Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies

Food-based Approaches

Author: Brian Thompson,Leslie Amoroso

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845937155

Category: Medical

Page: 397

View: 9193

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Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies

Food-based Approaches

Author: Brian Thompson,Leslie Amoroso

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845937147

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 397

View: 4209

This book, inclusive of 19 chapters, provides discussions on the benefits and limitations of food-based approaches for the prevention and control of micronutrient malnutrition. Different chapters focus on specific relevant topics, including current developments in food-based approaches and their program applications, relevance of agricultural interventions to nutrition, impact of multi-sectoral programmes with food-based approaches components in alleviating undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition, animal-source foods as a food-based approach to address nutrient deficiencies, aquaculture's role in improving food and nutrition security, benefits of vegetables and fruits in preventing and combating micronutrient malnutrition, benefits of food-based approaches for overcoming single specific micronutrient deficiencies, and food fortification. This book will be of great use to professionals interested in public health, human nutrition, micronutrient deficiency interventions, food and nutrition security policy interventions, and agricultural research.

Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies:

Tools for Policymakers and Public Health Workers

Author: Committee on Micronutrient Deficiencies,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030906029X

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 6922

Micronutrient malnutrition affects approximately 2 billion people worldwide. The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies are profound and include premature death, poor health, blindness, growth stunting, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and low work capacity. Preventing Micronutrient Deficiencies provides a conceptual framework based on past experience that will allow funders to tailor programs to existing regional/country capabilities and to incorporate within these programs the capacity to address multiple strategies (i.e., supplementation/fortification/food-based approaches/public health measures) and multiple micronutrient deficiencies. The book does not offer recommendations on how to alleviate specific micronutrient deficiencies--such recommendations are already available through the publications of diverse organizations, including the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Micronutrient Initiative, World Bank, United Nations Childrens' Fund, and the World Health Organization. Instead, this volume examines key elements in the design and implementation of micronutrient interventions, including such issues as: The importance of iron, vitamin A, and iodine to health. Populations at risk for micronutrient deficiency. Options for successful interventions and their cost. The feasibility of involving societal sectors in the planning and implementation of interventions. Characteristics of successful interventions. The book also contains three in-depth background papers that address the prevention of deficiencies of iron, vitamin A, and iodine.

Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies

Tools for Policymakers and Public Health Workers

Author: Committee on Micronutrient Deficiencies,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309591627

Category: Medical

Page: 198

View: 448

Micronutrient malnutrition affects approximately 2 billion people worldwide. The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies are profound and include premature death, poor health, blindness, growth stunting, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and low work capacity. Preventing Micronutrient Deficiencies provides a conceptual framework based on past experience that will allow funders to tailor programs to existing regional/country capabilities and to incorporate within these programs the capacity to address multiple strategies (i.e., supplementation/fortification/food-based approaches/public health measures) and multiple micronutrient deficiencies. The book does not offer recommendations on how to alleviate specific micronutrient deficiencies--such recommendations are already available through the publications of diverse organizations, including the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Micronutrient Initiative, World Bank, United Nations Childrens' Fund, and the World Health Organization. Instead, this volume examines key elements in the design and implementation of micronutrient interventions, including such issues as: The importance of iron, vitamin A, and iodine to health. Populations at risk for micronutrient deficiency. Options for successful interventions and their cost. The feasibility of involving societal sectors in the planning and implementation of interventions. Characteristics of successful interventions. The book also contains three in-depth background papers that address the prevention of deficiencies of iron, vitamin A, and iodine.

Micronutrient Deficiencies During the Weaning Period and the First Years of Life

Author: John M. Pettifor,Stanley Zlotkin

Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 3805577206

Category: Medical

Page: 274

View: 7854

Throughout the developing world, children are suffering from the severe consequences micronutrient deficiencies have on their healthy development. However, early malnutrition is not a problem confined to that part of the world. It may also affect infants born prematurely, children living in poverty and new immigrants to developed countries. Written by leading investigators and clinicians, this publication begins with a review of the epidemiology of micronutrient deficiencies. Further chapters deal with stable isotope methods in research, new etiological aspects such as the impact of micronutrient interactions, bioavailability and infectious diseases, as well as the effects of socio- and geopolitical factors. Another section focuses on the implications of micronutrient deficiencies and psycho-motor development, immune function and bone growth, with regard also to the economic impact. Finally an update on specific strategies to address micronutrient deficiencies is provided. This publication will be of great assistance to pediatricians, clinical investigators, health workers and nutritionists engaged in the prevention and treatment of micronutrient deficiencies.

Micronutrient policy process in Malawi

Author: Babu, Suresh Chandra,Haggblade, Steven,Mkandawire, Elizabeth,Nankhuni, Flora,Hendriks, Sheryl L.

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 120

View: 8250

Micronutrient deficiencies are common across the developing world and have major effects on the health outcomes of its population. Although this is well understood, many countries find it difficult to bring about policy change in this regard. This paper uses micronutrient policies designed and implemented in Malawi as a case study to shed light on the barriers and gaps faced by developing countries for similar programs and policies. To understand the drivers of policy change, this paper uses the kaleidoscope model to trace the policy processes of three major micronutrients—iodine, vitamin A, and iron. Using a select set of policy process tools, as well as field interviews with key informants who were part of Malawi’s micronutrient policy process, the authors test a set of hypotheses on 16 variables that drive policy change in the micronutrient policy sphere. Results indicate that much of the agenda setting for micronutrient policies and programs was triggered by external events that focused on the elimination of micronutrient deficiencies as part of the global development agenda. These events include the International Conference on Nutrition, the Millennium Development Goals, and, more recently, Scaling up Nutrition. The design of micronutrient policies and program interventions in Malawi was adopted by locally mandated ministries and institutions, in collaboration with development partners who provided both financial and technical support at the design stage. The adoption of micronutrient policies and intervention programs was driven primarily by external funding, particularly through supplementation programs related to vitamin A and iron. Adoption of fortification standards for vitamin A has been going on for more than a decade due to continuous resistance from the private sector, which faces additional costs and needs greater technical expertise. The biofortification method of micronutrient interventions for iron and vitamin A is externally driven and relatively new in Malawi. Although this method is widely accepted by policy makers, no concrete strategy has been developed for its design, adoption, and implementation. Further, supplementation and fortification programs continue to face implementation challenges due to poor physical infrastructure and monitoring systems. However, the national institutional architecture required for agenda setting, design, adoption, implementation, evaluation, and review to address micronutrient deficiencies is in place in Malawi. The system needs continued support from development partners for effective functioning at all levels. The use of various tools for the policy change part of the kaleidoscope model indicate that policy change is a dynamic process; over time, changes in the nature and composition of the members of policy and institutional architecture can result in different policy outcomes. The Malawi case study demonstrates two things. First, local leadership is crucial in keeping micronutrient deficiencies on the policy-making agenda, and second, it matters where coordinating power is placed in the policy hierarchy. This paper finds that, even with policy champions, adopted policies will face implementation challenges unless they are supported with adequate resources and are systematically followed through to final execution and delivery.

Nourishing millions: Stories of change in nutrition: Synopsis

Author: Yosef, Sivan,Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896299902

Category: Political Science

Page: 4

View: 2614

In recent years, the world has seen unprecedented attention and political commitment to addressing malnutrition. Milestones such as the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement, the Lancet Maternal and Child Nutrition Series, and the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) have marked the rapid rise of nutrition on the global policy and research agenda. These developments reverse years of relative neglect for nutrition. Undernutrition is a global challenge with huge social and economic costs. It kills millions of young children annually, stunts growth, erodes child development, reduces the amount of schooling children attain, and increases the likelihood of their being poor as adults, if they survive. Stunting persists through a lifetime and beyond—underweight mothers are more likely to give birth to underweight children, perpetuating undernutrition across generations. Undernutrition reduces global gross domestic product by US$1.4–$2.1 trillion a year—the size of the total economy of Africa south of the Sahara.

Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency

Molecular and Genomic Perspectives in Crop Plants

Author: Mohammad Anwar Hossain,Takehiro Kamiya,David J. Burritt,Lam-Son Phan Tran,Toru Fujiwara

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128112948

Category: Science

Page: 418

View: 4423

Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency presents an up-to-date overview of the latest research on the molecular and genetic basis of macro-nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants, and strategies that can be used to improve NUE and nutrient-associated stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant NUE is a measure of how efficiently plants use available nutrients and an understanding of plant NUE has the potential to help improve the use of limited natural resources and to help achieve global food security. This book presents information important for the development of crop plants with improved macro-NUE, a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop production into noncompetitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and for helping to prevent environmental contamination. Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency provides a comprehensive overview of the complex mechanisms regulating macro-NUE in crop plants, which is required if plant breeders are to develop modern crop varieties that are more resilient to nutrient-associated stress. Identification of genes responsible for macro-NUE and nutrient-related stress tolerance in crop plants will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with the responses of crop plants to nutrient stress. This volume contains both fundamental and advanced information, and critical commentaries useful for those in all fields of plant science research. Provides details of molecular and genetic aspects of NUE in crop plants and model plant systems Presents information on major macronutrients, nutrient sensing and signaling, and the molecular and genomic issues associated with primary and secondary macronutrients Delivers information on how molecular genetic information associated with NUE can be used to develop plant breeding programs Includes contributions from world-leading plant nutrition research groups

Hidden Hunger

Gender and the Politics of Smarter Foods

Author: Aya Hirata Kimura

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801467683

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 2063

For decades, NGOs targeting world hunger focused on ensuring that adequate quantities of food were being sent to those in need. In the 1990s, the international food policy community turned its focus to the "hidden hunger" of micronutrient deficiencies, a problem that resulted in two scientific solutions: fortification, the addition of nutrients to processed foods, and biofortification, the modification of crops to produce more nutritious yields. This hidden hunger was presented as a scientific problem to be solved by "experts" and scientifically engineered smart foods rather than through local knowledge, which was deemed unscientific and, hence, irrelevant. In Hidden Hunger, Aya Hirata Kimura explores this recent emphasis on micronutrients and smart foods within the international development community and, in particular, how the voices of women were silenced despite their expertise in food purchasing and preparation. Kimura grounds her analysis in case studies of attempts to enrich and market three basic foods-rice, wheat flour, and baby food-in Indonesia. She shows the power of nutritionism and how its technical focus enhanced the power of corporations as a government partner while restricting public participation in the making of policy for public health and food. She also analyzes the role of advertising to promote fortified foodstuffs and traces the history of Golden Rice, a crop genetically engineered to alleviate vitamin A deficiencies. Situating the recent turn to smart food in Indonesia and elsewhere as part of a long history of technical attempts to solve the Third World food problem, Kimura deftly analyzes the intersection of scientific expertise, market forces, and gendered knowledge to illuminate how hidden hunger ultimately defined women as victims rather than as active agents.

Pediatric Nutrition in Practice

Author: B. Koletzko,J. Bhatia,Z.A. Bhutta,P. Cooper,M. Makrides,R. Uauy,W. Wang

Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 3318026913

Category: Medical

Page: 334

View: 7004

There is no other time in life when the provision of adequate and balanced nutrition is of greater importance than during infancy and childhood. During this dynamic phase characterized by rapid growth, development and developmental plasticity, a sufficient amount and appropriate composition of nutrients both in health and disease are of key importance for growth, functional outcomes such as cognition and immune response, and the metabolic programming of long-term health and well-being. This compact reference text provides concise information to readers who seek quick guidance on practical issues in the nutrition of infants, children and adolescents. After the success of the first edition, which sold more than 50'000 copies in several languages, the editors prepared this thoroughly revised and updated second edition which focuses again on nutritional challenges in both affluent and poor populations around the world. Serving as a practical reference guide, this book will contribute to further improving the quality of feeding of healthy infants and children, as well as enhancing the standards of nutritional care in sick children.

Improving Diets and Nutrition

Food-based Approaches

Author: Brian Thompson,Leslie Amoroso

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1780642997

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 1486

Nutrition-sensitive, food-based approaches towards hunger and malnutrition are effective, sustainable and long-term solutions. This book discusses the policy, strategic, methodological, technical and programmatic issues associated with such approaches, proposes “best practices” for the design, targeting, implementation and evaluation of specific nutrition-sensitive, food-based interventions and for improved methodologies for evaluating their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, and provides practical lessons for advancing nutrition-sensitive food-based approaches for improving nutrition at policy and programme level.

Combating Malnutrition

Time to Act

Author: Stuart R. Gillespie,Milla McLachlan,Roger Shrimpton

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821354452

Category: Medical

Page: 165

View: 3281

Malnutrition is a factor in half of all child deaths, as well as hindering childhood development and increasing the risk of chronic diseases in later life. It is clear that the Millennium Development Goals cannot be reached without significant global efforts to eliminate malnutrition. This report has been jointly produced by UNICEF and the World Bank and examines lessons learned from the development policy agenda to reduce malnutrition levels and promote nutrition programmes. It includes country case studies from India, Madagascar, the Philippines and Tanzania.

Improving Diets and Nutrition

Food-based Approaches

Author: Brian Thompson,Leslie Amoroso

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1780642997

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 4944

Nutrition-sensitive, food-based approaches towards hunger and malnutrition are effective, sustainable and long-term solutions. This book discusses the policy, strategic, methodological, technical and programmatic issues associated with such approaches, proposes “best practices” for the design, targeting, implementation and evaluation of specific nutrition-sensitive, food-based interventions and for improved methodologies for evaluating their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, and provides practical lessons for advancing nutrition-sensitive food-based approaches for improving nutrition at policy and programme level.

Food Fortification in Developing Countries

Author: Penelope Nestel

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Enriched foods

Page: 47

View: 9947

Vitamin A, iron iodine and multi.nutrients mixes. Foods fortified with vitamin A, iron, iodine and pre-mixes. Quality assurance and control. Monitoring and evaluation. Economic aspects and sustainability. Political and legal dimensions.

The Fight Against Hunger and Malnutrition

The Role of Food, Agriculture, and Targeted Policies

Author: David E. Sahn

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198733208

Category: Food industry and trade

Page: 384

View: 4301

Advances in science and policy during the past 50 years have prevented the predicted widespread food shortages as the world's population soared. Malnutrition, however, remains prevalent. This book details strategies and practical approaches to scientific and policy challenges for alleviating hunger and malnutrition in an era where technological change, markets, patterns of governance, and social programs have an increasingly global dimension. The contours ofagricultural, food, and nutrition policy have been redrawn by a range of factors, including the unfettered reach of multinational corporations, emerging technologies such as genetically modified foods, andthe new competition between the food and energy sectors for agricultural output. More emphasis on evidence-based policymaking is raising the standard of proof for evaluating the impact of social programs and targeted interventions. Overlaying all these challenges are domestic and international political and social constraints that need to be addressed when trying to translate scientific knowledge and information into practice.