Instrumental Reasoning and Systems Methodology

An Epistemology of the Applied and Social Sciences

Author: Richard Mattessich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401094314

Category: Social Science

Page: 396

View: 895

This book has been written primarily for the applied and social scientist and student who longs for an integrated picture of the foundations on which his research must ultimately rest; but hopefully the book may also serve philosophers interested in applied disciplines and in systems methodology. If integration was the major motto, the need for a method ology, appropriate to the teleological peculiarities of all applied sciences, was the main impetus behind the conception of the present work. This need I felt a long time ago in my own area of analytical and empirical research in accounting theory and management science; later I had the opportunity to teach, for almost a decade, graduate seminars in Methodology which offered particular insight into the methodological needs of students of such applied disciplines as business administration, education, engineering, infor matics, etc. Out of this effort grew the present book which among other things tries, on one side, to illuminate the difference and relationship between methods of cognition and methods of decision and on the other, to sketch a framework suitable for depicting means-end relationships in a holistic setting. I believe that a systems methodology which incorporates recent endeavours of deontic logic, decision theory, information economics and related areas would be eminently suited to break the ground for such a future framework. Yet systems theory has two major shortcomings which might prevent it from evolving into the desired methodology of applied science.

The Methodology of Maurice Hauriou

Legal, Sociological, Philosophical

Author: Christopher B. Gray

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9042030070

Category: Law

Page: 242

View: 4738

This book shows that Hauriou¿s positivist and pragmatic jurisprudence and social theory, as well as their application to the study of institutions, is satisfactorily supported by his idealistic philosophy. The nine chapters first locate Hauriou¿s influences, then situate his disciplinary methodologies within methodology in general. The central chapters concern each of the three methodologies in turn.

Research Methodology

A Project Guide for University Students

Author: John Kuada

Publisher: Samfundslitteratur

ISBN: 9788759315545

Category: Education

Page: 139

View: 6406

Research Methodology is written for university and college students who are looking for guidelines when writing for a research project. It describes some of the most influential methods in social science and speaks directly to students without any prior knowledge of project work. Written in a simple, straight-forward, and a highly engaging style, the book takes the reader through the essential features of the project work process and guides students in making key decisions that will reduce the anxieties they are likely to experience in their research process. The book also introduces students to the nature of their group work process and provides guidelines on how to work with other students in order to produce good projects. It is intended as a supplementary textbook for courses in research methodology, for bachelor and master's degree students. Highlights of the issues discussed include: structure of projects * research design * the role of theories in research projects * paradigms and philosophy of science * qualitative and quantitative data collection methods and techniques * mixed research methods.

Longitudinal Research

Methods and Uses in Behavioral Science

Author: F. Schulsinger,Sarnoff A. Mednick,J. Knop

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400981473

Category: Social Science

Page: 326

View: 6506

This volume is the product of a course on longitudinal prospective re search arranged by the three editors in Arhus, Denmark, in 1978. The course was supported by the Nordisk Kulturfond for young researchers from the Nordic countries, who had planned or had simply involved themselves in longitudinal prospective research projects of various kinds. The twenty-six participants represented a wide range of professions: statisticians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nutritionists, and public health researchers. The teachers came from many countries and represented many disciplines. The course was very successful, especially from the point of view of the quality and investment of the teachers. We felt also that the course met a strong need in this relatively new field of research. Therefore, we asked the teachers to prepare written versions of their lectures so that they could have wider dissemination; they agreed to do so. The present book is composed of these contributions. The first chap ter, after outlining some of the problems with traditional strategies in mental health research, goes on to suggest some of the possible preven tive applications of longitudinal research methods. Included in Parts II and III are papers on design problems and on the tools of long-term research, such as genetics and classification, biological measurements, epidemiological guidelines, statistical models, disease registers, and de velopmental psychology.

The Long Evolution of Brains and Minds

Author: Gerhard Roth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400762593

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 6669

The main topic of the book is a reconstruction of the evolution of nervous systems and brains as well as of mental-cognitive abilities, in short “intelligence” from simplest organisms to humans. It investigates to which extent the two are correlated. One central topic is the alleged uniqueness of the human brain and human intelligence and mind. It is discussed which neural features make certain animals and humans intelligent and creative: Is it absolute or relative brain size or the size of “intelligence centers” inside the brains, the number of nerve cells inside the brain in total or in such “intelligence centers” decisive for the degree of intelligence, of mind and eventually consciousness? And which are the driving forces behind these processes? Finally, it is asked what all this means for the classical problem of mind-brain relationship and for a naturalistic theory of mind.

Causality in Sociological Research

Author: Jakub Karpinski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400904959

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 2904

The general treatment of problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena has traditionally been the domain of philosophy, but when one examines the relationships taking place in the various fields, the study of such conditionings belongs to the empirical sciences. Sociology is no exception in that respect. In that discipline we note a certain paradox. Many problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena have been raised in sociology in relatively recent times, and that process marked its empirical or even so-called empiricist trend. That trend, labelled positivist, seems in this case to be in contradiction with a certain type of positivism. Those authors who describe positivism usually include the Humean tradition in its genealogy and, remembering Hume's criticism of the concept of cause, speak about positivism as about a trend which is inclined to treat lightly the study of causes and confines itself to the statements on co-occurrence of phenomena.

Epistemology, Methodology, and the Social Sciences

Author: Robert S. Cohen,Marx W. Wartofsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401714584

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 4949

The last decades have seen major reformations in the philosophy and history of science. What has been called 'post-positivist' philosophy of science has introduced radically new concerns with historical, social, and valuative components of scientific thought in the natural sciences, and has raised up the demons of relativism, subjectivism and sociologism to haunt the once calm precincts of objectivity and realism. Though these disturbances intruded upon what had seemed to be the logically well-ordered domain of the philoso phy of the natural sciences, they were no news to the social sciences. There, the messy business of human action, volition, decision, the considerations of practical purposes and social values, the role of ideology and the problem of rationality, had long conspired to defeat logical-reconstructionist programs. The attempt to tarne the social sciences to the harness of a strict hypothetico deductive model of explanation failed. Within the social sciences, phenome nological, Marxist, hermeneuticist, action-theoretical approaches vied in attempting to capture the distinctiveness of human phenomena. In fact, the philosophy of the natural sciences, even in its 'hard' forms, has itself become infected with the increasing reflection upon the role of such social-scientific categories, in the attempt to understand the nature of the scientific enterprise.

On the Art of Doing Field Studies

An Experience-based Research Methodology

Author: N.A

Publisher: Handelshojskolens Forlag

ISBN: N.A

Category: Fieldwork (Educational method)

Page: 248

View: 8751

Outside anthropology, this is the first book on field studies within the social sciences. The authors offer methods, based on the experienced fact that social science research cannot be described as a rational process. This book presents the rational features of this seemingly irrational process. The authors have systematized their own extensive experience with field studies, providing advice to future researchers on how to avoid the most mundane and traditional mistakes. The first part of the book describes four real life research stories that are well structured, well written, and simply exciting. The second part is a systematic effort to draw methodological conclusions from the stories. The result is an analytical presentation of the common mode of behaviour observed in the previous stories.

Polish Essays in the Methodology of the Social Sciences

Author: J. Wiatr

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400993536

Category: Science

Page: 271

View: 351

Modern philosophy has benefited immensely from the intelligence, and sensitivity, the creative and critical energies, and the lucidity of Polish scholars. Their investigations into the logical and methodological foundations of mathematics, the physical and biological sciences, ethics and esthetics, psychology, linguistics, economics and jurisprudence, and the social science- all are marked by profound and imaginative work. To the centers of empiricist philosophy of science in Vienna, Berlin and Cambridge during the first half of this century, one always added the great school of analytic and methodol ogical studies in Warsaw and Lwow. To the world centers of Marxist theoretical practice in Berlin, Moscow, Paris, Rome and elsewhere, one must add the Poland of the same era, from Ludwik Krzywicki (1859-1941) onward. American socialists and economists will remember the careful work of Oscar Lange, working among us for many years and then after 1945 in Warsaw, always humane, logical, objective. In this volume, our friend and colleague, Jerzy J. Wiatr, has assembled a representative set of recent essays by Polish social scientists and philosophers. Each of these might lead the reader far beyond this book, to look into the Polish Sociological Bulletin which has been publishing Polish sociological studies in English for several decades, to study other translations of books and papers by these authors, and to reflect upon the interplay of logical, phenomenological, Marxist, empiricist and historical learning in modern Polish social understanding.

Social Science and Policy Challenges

Democracy, Values and Capacities

Author: Georgios Papanagnou

Publisher: UNESCO

ISBN: 9231042262

Category: Political Science

Page: 299

View: 4774

Producing scientific knowledge that can inform solutions and guide policy-making is one of the most important functions of social science. Nonetheless, if social science is to become more relevant and influential so as to impact on the drawing and execution of policy, certain measures need to be taken to narrow its distance from the policy sphere. This decision is less obvious than it seems. Both research and experience have proved that policy-making is a complex, often sub-rational, interactive process that involves a wide range of actors such as decision makers, bureaucrats, researchers, organized interests, citizen and civil society representatives and research brokers. In addition, social science often needs to defend both its relevance to policy and its own scientific status. Moving away from instrumental visions of the link between social research and policy, this collective volume aims to highlight the more constructed nature of the use of social knowledge.

Dirichlet Series

Principles and Methods

Author: S. Mandelbrojt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401031347

Category: Mathematics

Page: 176

View: 9847

It is not our intention to present a treatise on Dirichlet series. This part of harmonic analysis is so vast, so rich in publications and in 'theorems' that it appears to us inconceivable and, to our mind, void of interest to assemble anything but a restricted (but relatively complete) branch of the theory. We have not tried to give an account of the very important results of G. P6lya which link his notion of maximum density to the analytic continuation of the series, nor the researches to which the names of A. Ostrowski and V. Bernstein are intimately attached. The excellent book of the latter, which was published in the Collection Borel more than thirty years ago, gives an account of them with all the clarity one can wish for. Nevertheless, some scattered results proved by these authors have found their place among the relevant results, partly by their statements, partly as a working tool. We have adopted a more personal point of view, in explaining the methods and the principles (as the title of the book indicates) that originate in our research work and provide a collection of results which we develop here; we have also included others, due to present-day authors, which enable us to form a coherent whole.

Geometric Measure Theory and Real Analysis

Author: Luigi Ambrosio

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 8876425233

Category: Mathematics

Page: 250

View: 8245

In 2013, a school on Geometric Measure Theory and Real Analysis, organized by G. Alberti, C. De Lellis and myself, took place at the Centro De Giorgi in Pisa, with lectures by V. Bogachev, R. Monti, E. Spadaro and D. Vittone. The book collects the notes of the courses. The courses provide a deep and up to date insight on challenging mathematical problems and their recent developments: infinite-dimensional analysis, minimal surfaces and isoperimetric problems in the Heisenberg group, regularity of sub-Riemannian geodesics and the regularity theory of minimal currents in any dimension and codimension.

Inconsistent Mathematics

Author: C.E. Mortensen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401584532

Category: Mathematics

Page: 158

View: 9132

without a properly developed inconsistent calculus based on infinitesimals, then in consistent claims from the history of the calculus might well simply be symptoms of confusion. This is addressed in Chapter 5. It is further argued that mathematics has a certain primacy over logic, in that paraconsistent or relevant logics have to be based on inconsistent mathematics. If the latter turns out to be reasonably rich then paraconsistentism is vindicated; while if inconsistent mathematics has seri ous restriytions then the case for being interested in inconsistency-tolerant logics is weakened. (On such restrictions, see this chapter, section 3. ) It must be conceded that fault-tolerant computer programming (e. g. Chapter 8) finds a substantial and important use for paraconsistent logics, albeit with an epistemological motivation (see this chapter, section 3). But even here it should be noted that if inconsistent mathematics turned out to be functionally impoverished then so would inconsistent databases. 2. Summary In Chapter 2, Meyer's results on relevant arithmetic are set out, and his view that they have a bearing on G8del's incompleteness theorems is discussed. Model theory for nonclassical logics is also set out so as to be able to show that the inconsistency of inconsistent theories can be controlled or limited, but in this book model theory is kept in the background as much as possible. This is then used to study the functional properties of various equational number theories.

Methodological and Historical Essays in the Natural and Social Sciences

Author: Robert S. Cohen,Marx W. Wartofsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401021287

Category: Science

Page: 413

View: 2510

Modem philosophy of science has turned out to be a Pandora's box. Once opened, the puzzling monsters appeared: not only was the neat structure of classical physics radically changed, but a variety of broader questions were let loose, bearing on the nature of scientific inquiry and of human knowledge in general. Philosophy of science could not help becoming epistemological and historical, and could no longer avoid metaphysical questions, even when these were posed in disguise. Once the identification of scientific methodology with that of physics had been queried, not only did biology and psychology come under scrutiny as major modes of scientific inquiry, but so too did history and the social sciences - particularly economics, sociology and anthropology. And now, new 'monsters' are emerging - for example, medicine and political science as disciplined inquiries. This raises anew a much older question, namely whether the conception of science is to be distinguished from a wider conception of learning and inquiry? Or is science to be more deeply understood as the most adequate form of learning and inquiry, whose methods reach every domain of rational thought? Is modern science matured reason, or is it simply one historically adapted and limited species of western reason? In our colloquia at Boston University, over the past fourteen years, we have been probing and testing the scope of philosophy of science.

Categories, Bundles and Spacetime Topology

Author: C.T. Dodson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401577765

Category: Mathematics

Page: 243

View: 2979

Approach your problems from the right end It isn't that they can't see the solution. It is and begin with the answers. Then one day, that they can't see the problem. perhaps you will find the final question. G. K. Chesterton. The Scandal of Father 'The Hermit Gad in Crane Feathers' in R. Brown'The point of a Pin'. van Gulik's TheChinese Maze Murders. Growing specialization and diversification have brought a host of monographs and textbooks on increasingly specialized topics. However, the "tree" of knowledge of mathematics and related fields does not grow only by putting forth new branches. It also happens, quite often in fact, that branches which were thought to be completely disparate are suddenly seen to be related. Further, the kind and level of sophistication of mathematics applied in various sciences has changed drastically in recent years: measure theory is used (non-trivially) in regional and theoretical economics; algebraic geometry interacts with physics; the Minkowsky lemma, coding theory and the structure of water meet one another in packing and covering theory; quantum fields, crystal defects and mathematical programming profit from homotopy theory; Lie algebras are relevant to filtering; and prediction and electrical engineering can use Stein spaces. And in addition to this there are such new emerging SUbdisciplines as "experimental mathematics", "CFD", "completely integrable systems", "chaos, synergetics and large-scale order", which are almost impossible to fit into the existing classification schemes. They draw upon widely different sections of mathematics.

Essentials of Social Science Research Methodology

Author: Erik Stavnsager Rasmussen,Per Østergaard,Suzanne C. Beckmann

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 164

View: 1064

Research is the systematic process of planning, investigating, and understanding a phenomenon in order to find answers to specific questions. This book describes and explains the essential foundations of the research process in the social sciences. It is guided by the notion that there is no such thing as one general "best" method, but that the choice of method depends upon the research problem and the purpose of the research. Key features of the book include: -- setting the stage from a philosophy of science perspective that emphasizes the need to choose the appropriate frame of reference for a given research problem -- describing the mindset that is necessary to work in a scientific way and the rules that apply, regardless of whether the researcher is a first year student or writing a Ph.D -- explaining the importance of theories, models, and methods for a systematic approach to literature reviews, use of secondary data, and empirical investigations -- introducing the fundamental characteristics of qualitative and quantitative methods and their implications for data collection and analysis -- clarifying the issues of verification and reflection in the evaluation of research studies

TOPICS IN MEASURE THEORY AND REAL ANALYSIS

Author: Alexander Kharazishvili

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9491216368

Category: Mathematics

Page: 461

View: 7819

This book highlights various topics on measure theory and vividly demonstrates that the different questions of this theory are closely connected with the central measure extension problem. Several important aspects of the measure extension problem are considered separately: set-theoretical, topological and algebraic. Also, various combinations (e.g., algebraic-topological) of these aspects are discussed by stressing their specific features. Several new methods are presented for solving the above mentioned problem in concrete situations. In particular, the following new results are obtained: the measure extension problem is completely solved for invariant or quasi-invariant measures on solvable uncountable groups; non-separable extensions of invariant measures are constructed by using their ergodic components; absolutely non-measurable additive functionals are constructed for certain classes of measures; the structure of algebraic sums of measure zero sets is investigated. The material presented in this book is essentially self-contained and is oriented towards a wide audience of mathematicians (including postgraduate students). New results and facts given in the book are based on (or closely connected with) traditional topics of set theory, measure theory and general topology such as: infinite combinatorics, Martin's Axiom and the Continuum Hypothesis, Luzin and Sierpinski sets, universal measure zero sets, theorems on the existence of measurable selectors, regularity properties of Borel measures on metric spaces, and so on. Essential information on these topics is also included in the text (primarily, in the form of Appendixes or Exercises), which enables potential readers to understand the proofs and follow the constructions in full details. This not only allows the book to be used as a monograph but also as a course of lectures for students whose interests lie in set theory, real analysis, measure theory and general topology.