Drugs and Narcotics in History

Author: Roy Porter,Mikulas Teich

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521585972

Category: History

Page: 227

View: 2514

A collection of essays exploring the complex history of drugs and narcotics throughout historyfrom ancient Greece to the present dayshows that such substances were sought originally as healing agents, both within and without the medical profession. However, the mood- and mind-altering characteristics of some have led to the widespread abuse and legal controls we see today.

Moral Nation

Modern Japan and Narcotics in Global History

Author: Miriam Kingsberg

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520276736

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 8733

This trailblazing study examines the history of narcotics in Japan to explain the development of global criteria for political legitimacy in nations and empires in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Japan underwent three distinct crises of sovereignty in its modern history: in the 1890s, during the interwar period, and in the 1950s. Each crisis provoked successively escalating crusades against opium and other drugs, in which moral entrepreneurs--bureaucrats, cultural producers, merchants, law enforcement, scientists, and doctors, among others--focused on drug use as a means of distinguishing between populations fit and unfit for self-rule. Moral Nation traces the instrumental role of ideologies about narcotics in the country's efforts to reestablish its legitimacy as a nation and empire. As Kingsberg demonstrates, Japan's growing status as an Asian power and a "moral nation" expanded the notion of "civilization" from an exclusively Western value to a universal one. Scholars and students of Japanese history, Asian studies, world history, and global studies will gain an in-depth understanding of how Japan's experience with narcotics influenced global standards for sovereignty and shifted the aim of nation building, making it no longer a strictly political activity but also a moral obligation to society.

Der totale Rausch

Drogen im Dritten Reich

Author: Norman Ohler

Publisher: Kiepenheuer & Witsch

ISBN: 346231517X

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 6507

Drogen im Dritten Reich – »dieses Buch ändert das Gesamtbild« (Hans Mommsen) Über Drogen im Dritten Reich ist bislang wenig bekannt. Norman Ohler geht den Tätern von damals buchstäblich unter die Haut und schaut direkt in ihre Blutbahnen hinein. Arisch rein ging es darin nicht zu, sondern chemisch deutsch – und ziemlich toxisch. Wo die Ideologie für Fanatismus und »Endsieg« nicht mehr ausreichte, wurde hemmungslos nachgeholfen, während man offiziell eine strikte Politik der »Rauschgiftbekämpfung« betrieb. Als Deutschland 1940 Frankreich überfiel, standen die Soldaten der Wehrmacht unter 35 Millionen Dosierungen Pervitin. Das Präparat – heute als Crystal Meth bekannt – war damals in jeder Apotheke erhältlich, machte den Blitzkrieg erst möglich und wurde zur Volksdroge im NS-Staat. Auch der vermeintliche Abstinenzler Hitler griff gerne zur pharmakologischen Stimulanz: Als er im Winter 1944 seine letzte Offensive befehligte, kannte er längst keine nüchternen Tage mehr. Schier pausenlos erhielt er von seinem Leibarzt Theo Morell verschiedenste Dopingmittel, dubiose Hormonpräparate und auch harte Drogen gespritzt. Nur so konnte der Diktator seinen Wahn bis zum Schluss aufrechterhalten. Ohler hat bislang gesperrte Materialien ausgewertet, mit Zeitzeugen, Militärhistorikern und Medizinern gesprochen. Entstanden ist ein erschütterndes, faktengenaues Buch. Der totale Rausch wurde von dem bedeutenden Historiker Hans Mommsen begleitet, der das Nachwort beisteuert. Sein Fazit: »Dieses Buch ändert das Gesamtbild.«

Drogen

Die Geschichte eines langen Krieges

Author: Johann Hari

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104035687

Category: Fiction

Page: 448

View: 4030

»Hari vereint präzise Recherche mit einer zutiefst menschlichen Erzählung. Dieses Buch wird eine dringend notwendige Debatte auslösen.« Glenn Greenwald Der Krieg gegen die Drogen gilt inzwischen als gescheitert, der Handel mit Drogen ist ein blühendes Geschäft, alle Maßnahmen gegen den Konsum sind weitgehend erfolglos. Woran liegt das? Der britische Journalist Johann Hari begibt sich auf eine einzigartige Reise – von Brooklyn über Mexiko bis nach Deutschland – und erzählt die Geschichten derjenigen, deren Leben vom immerwährenden Kampf gegen Drogen geprägt ist: von Dealern, Süchtigen, Kartellmitgliedern, den Verlierern und Profiteuren. Mit seiner grandiosen literarischen Reportage schreibt Hari sowohl eine Geschichte des Krieges gegen Drogen als auch ein mitreißendes und streitbares Plädoyer zum Umdenken. »Hervorragender Journalismus, packend erzählt.« Naomi Klein »Phantastisch!« Noam Chomsky

Drugs in America

A Social History, 1800-1980

Author: Howard Wayne Morgan

Publisher: Syracuse University Press

ISBN: 9780815622826

Category: History

Page: 233

View: 9354

Outlines the history of the use and the development of American society's image of such drugs as opium, marihuana, cocaine, and LSD.

Altering American Consciousness

The History of Alcohol and Drug Use in the United States, 1800-2000

Author: Caroline Jean Acker,Sarah W. Tracy

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press

ISBN: 9781558494251

Category: History

Page: 414

View: 7483

Virtually every American alive has at some point consumed at least one, and very likely more, consciousness altering drug. Even those who actively eschew alcohol, tobacco, and coffee cannot easily avoid the full range of psychoactive substances pervading the culture. If the use of drugs is a constant in American history, the way they have been perceived has varied extensively. Just as the corrupting cigarettes of the early-20th century became the glamorous accessory of Hollywood stars and American GIs in the 1940s, only to fall into public disfavour later as an unhealthy and irresponsible habit, the social significance of every drug changes over time. This work shows how the identity of any psychoactive substance owes as much to its users, their patterns of use, and the cultural context in which the drug is taken, as it owes to the drug's documented physiological effects. Rather than seeing licit drugs and illicit drugs, recreational drugs and medicinal drugs, hard drugs and soft drugs as mutually exclusive categories, it challenges readers to consider the ways in which drugs have shifted historically from one category to another.

Bekenntnisse eines englischen Opiumessers

Author: Thomas De Quincey

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3743707454

Category: Fiction

Page: 84

View: 5282

Thomas De Quincey: Bekenntnisse eines englischen Opiumessers Confessions of an English Opium-Eater. Erstdruck: 1821 in zwei Teilen im »London Magazine«, 1822 in Buchform. Hier in der Übersetzung von Leopold Heinemann, Berlin, Weltgeist-Bücher Verl.-Ges., 1927. Neuausgabe. Herausgegeben von Karl-Maria Guth. Berlin 2017. Umschlaggestaltung von Thomas Schultz-Overhage unter Verwendung des Bildes: Sir John Watson-Gordon, Porträt des Thomas De Quincey, undatiert.. Gesetzt aus der Minion Pro, 11 pt.

Consuming Habits

Drugs in History and Anthropology

Author: Jordan Goodman,Andrew Sherratt,Paul E. Lovejoy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134093624

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 4091

Covering a wide range of substances, including opium, cocaine, coffee, tobacco, kola, and betelnut, from prehistory to the present day, this new edition has been extensively updated, with an updated bibliography and two new chapters on cannabis and khat. Consuming Habits is the perfect companion for all those interested in how different cultures have defined drugs across the ages. Psychoactive substances have been central to the formation of civilizations, the definition of cultural identities, and the growth of the world economy. The labelling of these substances as 'legal' or 'illegal' has diverted attention away from understanding their important cultural and historical role. This collection explores the rich analytical category of psychoactive substances from challenging historical and anthropological perspectives.

Drugs in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law [3 volumes]

Author: Nancy E. Marion,Willard M. Oliver

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1610695968

Category: Political Science

Page: 1163

View: 426

Containing more than 450 entries, this easy-to-read encyclopedia provides concise information about the history of and recent trends in drug use and drug abuse in the United States—a societal problem with an estimated cost of $559 billion a year. • Contains more than 450 detailed entries on topics ranging from drugs themselves—such as alcohol, codeine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamines—to key individuals like Harry Anslinger to organizations such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) • Covers the latest developments in U.S. policies and public attitudes toward drugs and drug use • Provides citations with each entry to guide users to other valuable research resources • Features carefully selected primary documents—including excerpts from important laws, policies, and campaigns—that have shaped American drug policy over the decades

The Pursuit of Oblivion

A Global History of Narcotics

Author: Richard Davenport-Hines

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393325454

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 4490

Written with encyclopedic scope, this candid, sober, hard-hitting history of the global drug trade takes the reader back five centuries to the origins of the modern narcotics industry in the Western world. Reprint. 10,000 first printing.

Federal Drug Control

The Evolution of Policy and Practice

Author: Jonathon Erlen,Joseph F Spillane,Rebecca Carroll,William Mcallister,Dennis B Worthen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780789018922

Category: Medical

Page: 228

View: 2605

A comprehensive look at the beginnings of the current drug problems in the United States Federal Drug Control: The Evolution of Policy and Practice presents an overview of the key issues and key individuals responsible for the creation of the federal government’s efforts to control illegal drugs in the United States, from 1875-2001. The book focuses special attention on federal legislation that constructed the federal drug regulatory machinery and the Supreme Court cases that interpreted these laws and their implementation. An esteemed panel of scholars, including co-editor Joseph Spillane, author of Cocaine: From Medical Marvel to Modern Menace, and William B. McAllister, author of Drug Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century: An International History, traces the internal tensions between factions favoring medicalization and criminalization throughout the 20th century, examining the difficult choices that continue to be made in this ongoing debate. The central question in the government’s response to the crisis of illicit drugs in the United States has remained the same for more than 125 years: Should the government rely on educational and treatment programs or turn to the criminal justice system for answers? Federal Drug Control examines the historic turning points of the debate, including the 19th Century origins of the controversy, legislation and subsequent Supreme Court decisions in the 20th Century, international attempts at drug control agreements, and the emergence of new illicit drugs. The book also looks at the influential figures of the debate, including Levi Nutt, Lawrence Kolb, Richard Pearson Hobson, A.G. DuMez, and Harry J. Anslinger who ran the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN) for more than 30 years. Federal Drug Control examines: the history of cocaine use in the 20th Century the history of marijuana use in the 20th Century the advent of psychotropic drugs in the 1960s the origins of the Harrison Narcotic Act the federal government’s efforts to limit the pharmacy profession’s control over prescription drugs and much more! Federal Drug Control: The Evolution of Policy and Practice is an essential resource for criminologists, historians, social historians, sociologists, anthropologists, public policymakers, academics, and anyone interested in the broad issues involved in how the federal government deals with the problem of illicit drugs in the United States.

Die Mühlen der Zivilisation

Eine Tiefengeschichte der frühesten Staaten

Author: James C. Scott

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518761528

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 3148

Uns modernen Menschen erscheint die Sesshaftigkeit so natürlich wie dem Fisch das Wasser. Wie selbstverständlich gehen wir und auch weite Teile der historischen Forschung davon aus, dass die neolithische Revolution, in deren Verlauf der Mensch seine nomadische Existenz aufgab und zum Ackerbauer und Viehzüchter wurde, ein bedeutender zivilisatorischer Fortschritt war, dessen Früchte wir noch heute genießen. James C. Scott erzählt in seinem provokanten Buch eine ganz andere Geschichte. Gestützt auf archäologische Befunde, entwickelt er die These, dass die ersten bäuerlichen Staaten aus der Kontrolle über die Reproduktion entstanden und ein hartes Regime der Domestizierung errichteten, nicht nur mit Blick auf Pflanzen und Tiere. Auch die Bürger samt ihrer Sklaven und Frauen wurden der Herrschaft dieser frühesten Staaten unterworfen. Sie brachte Strapazen, Epidemien, Ungleichheiten und Kriege mit sich. Einzig die »Barbaren« haben sich gegen die Mühlen der Zivilisation gestemmt, sich der Sesshaftigkeit und den neuen Besteuerungssystemen verweigert und damit der Unterordnung unter eine staatliche Macht. Sie sind die heimlichen Helden dieses Buches, das unseren Blick auf die Menschheitsgeschichte verändert.

The Road of Excess

A History of Writers on Drugs

Author: Assistant Professor of English Marcus Boon,Marcus Boon,Boon Marcus

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674009141

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 339

View: 5437

From the antiquity of "Homer" to yesterday's "Naked Lunch, " writers have found inspiration in a world of the imagination tinged and transformed by drugs. Drawing on history, science, biography, literary analysis, and ethnography, Boon shows that the concept of drugs is interdisciplinary and reveals how connections between disciplines configure each drug's unique history. 12 illustrations.

The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine

Author: Roy Porter

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521002523

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 9495

An authoritative and accessible illustrated introduction to medical history.

The General History of Drugs

Author: Antonio Escohotado

Publisher: Did Lin Zexu Make Morphine?

ISBN: 0982078730

Category: Drug abuse

Page: N.A

View: 7890

War on Drugs

Studies in the Failure of U.S. Narcotics Policy

Author: Alfred W. McCoy

Publisher: Westview Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 359

View: 9357

Since the United States declared its "war on drugs" in the early 1980s, cocaine addiction rates have increased, "crack wars" have become an urban phenomenon, heroin use has multiplied, U.S. prisons have become overstuffed with convicted street users, and the Third World's production of narcotics has skyrocketed. U.S. drug policy failures are legion, and the essays in this volume explain why. One of the most pervasive reasons, which is addressed by several contributors to this book, is that U.S. intelligence organizations have long abetted the international traffic in narcotics as they carried out their cold-war missions. This point is rigorously argued and documented in the essays focusing on Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Pakistan. Among other themes explored is the notion that drug policy has been formulated without paying sufficient attention to the history of narcotics as a global commodity subject to the same stimuli as other goods produced in some of the world's most impoverished nations. In addition, U.S. trade policy has been almost willfully counter-productive. Closing U.S. markets to licit agricultural goods from these nations often stimulates the production of narcotics. With contributions from historians, criminologists, sociologists, political scientists, journalists, and policy analysts, the book provides a complete survey of U.S. narcotics policy in relation to Latin America's cocaine traffic and Asia's heroin trade.

Narconomics

Ein Drogenkartell erfolgreich führen

Author: Tom Wainwright

Publisher: Karl Blessing Verlag

ISBN: 3641161746

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 9733

Was haben Coca-Cola, McDonald’s und der internationale Drogenhandel gemeinsam? Der Drogenhandel ist ein globalisiertes, vernetztes und hoch professionalisiertes Geschäftsfeld mit einem Jahresumsatz von 300 Milliarden Dollar, Tendenz steigend. Wie man sich als aufstrebendes Kartell ein Stück vom Kuchen sichert? Indem man von den Besten des Big Business lernt. Denn die Strategien, die für Konzerne wie H&M, Coca-Cola und McDonald’s funktionieren, haben sich längst auch international erfolgreiche Drogenbarone angeeignet – von der richtigen PR über Offshoring, Assessment-Center und E-Commerce. In Narconomics vollzieht Wirtschaftsjournalist Wainwright die Wertschöpfungskette von Drogen wie Kokain nach, von der Koka-Ernte in den Anden bis zum Verkauf an unseren Straßenecken. Jahrelange Recherchen, gefahrenreiche Reisen zu den Brennpunkten des Drogenhandels und Interviews mit Beteiligten, ob minderjähriger Profikiller in den Straßen von Mexico City oder Polizist, Ganglord oder Staatspräsident, haben Wainwright tiefe Einblicke in eine einzigartig einträgliche und tödliche Branche beschert.

Substance Use and Abuse

Cultural and Historical Perspectives

Author: Russil Durrant,Jo Thakker

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452262969

Category: Psychology

Page: 320

View: 7078

Substance use and abuse are two of the most frequent psychological problems clinicians encounter. Mainstream approaches focus on the biological and psychological factors supporting drug abuse. But to fully comprehend the issue, clinicians need to consider the social, historical, and cultural factors responsible for drug-related problems. Substance Use and Abuse: Cultural and Historical Perspectives provides an inclusive explanation of the human desire to take drugs. Using a multidisciplinary framework, authors Russil Durrant and Jo Thakker explore the cultural and historical variables that contribute to drug use. Integrating biological, psychosocial, and cultural-historical perspectives, this innovative and accessible volume addresses the fundamental question of why drug use is such a ubiquitous feature of human society.

Substance Abuse in America

A Documentary and Reference Guide

Author: James Swartz

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 031335376X

Category: Political Science

Page: 333

View: 520

This book provides a comprehensive overview of drug policy in the United States from the early 1900s through the present day, providing historical and social context through the telling of the colorful and often tragic stories of the events and individuals throughout this period. * Suggestions for further readering are provided with each chapter, including books and book chapters, articles in the popular press, government documents, and links to Internet resources

The Political Economy of Narcotics

Production, Consumption and Global Markets

Author: Julia Buxton

Publisher: Zed Books

ISBN: 9781842774472

Category: Political Science

Page: 246

View: 6860

This book explores the origins, history and organisation of the international system of narcotic drug control with a specific focus on heroin, cannabis and cocaine. It argues that the century-long quest to eliminate the production, trade in and use of narcotic drugs has been a profound failure. The statistics produced by the international and domestic narcotic drug control agencies point to a sustained expansion of the drug trade, despite the imposition of harsh criminal sanctions against those engaged, as producers, traffickers or consumers, in the narcotic drugs market. The roots of this major international policy failure are traced back to the outdated ideology of prohibition, which is shown to be counterproductive, utopian and a fundamentally inadequate basis for narcotic drug policy in the twenty-first century. Prohibition, championed by many US policy makers, has left the international community poorly positioned to confront those changes to the drug trade and drug markets that have resulted from globalisation. Moreover, prohibition based approaches are causing more harm than good, as is demonstrated through reference to issues such as HIV/AIDS, the environment, conflict, development and social justice. As the drug control system approaches its centenary, there are signs that the global consensus on narcotic drug prohibition is fracturing. Some European and South American states are pushing for a new approach based on regulation, decriminalisation and harm reduction. But those seeking to revise prohibition strategies faces entrenched resistance, primarily by the U.S. This important text argues that successive American governments have pursued a contradictory approach; acting decisively against the narcotic drug trade at home and abroad, while at the same time working with drug traffickers and producer states when it is in America's strategic interest. As a result, US policy approaches emerge as a decisive factor in accounting for the failure of prohibition.