Common Minds

Themes from the Philosophy of Philip Pettit

Author: Geoffrey Brennan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199218161

Category: Philosophy

Page: 357

View: 6083

'Common Minds' presents papers by some of the most eminent philosophers alive today, grappling with some of the themes derived from the larger programme that Pettit has inspired. It concludes with a piece by Pettit himself, in which he gives an overview of his work, and provides commentary on the predecing essays.

Geschichte - Gesellschaft - Geltung

XXIII. Deutscher Kongress für Philosophie 28. September - 2. Oktober 2014 an der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster. Kolloquienbeiträge

Author: Michael Quante

Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag

ISBN: 3787330593

Category: Philosophy

Page: 1168

View: 9153

Systematisches Philosophieren findet immer in einem historisch gewordenen gesellschaftlichen Kontext statt. Die Geltungsansprüche der Philosophie, dies gilt sowohl in ihren theoretischen als auch in ihren praktischen Disziplinen, reflektiert diese Kontextualität. Können aber – und wenn ja, in welcher Weise – damit noch universale Geltungsansprüche mit guten Gründen erhoben und verteidigt werden? Aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Wissenschaft (etwa die zunehmende Internationalität und Interdisziplinarität) bringen für die Philosophie Herausforderungen mit sich, die in Münster u.a. entlang dreier Fragestellungen behandelt wurden: – Erstens: Welche systematische Relevanz besitzt die deutsche Sprache als Wissenschaftssprache in der Philosophie? – Zweitens: Welche Funktion haben historische Positionen für die Beantwortung der systematischen Gegenwartsfragen der Philosophie und welche methodischen Zugriffe eröffnen den Zugang zu diesem systematischen Potential? – Drittens: Welche systematische Bedeutung haben zentrale Autoren und Traditionslinien der Deutschen Philosophie für die Beantwortung der Fragen der gegenwärtigen Philosophie?

Politik der Beherrschung

Eine kritische Theorie externer Demokratieförderung

Author: Dorothea Gädeke

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518754440

Category: Political Science

Page: 491

View: 4146

Sollten wir in anderen Teilen der Welt Prozesse der Demokratisierung aktiv fördern? Mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges schien sich die liberale Demokratie weltweit durchzusetzen. Etablierte Demokratien versuchten, diesen Prozess zu unterstützen. Doch seit Beginn des neuen Jahrtausends regt sich Widerstand, zunehmend wird der Vorwurf des Imperialismus erhoben. Dorothea Gädeke formuliert in ihrem originellen Buch erstmals normative Grundlagen und Grenzen externer Demokratieförderung. Sie entwickelt eine kritische republikanische Theorie der Gerechtigkeit und zeigt, warum die Praxis externer Demokratieförderung eine Politik der Beherrschung konstituiert und wie sie überwunden werden kann.

Making a Difference

Essays on the Philosophy of Causation

Author: Helen Beebee,Christopher Hitchcock,Huw Price

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191063916

Category: Philosophy

Page: 360

View: 6708

Making a Difference presents fifteen original essays on causation and counterfactuals by an international team of experts. Collectively, they represent the state of the art on these topics. The essays in this volume are inspired by the life and work of Peter Menzies, who made a difference in the lives of students, colleagues, and friends. Topics covered include: the semantics of counterfactuals, agency theories of causation, the context-sensitivity of causal claims, structural equation models, mechanisms, mental causation, causal exclusion argument, free will, and the consequence argument.

Made with Words

Hobbes on Language, Mind, and Politics

Author: Philip Pettit

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400828227

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

View: 3480

Hobbes's extreme political views have commanded so much attention that they have eclipsed his work on language and mind, and on reasoning, personhood, and group formation. But this work is of immense interest in itself, as Philip Pettit shows in Made with Words, and it critically shapes Hobbes's political philosophy. Pettit argues that it was Hobbes, not later thinkers like Rousseau, who invented the invention of language thesis--the idea that language is a cultural innovation that transformed the human mind. The invention, in Hobbes's story, is a double-edged sword. It enables human beings to reason, commit themselves as persons, and incorporate in groups. But it also allows them to agonize about the future and about their standing relative to one another; it takes them out of the Eden of animal silence and into a life of inescapable conflict--the state of nature. Still, if language leads into this wasteland, according to Hobbes, it can also lead out. It can enable people to establish a commonwealth where the words of law and morality have a common, enforceable sense, and where people can invoke the sanctions of an absolute sovereign to give their words to one another in credible commitment and contract. Written by one of today's leading philosophers, Made with Words is both an original reinterpretation and a clear and lively introduction to Hobbes's thought.

Normative Fragen von Governance in Räumen begrenzter Staatlichkeit

Author: Daniel Jacob,Bernd Ladwig,Cord Schmelzle

Publisher: Nomos Verlag

ISBN: 3845287934

Category: Political Science

Page: 343

View: 5976

Der Staat, wie wir ihn zu kennen glauben, ist geschichtlich und gegenwärtig die Ausnahme und nicht die Regel. Doch auch in Räumen "begrenzter Staatlichkeit" wird regiert, häufig unter Beteiligung privater Akteure und internationaler Organisationen. Der Band untersucht, ob und wie unter diesen Bedingungen legitimes Regieren möglich ist und wem die Verantwortung zukommt, Menschenrechte und demokratische Teilhabe zu gewährleisten. Der erste Teil des Bandes fragt begrifflich nach den normativen Implikationen von Staatlichkeit. Hieran anschließend untersucht der zweite Teil menschenrechts- und gerechtigkeitstheoretische Fragen, die sich aus begrenzter Staatlichkeit und dem Wirken nicht-staatlicher Governance-Akteure ergeben. Die Beiträge des dritten Teils erkunden, welche Implikation begrenzte Staatlichkeit für das Ideal kollektiver Selbstbestimmung hat. Der vierte Teil des Bandes fragt schließlich, wie das Völkerrecht auf Governance in Räumen begrenzter Staatlichkeit reagieren sollte. Mit Beiträgen von Jan Brezger, Frank Dietrich, Dorothea Gädeke, Daniel Jacob, Tamara Jugov, Heike Krieger, Bernd Ladwig, Christian Neuhäuser, Andreas Oldenbourg, Michael Schefczyk, Cord Schmelzle und Juri Viehoff

Group Agency

The Possibility, Design, and Status of Corporate Agents

Author: Christian List,Philip Pettit

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199591563

Category: Law

Page: 238

View: 5865

Are companies, churches, and states genuine agents? How do we explain their behaviour? Can we treat them as accountable for their actions? List and Pettit offer original arguments, grounded in cutting-edge work on social choice, economics, and philosophy, to show there really are group agents, over and above the individual agents who compose them.

On the People's Terms

A Republican Theory and Model of Democracy

Author: Philip Pettit

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107005116

Category: History

Page: 338

View: 6123

"According to republican political theory, choosing freely requires being able to make the choice without subjection to another and freedom as a person requires being publicly protected against subjection in the exercise of basic liberties. But there is no public protection without a coercive state. And doesn't state coercion necessarily take from the freedom of the coerced? Philip Pettit addresses this question from a civic republican perspective, arguing that state interference does not involve subjection or domination if there is equally shared, popular control over government"--

Gerechte Freiheit

Ein moralischer Kompass für eine komplexe Welt

Author: Philip Pettit

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518740989

Category: Philosophy

Page: 350

View: 8938

Was heißt Freiheit heute – jenseits einer auf persönliche Interessendurchsetzung zielenden neoliberalen Marktfreiheit? Können wir noch ein Freiheitsverständnis entwickeln, das uns moralische Orientierung in einer immer komplexer werdenden Welt bietet? Philip Pettit, einer der meistdiskutierten Philosophen der Gegenwart, entwickelt in seinem mitreißenden Buch einen Freiheitsbegriff, der die Idee eines nichtbeherrschten Lebens in sein Zentrum stellt. Freiheit heißt ihm zufolge: sein eigener Herr sein, allen auf Augenhöhe begegnen können und den Einfluss anderer Menschen nicht fürchten müssen. Das hat weitreichende soziale, ökonomische und politische Konsequenzen. Ein unverzichtbarer Kompass für die Navigation im 21. Jahrhundert.

The Concept of Structuralism

A Critical Analysis

Author: Philip Pettit

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520028821

Category: Semiotics

Page: 117

View: 7659

The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies

Author: Michael Freeden,Lyman Tower Sargent,Marc Stears

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191663719

Category: Political Science

Page: 752

View: 2834

This is the first comprehensive volume to offer a state of the art investigation both of the nature of political ideologies and of their main manifestations. The diversity of ideology studies is represented by a mixture of the range of theories that illuminate the field, combined with an appreciation of the changing complexity of concrete ideologies and the emergence of new ones. Ideologies, however, are always with us. The Handbook is divided into three sections: The first is divided into three sections: The first reflects some of the latest thinking about the development of ideology on an historical dimension, from the standpoints of conceptual history, Marx studies, social science theory and history, and leading schools of continental philosophy. The second includes some of the most recent interpretations and theories of ideology, all of which are sympathetic in their own ways to its exploration and close investigation, even when judiciously critical of its social impact. This section contains many of the more salient contemporary accounts of ideology. The third focuses on the leading ideological families and traditions, as well as on some of their cultural and geographical manifestations, incorporating both historical and contemporary perspectives. Each chapter is written by an expert in their field, bringing the latest approaches and understandings to their task. The Handbook will position the study of ideologies in the mainstream of political theory and political analysis and will attest to its indispensability both to courses on political theory and to scholars who wish to take their understanding of ideologies in new directions.

The Robust Demands of the Good

Ethics with Attachment, Virtue, and Respect

Author: Philip Pettit

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191046604

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 7319

Some goods that we generate for others, as when we give them attention or help or encouragement, require us to provide that benefit under the actual circumstances where we interact. Other goods that we generate require not just that we actually provide that sort of benefit but that we are also poised to provide it, even should actual circumstances change in various ways. These goods demand robust and not merely actual beneficence. Thus to give you friendship I must be robustly, not just accidentally, attentive to your needs; to give you a virtue like honesty I must be robustly disposed to tell you the truth; and to give you respect I must be robustly committed to showing restraint in my dealings with you. In this original contribution to normative ethics, Philip Pettit charts the range of robustly demanding goods, building on his earlier work on the robust demands of freedom. He explores the rationale behind our concern for being able to rely on others to treat us well, not just for being lucky enough to enjoy good treatment. And then he traces the implications for ethics of giving a central place to robustly demanding goods. The lessons he draws teach us that there is a tighter connection between being good and doing good than is generally recognized; that it is harder to count as doing good than it is to count as doing evil; and that there is a serious issue, ignored in many ethical theories, about the basis on which we should deliberate in day-to-day decisions about what it is right to do. The book amounts to a radical rethinking of ethics in which many standard positions shift or fall. The association between being good and doing good casts doubt on the orthodox dichotomy between evaluating agents and evaluating actions. The calibration between doing good and doing evil explains the Knobe effect, so called, as well as explaining the superficial appeal of doctrines like that of double effect. And the investigation of how to be guided in deliberating about the right reduces the gap between the recommendations of approaches like Kantianism, contractualism, and virtue theory and their common, consequentialist foe.

Eine Naturgeschichte der menschlichen Moral

Author: Michael Tomasello

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 351874822X

Category: Psychology

Page: 282

View: 2123

Die Evolution des menschlichen Moralbewusstseins gehört zu den großen Rätseln der Wissenschaft. Es hat die Phantasie von Generationen von Forschern beflügelt, zahlreiche Theorien liegen auf dem Tisch, aber die Frage »Woher kommt die Moral?« ist nach wie vor offen. In Fortschreibung seiner faszinierenden Naturgeschichte des Menschen legt nun Michael Tomasello eine Antwort vor. Gestützt auf jahrzehntelange empirische Forschungen, rekonstruiert er die Entstehung des einzigartigen menschlichen Sinns für Werte und Normen als einen zweistufigen Prozess. Dieser beginnt vor einigen hunderttausend Jahren, als die frühen Menschen gemeinsame Sache machen mussten, um zu überleben; und er endet beim modernen, ultrakooperativen homo sapiens sapiens, der beides besitzt: Eine Moralität der zweiten Person, die unseren Umgang mit dem je einzelnen Gegenüber prägt, und eine gruppenbezogene »objektive« Moral, die sagt, was hier bei »uns« als gut oder gerecht gilt. In der Tradition von Mead, Kohlberg und Piaget zeigt Tomasello außerdem, wie sich die individuelle Moralentwicklung in einer bereits normengesättigten Welt vollzieht. Und so ist Eine Naturgeschichte der menschlichen Moral der derzeit wohl umfassendste Versuch zu verstehen, wie wir das geworden sind, was nur wir sind: genuin moralische Wesen.

Republicanism and political theory

Author: Cécile Laborde

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9781405155809

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 1123

"Republicanism and Political Theory" is the first book to offer a comprehensive survey of republican political theory. Critically assessing the historical credentials, conceptual coherence and normative proposals of republicanism, it brings together original contributions from leading international scholars. The volume focuses on four main areas: liberty in the republican tradition; freedom as non-domination and its critics; the borders of republicanism; and new republican debates, reflecting upon the contribution that republicans have made to our understanding of political life. Individual chapters are closely related to one another, providing readers with valuable insight into the main debates taking place between republicans and their critics. An essential text for students in political theory and political science, this volume also serves as an invaluable resource for research scholars in political philosophy, intellectual history, law, international relations, European studies, and gender studies.

Subject, thought, and context

Author: Philip Pettit,John Henry McDowell

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 300

View: 4374

Are mental states "in the head"? Or do they intrinsically involve aspects of the subject's physical and social context? This volume presents a number of essays dealing with the compass of the mind. The contributors broach a range of issues with a commmon view that physical and social magnets do act upon mental states. The approaches that run through these papers make the volume challenging to cognitive psychologists, theorists of artificial intelligence, social theorists, and philosophers.

Representative Democracy

Principles and Genealogy

Author: Nadia Urbinati

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226842800

Category: Political Science

Page: 326

View: 4453

It is usually held that representative government is not strictly democratic, since it does not allow the people themselves to directly make decisions. But here, taking as her guide Thomas Paine’s subversive view that “Athens, by representation, would have surpassed her own democracy,” Nadia Urbinati challenges this accepted wisdom, arguing that political representation deserves to be regarded as a fully legitimate mode of democratic decision making—and not just a pragmatic second choice when direct democracy is not possible. As Urbinati shows, the idea that representation is incompatible with democracy stems from our modern concept of sovereignty, which identifies politics with a decision maker’s direct physical presence and the immediate act of the will. She goes on to contend that a democratic theory of representation can and should go beyond these identifications. Political representation, she demonstrates, is ultimately grounded in a continuum of influence and power created by political judgment, as well as the way presence through ideas and speech links society with representative institutions. Deftly integrating the ideas of such thinkers as Rousseau, Kant, Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, Paine, and the Marquis de Condorcet with her own, Urbinati constructs a thought-provoking alternative vision of democracy.

Das Recht der Völker

Enthält: "Nochmals: Die Idee der öffentlichen Vernunft"

Author: John Rawls

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110898535

Category: Philosophy

Page: 294

View: 5290

Welche Bedingungen lassen Völker gerecht und friedlich zusammenleben? Unter welchen Umständen sind Kriege gerechtfertigt? Welche Leitlinien müssen gegeben sein für Organisationen, die eine gerechte Gesellschaft von Völkern mit gleichen Rechten herzustellen vermögen? In acht Grundsätzen für eine gerechte internationale Ordnung entwickelt der amerikanische Philosoph John Rawls einen hypothetischen "Vertrag der Gesellschaft der Völker". Das jüngste Buch von John Rawls ist nach A Theory of Justice 1971, dt. 1975) und Political Liberalism (1993, dt. 1998) ein weiteres wichtiges Werk des bedeutenden amerikanischen Philosophen. Die Originalausgabe (The Law of Peoples, 1999) hat zu heftigen Kontroversen geführt.