusing on American foreign policy in the Middle East in the post-9/11 age, which has seen US military deployment in the so-called ‘war on terror’, Energy and US Foreign Policy utilizes a unique combination of policy documents, diplomatic and economic theory. Examining the intersections of energy and foreign policy in Iraq, Mahdi analyses the security concerns of the US in the Middle East, a region from which the US imports vast amounts of oil every year. Mahdi builds a compelling picture of America trying, and failing, to secure its energy supplies - with enormous and sobering consequences, as Madhi argues that Washington’s quest for oil has actually weakened and undermined its global influence and destabilised the world’s economic prosperity and security. By dissecting the failures of the US to secure its own economic and energy interests, and by demonstrating the impact this has had on the rest of the world, especially in the Middle East, Mahdi offers vital analysis for researchers and students of International Relations, Diplomacy, Security and Energy Studies, and those interested in the future of US foreign policy in the Middle East.

Beyond the Cold War

Superpowers at the Crossroads

Author: Michael Cox

Publisher: University Press of Amer

ISBN: 9780819178640

Category: Social Science

Page: 237

View: 7058

Since the rise to power of Mikhail Gorbachev, observers increasingly ask, "Is the Cold War over? What do these changes mean for foreign policy? How confident can we be about anyone's ability to foresee the future?" This volume brings together a representative group of interpreters of the Cold War to address some of the recurrent questions. Responses divide both scholars and politicians. Critics of the Bush administration charge it has shown more nostalgia for the familiar patterns of the Cold War than energy in responding to changes in Soviet-American relations. Serious scholars who often agree on foreign policy assessments differ on key issues concerning the end of the Cold War and what will take its place. Contributors: William D. Anderson, Clay Clemens, Michael Cox, Anton W. Deporte, R. Bates Gill, Norman Graebner, Sterling Kernek, Shao-Chuan Leng, Peter Rutland, Peter Shearman, Steve Smith, Jack Spence, and Kenneth W. Thompson. Co-Published with the Miller Center of Public Affairs.