Double Standard

Social Policy in Europe and the United States

Author: James W. Russell

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 1442206594

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 8180

The second edition of Double Standard analyzes how and why social policy and welfare states evolved differently in Western Europe and the United States. Exploring common social problems—from poverty to family support to ethnic and racial conflict—the book shows the disparate consequences to these different approaches. The new edition includes the latest available statistical information, an analysis of the 2010 health care reform in the United States, and a discussion comparing the social consequences of the recent recession in the U.S. and Europe.

Class and Race Formation in North America

Author: James W. Russell

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442604085

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 1378

On August 13, 1521, the largest and most developed of North America's societies, the Aztec empire, fell to Spanish invaders who, along with later European colonizers, built new societies in which they occupied the dominant class positions and forced Indians, imported African slaves, and Asians into subordinate positions. As a result of the conquest, race has become an enduring issue in the class structuring of North American societies. Originally published as After the Fifth Sun: Class and Race in North America, this new, significantly expanded edition offers a comparative exploration of how patterns of class and racial inequality developed in the United States, Mexico, and Canada from colonial pasts to the beginning of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the post-NAFTA environment. What Russell reveals is a continent of diverse historical experiences, class systems, and ways of thinking about race.

Bürgerrechte und soziale Klassen

zur Soziologie des Wohlfahrtsstaates

Author: Thomas Humphrey Marshall

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783593346601

Category:

Page: 202

View: 6502

Developments in American Politics 6

Author: Gillian Peele,Christopher J. Bailey,Bruce Cain

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 314

View: 5475

Assessing the state of American politics in the Obama administration, this text looks both at the institutional framework of government and at the policy dilemmas facing the United States today.

European Capitalist Welfare Societies

The Challenge of Sustainability

Author: P. Frericks,R. Maier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230378412

Category: Political Science

Page: 233

View: 2722

This book offers an analysis of European capitalist welfare societies, centering on the questions of sustainability and the financing of social rights. Capitalism is defined as a multi-model economy, comprising of a market economy (including production, distribution and exchange), a state welfare economy (based on compulsory transfers, such as taxes and social contributions), a household economy and a voluntary economy. The resources for the welfare economy are produced by some activities of the life course, and used by other activities, once rights over these resources are acquired. Setting out a new conceptual framework that integrates an adapted version of the theory of instituted economic processes with the changing structuration of the life course in European countries, the book argues that European capitalist welfare societies are not sustainable in their present form and that the future financing of social rights is conditional on substantial transformations. The book also analyzes relevant data on the socio-economic positioning of women and migrants.

Rights and Courts in Pursuit of Social Change

Legal Mobilisation in the Multi-Level European System

Author: Dia Anagnostou

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782251871

Category: Law

Page: 261

View: 5851

Over the past few decades, European countries have witnessed a proliferation of legal norms concerning marginalised individuals and minorities who increasingly invoke them in front of courts to assert their rights and claim protection. The present volume explores the relationship between law, rights and social mobilisation in Europe. It specifically enquires into the extent and ways in which legal processes and entitlements are mobilised by less privileged social actors to advance their rights claims and pursue social change. Most distinctly, it explores such processes in the context of the multi-level European system, characterised by the existence of multiple legal and judicial arenas at the national, subnational and supranational/transnational level. In such a complex system of law and governance in Europe, concepts like legal opportunity structures, as well as the factors shaping them need to be reconceptualised. How does the multi-level European context distinctly shape the nature and salience of rights, as well as their mobilisation by individuals and minority actors?

Economic Integration and Social Responsibility

Author: François Bourguignon,Pierre Jacquet,Boris Pleskovic

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 082136104X

Category: Adaptation (Biology)

Page: 374

View: 1868

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development 2007 is one of a series of pocket-sized books intended to provide a quick reference to development data on different topics. The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development 2007 provides data for more than 20 key indicators on business environment and private sector development in a single page for each of the World Bank member countries and other economies with populations of more than 30,000. These more than 200 country pages are supplemented by aggregate data for regional and income groupings. The data topics include, economic and social context; business environment; private sector investment; finance and banking; infrastructure. It is intended as a quick reference for users of World Development Indicators, WDI Online, and the Atlas of Global Development. The book also includes data from the World Bank's Doing Business project and Enterprise Surveys.

Social Insecurity

401(k)s and the Retirement Crisis

Author: James W. Russell

Publisher: Beacon Press

ISBN: 0807012572

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 5798

How 401(k)s have gutted retirement security, from charging exorbitant hidden fees to failing to replace the income of traditional pensions Named one of PW's Top 10 for Business & Economics A retirement crisis is looming. In 2008, as the 401(k) fallout rippled across the country, horrified holders watched 25 percent of their funds evaporate overnight. Average 401(k) balances for those approaching retirement are too small to generate more than $4,000 in annual retirement income, and experts predict that nearly half of middle-class workers will be poor or near poor in retirement. But long before the recession, signs were mounting that few people would ever be able to accumulate enough wealth on their own to ensure financial security later in life. This hasn’t always been the case. Each generation of workers since the nineteenth century has had more retirement security than the previous generation. That is, until 1981, when shaky 401(k) plans began replacing traditional pensions. For the last thirty years, we’ve been advised that the best way to build one’s nest egg is to heavily invest in 401(k)-type programs, even though such plans were originally designed to be a supplement to rather than the basis for retirement. This financial experiment, promoted by neoliberals and aggressively peddled by Wall Street, has now come full circle, with tens of millions of Americans discovering that they would have been better off under traditional pension plans long since replaced. As James W. Russell explains, this do-it-yourself retirement system—in which individuals with modest incomes are expected to invest large sums of capital in order to reap the same rewards as high-end money managers—isn’t working. Social Insecurity tells the story of a massive and international retirement robbery—a substantial transfer of wealth from everyday workers to Wall Street financiers via tremendously costly hidden fees. Russell traces what amounts to a perfect swindle, from its ideological origins at Milton Friedman’s infamous Chicago School to its implementation in Chile under Pinochet’s dictatorship and its adoption in America through Reaganomics. Enraging yet hopeful, Russell offers concrete ideas on how individuals and society can arrest this downward spiral. From the Hardcover edition.

Suspect Families

DNA Analysis, Family Reunification and Immigration Policies

Author: Torsten Heinemann,Ilpo Helén,Thomas Lemke,Ursula Naue,Martin G. Weiss

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472424263

Category: Social Science

Page: 144

View: 1194

Suspect Families is the first book to investigate the social, political, and ethical implications of parental testing for family reunification in immigration cases. Drawing on policy documents, legal frameworks, case study material and interviews with representatives of governmental and non-governmental organisation and immigration authorities, immigration lawyers, geneticists and applicants for family reunification, the book analyses the different political regimes and social arrangements in which DNA analysis is adopted for decision-making on family reunification in three distinct European countries: Austria, Finland and Germany. Interdisciplinary in scope, the book reconstructs the processes, institutional logic and the political and administrative practices of DNA testing from a comparative perspective, combining theoretical conceptualisation with detailed empirical work to explore the central societal, political and ethical issues raised by the use of DNA profiling in the context of immigration policy. A ground-breaking study of the role played by new technologies in migration decisions, Suspect Families will appeal to scholars of sociology, political science, science and technology studies and surveillance studies.

Preventive Justice

Author: Andrew Ashworth,Lucia Zedner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191021059

Category: Law

Page: 310

View: 353

This book arises from a three-year study of Preventive Justice directed by Professor Andrew Ashworth and Professor Lucia Zedner at the University of Oxford. The study seeks to develop an account of the principles and values that should guide and limit the state's use of preventive techniques that involve coercion against the individual. States today are increasingly using criminal law or criminal law-like tools to try to prevent or reduce the risk of anticipated future harm. Such measures include criminalizing conduct at an early stage in order to allow authorities to intervene; incapacitating suspected future wrongdoers; and imposing extended sentences or indefinate on past wrongdoers on the basis of their predicted future conduct - all in the name of public protection and security. The chief justification for the state's use of coercion is protecting the public from harm. Although the rationales and justifications of state punishment have been explored extensively, the scope, limits and principles of preventive justice have attracted little doctrinal or conceptual analysis. This book re-assesses the foundations for the range of coercive measures that states now take in the name of prevention and public protection, focussing particularly on coercive measures involving deprivation of liberty. It examines whether these measures are justified, whether they distort the proper boundaries between criminal and civil law, or whether they signal a larger change in the architecture of security. In so doing, it sets out to establish a framework for what we call 'Preventive Justice'.

Der Weg in die Unfreiheit

Russland - Europa - Amerika

Author: Timothy Snyder

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406725023

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 7974

Gleichheit oder Oligarchie, Individualismus oder Unfreiheit, Wahrheit oder Fake News – die Welt, wie wir sie kannten, steht am Scheideweg. Viel hat der Westen selbst dazu beigetragen. Aber er hat auch mächtige Feinde, die seine Institutionen mit allen Mitteln – von der Finanzierung des Rechtspopulismus in Europa bis zum Cyberwar – untergraben wollen. Wer diese Gegner sind, wie sie vorgehen und wie bedrohlich die Lage ist, das beschreibt das aufsehenerregende neue Buch von Tim Snyder. Mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges hatten die liberalen Demokratien des Westens gesiegt. Von nun an würde die Menschheit eine friedvolle, globalisierte Zukunft erwarten. Doch das war ein Irrtum. Seit Putin seine Macht in Russland etabliert hat, rollt eine Welle des Autoritarismus von Osten nach Westen, die Europ... a erfasst hat und mit Donald Trump auch im Weißen Haus angekommen ist. Tim Snyder, Autor des Weltbestsellers «Über Tyrannei», beschreibt in seinem Buch den Aufstieg dieser neuen «rechten Internationalen», schildert ihre bedrohlichen Ziele und zeigt, wie sehr die Grundlagen unserer Demokratie in Gefahr sind.

The Islamic Threat

Myth or Reality?

Author: John L. Esposito

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019982665X

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 1076

Are Islam and the West on a collision course? From the Ayatollah Khomeini to Saddam Hussein, the image of Islam as a militant, expansionist, and rabidly anti-American religion has gripped the minds of Western governments and media. But these perceptions, John L. Esposito writes, stem from a long history of mutual distrust, criticism, and condemnation, and are far too simplistic to help us understand one of the most important political issues of our time. In this new edition of The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, Esposito places the challenge of Islam in critical perspective. Exploring the vitality of this religion as a global force and the history of its relations with the West, Esposito demonstrates the diversity of the Islamic resurgence--and the mistakes our analysts make in assuming a hostile, monolithic Islam. This third edition has been expanded to include new material on current affairs in Turkey, Afghanistan, Palestine, and Southeast Asia, as well as a discussion of international terrorism.

Self-Defence in International and Criminal Law

The Doctrine of Imminence

Author: Onder Bakircioglu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136702733

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 2790

Drawing from scholarship across law, history, politics and philosophy, Self-Defence in International and Criminal Law provides a broad and interdisciplinary approach to the doctrine of self-defence in both domestic criminal and international law. It focuses on the requirement of imminence, which deals with the question of when individuals or States may legitimately resort to defensive force against a serious danger or harm. In both national and international law the imminence requirement, if strictly applied, renders any defensive measure taken in anticipation of a would-be attack illegal. Recently, however, attempts have been made to relax the temporal requirement of the self-defence doctrine (imminence) with a view to allowing individuals or States to employ deadly force to arrest an anticipated threat when they ‘believe’ that using ‘pre-emptive’ lethal force would be the only way to thwart an expected harm. In domestic criminal law, it has been argued that it is necessary to relax the rule of imminence in domestic violence cases where women employ lethal force against their abusive partners when there is no imminent threat to justify defensive force. At the international level, while there has long been controversy as to the justifiability of pre-emptive force in non-confrontational settings, following the September 11 attacks, the Bush Administration’s ‘war on terror’ policy radically shifted the focus from the notion of anticipation to that of prevention, making it clear that, if necessary, it would invoke unilateral force against emerging threats before they are fully formed. The book surveys the roots, role, rationale, and objectives of self-defence and questions whether the requirement of imminence should be removed from the traditional contours of the self-defence doctrine in national and international law.

Opening the Floodgates

Why America Needs to Rethink its Borders and Immigration Laws

Author: Kevin R. Johnson

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814743005

Category: Law

Page: 289

View: 8767

Seeking to re-imagine the meaning and significance of the international border, Opening the Floodgates makes a case for eliminating the border as a legal construct that impedes the movement of people into this country. Open migration policies deserve fuller analysis, as evidenced by President Barack Obama’s pledge to make immigration reform a priority. Kevin R. Johnson offers an alternative vision of how U.S. borders might be reconfigured, grounded in moral, economic, and policy arguments for open borders. Importantly, liberalizing migration through an open borders policy would recognize that the enforcement of closed borders cannot stifle the strong, perhaps irresistible, economic, social, and political pressures that fuel international migration. Controversially, Johnson suggests that open borders are entirely consistent with efforts to prevent terrorism that have dominated immigration enforcement since the events of September 11, 2001. More liberal migration, he suggests, would allow for full attention to be paid to the true dangers to public safety and national security.

Governance of Addictions

European Public Policies

Author: Tamyko Ysa,Joan Colom,Adrià Albareda,Anna Ramon,Marina Carrión,Lidia Segura

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191008362

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 3259

Why is governance of addiction so difficult? What can we learn from recent experiences and efforts in Europe? Governance of Addictions analyses the multidisciplinary research which has been used as a framework for understanding how governments formulate and implement addiction policies in 27 European Union member states plus Norway, looking in detail at four substances: heroin, cannabis, alcohol and tobacco. Presenting the methodological design for the study research, this book comprehensively analysing international trends, with a special focus on the role of the EU and its governance of addictions modes, this volume sheds light on the current situation of the governance of addictive substances and behaviours and facilitate new approaches to dealing with addiction. Based on the research from ALICE RAP (Addiction and Lifestyles in Contemporary Europe, Reframing Addictions Project), a unique project studying the place of addictive substances and behaviours in contemporary European society, Governance of Addictions is essential reading for policy-makers, public managers, practitioner and stakeholders influencing policy for addictive substances and behaviours, as well as academics and public health professionals.

Neokonservatives Denken in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika

Zum intellektuellen Klima in zwei politischen Kulturen

Author: Wolfgang H. Lorig

Publisher: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 215

View: 6828

Die vorliegende Studie ist die überarbeitete, gestraffte und aktualisierte Fassung ei ner im August 1985 vom Fachbereich III der Universtät Trier angenommenen Disserta tion. Die Anregung zu dieser Arbeit gab Prof. Dr. Hella Mandt; sie hat mit viel Geduld den Fortgang der Untersuchung durch hilfreiche Kritiken und vielfältige Anregungen gefordert. Ihr gilt deshalb mein besonderer Dank! Dank schulde ich auch Prof. Dr. Peter Haungs für wertvolle Hinweise, wichtige Er gänzungen und nützliche Verbesserungen. Hannelore Schmitt-Donhauser, Christel Ei den und Jürgen Konietzko haben auf unterschiedliche Weise zur Fertigstellung beigetra gen; Annegret Benz hat schnell und zuverlässig mehrere Fassungen des Manuskripts geschrieben. Schließlich bedanke ich mich an dieser Stelle herzlich bei Christoph Böhr für zahlrei che, konstruktive Fachgespräche, aufmunternde Kommentare und mannigfachen freund schaftlichen Rat zu verschiedenen Anlässen. Trier, im Mai 1988 Wolfgang H. Lorig 5 Inhalt Vorwort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 I. Einleitung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. Zur Renaissance konservativen Denkens in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 9 2. Annäherungen an einen Begriff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. Aufgabenstellung und methodische Prinzipien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. Aufbau und Darstellung. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Anmerkungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 11. Politisch-gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1. Ende des "sozialdemokratischen Konsensus"? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2. Wertewandel und "Neue Politik" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3. Fortschrittsglaube und Kulturpessimismus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4. Zur politischen Identität komplexer pluralistischer Gesellschaften. . . . . . . . . . . 27 Anmerkungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 111. Neokonservatismus in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika 35 1. Sozio-kulturelle Rahmenbedingungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 a) Konservatismus und "liberal tradition" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 b) Vom "New Conservatism" zum "Neoconservatism" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 c) Neue Linke und Protestgruppierungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 d) "Neue Politik" und die Krise der Demokratischen Partei. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2. Kulturkrise und bürgerliche Tugenden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

International Encyclopedia of Social Policy

Author: Tony Fitzpatrick,Huck-ju Kwon,Nick Manning,James Midgley,Gillian Pascall

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136610030

Category: Medical

Page: 1729

View: 4651

Available in paperback for the first time, this milestone work offers an in-depth treatment of all aspects of the discipline and practice of social policy globally. Supported by a distinguished international advisory board, the editors have compiled almost 900,000 words across 734 entries written by 284 leading specialists to provide authoritative coverage of concepts, policy actors, welfare institutions and services along a series of national, regional and transnational dimensions. Also included are biographical entries on major policy makers and shapers. The editors have particularly striven to provide strong coverage of differing geographical and cultural traditions so that the variety of social policy, as both an academic discipline and a domain of governance, is reflected. Contributors draw in and make the necessary connections with social policy's associated disciplines to provide a rich picture of this vast and highly diverse field. Comprehensive and authoritative, the Encyclopedia has sought to open up rather than to foreclose the numerous areas in which there is on-going research, debate and, sometimes, serious disagreement and divergence in theory and practice. To this end, entries attempt to introduce a core or common ground of understanding before moving on to a wider discussion of debates regarding different conceptual and geographical approaches. The whole is integrated by cross-referencing and each entry includes a bibliography for further reading. There is a full index. The International Encyclopedia of Social Policy provides the most substantial mapping of the international study and practice of social policy to date and will stand as a vital storehouse of knowledge for many years to come.