Author: Castine, S.A.[Author]; Sellamuttu, S.S.[Author]; Cohen, P.[Author]; Chandrabalan, D.[Author]; Phillips, M.[Author]
View: 7341Aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) are food production systems in which the productivity of freshwater or coastal ecosystems contributes significantly to total household nutrition, food security, and income in developing countries. The Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) engages in research in development to address this challenge. The goal of the CGIAR research program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (referred to in this paper as “the AAS program”) is to harness the development potential of aquatic agricultural systems to improve the livelihood security and well-being of an estimated 10 million by 2016 poor people who are dependent on these systems This working paper draws lessons from the target countries through a review of productivity interventions such as modifying habitats, harnessing underutilized productive resources, improving the integration of production commodities, supporting community-based natural resource management, and genetically improving strains. In total, this paper reviewed 20 productivity interventions.
Author: Jack A. Mathias,Anthony T. Charles,Hu Baotong
Publisher: CRC Press
View: 786Integrated Fish Farming (IFF) is a sustainable-agriculture technology practiced widely in Asia and other regions of the world. This integrated technology can offer farmers economic improvements while lessening the adverse environmental impacts of farming. IFF systems typically involve a combination of fish polyculture, integration of agricultural production (livestock and/or crops) with aquaculture, and on-farm waste recycling. Drawing on research presented by experts from around the world at the International Workshop on Integrated Fish Farming, this book provides thorough, detailed and truly interdisciplinary coverage of one of the world's most important approaches to integrated farming systems. Integrated Fish Farming places IFF in a global context, reporting on case studies of successful IFF operations, experiments to enhance IFF performance, bioeconomic survey and modeling analyses, research on farm waste use and pond ecology, socioeconomic elements of IFF extension and adoption, and the bio-technical and economic aspects of adapting IFF to reservoirs, marshlands, rice paddies and marginal habitats.
Author: Kelly Hallman, David Lewis, and Suraiya Begum
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Category: Social Science
Author: Matthias Halwart,Modadugu V. Gupta
Author: Farnworth, C.R.,Sultana, N.,Kantor, P.,Choudhury, A.
View: 1734ÿThis working paper is part of a review of aquaculture technologies and gender in Bangladesh in the period 1990 to 2014. It assesses how gender has been integrated within past aquaculture technology interventions, before exploring the gender dimensions associated with current approaches to transferring knowledge about homestead aquaculture technology. It draws out existing knowledge, identifies research gaps, and selects practices to build upon--as well as practices to move away from. The review examines the research and practice of WorldFish and other development partners in Bangladesh through consultations, a review of gray and published literature, and fieldwork. It aims to contribute to the development of aquaculture technology dissemination methodologies that strengthen and underpin women?s participation in aquaculture.
Author: David Little,Peter Edwards,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
Category: Technology & Engineering
View: 1555Integrated farming in Asia is either considered an eco-friendly good that should be preserved for environmental reasons or a poor practice that will soon be superseded by industrial aquaculture. This report finds that most livestock-fish integration is sound business conducted by entrepreneurs accessing urban markets where the price of fish is relatively low. It can be used as part of a strategy to reduce environmental impacts of intensive livestock production and to produce low-cost food. Farmers have proved adept at both developing their systems to meet their own needs and diversifying the role of ponds, fish and livestock within their complex livelihoods.
Author: World Bank,Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Social Science
View: 7589The 'Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook' provides an up-to-date understanding of gender issues and a rich compilation of compelling evidence of good practices and lessons learned to guide practitioners in integrating gender dimensions into agricultural projects and programs. It is serves as a tool for: guidance; showcasing key principles in integrating gender into projects; stimulating the imagination of practitioners to apply lessons learned, experiences, and innovations to the design of future support and investment in the agriculture sector. The Sourcebook draws on a wide range of experience from World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and other donor agencies, governments, institutions, and groups active in agricultural development. The Sourcebook looks at: access to and control of assets; access to markets, information and organization; and capacity to manage risk and vulnerability through a gender lens. There are 16 modules covering themes of cross-cutting importance for agriculture with strong gender dimensions (Policy, Public Administration and Governance; Agricultural Innovation and Education; Food Security; Markets; Rural Finance; Rural Infrastructure; Water; Land; Labor; Natural Resource Management; and Disaster and Post-Conflict Management) and specific subsectors in agriculture (Crops, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries). A separate module on Monitoring and Evaluation is included, responding to the need to track implementation and development impact. Each module contains three different sub-units: (1) A Module Overview gives a broad introduction to the topic and provides a summary of major development issues in the sector and rationale of looking at gender dimension; (2) Thematic Notes provide a brief and technically sound guide in gender integration in selected themes with lessons learned, guidelines, checklists, organizing principles, key questions, and key performance indicators; and (3) Innovative Activity Profiles describe the design and innovative features of recent and exciting projects and activities that have been implemented or are ongoing.
Author: Peter Edwards,Roger S. V. Pullin,J. A. Gartner
Category: Agricultural education
Author: Peter Edwards,David Little,Harvey Demaine
View: 5167Aquaculture for both finfish and shellfish is expanding rapidly throughout the world. It is regarded as having the potential to provide a valuable source of protein in less developed countries and to be integrated into the farming systems and livelihoods of the rural poor. This book addresses key issues in aquaculture and rural development, with case studies drawn from several countries in South and South-East Asia. Papers included cover topics ranging from production and technical issues (such as pond culture and rice field fisheries) to social aspects and research and development methodology. The book has been developed from a meeting of the Asian Fisheries Society. It is aimed at all concerned with aquaculture and rural development.
Category: Technology & Engineering
View: 7601Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Second Edition addresses important issues by examining topics of global agriculture and food systems that are key to understanding the challenges we face. Questions it addresses include: Will we be able to produce enough food to meet the increasing dietary needs and wants of the additional two billion people expected to inhabit our planet by 2050? Will we be able to meet the need for so much more food while simultaneously reducing adverse environmental effects of today’s agriculture practices? Will we be able to produce the additional food using less land and water than we use now? These are among the most important challenges that face our planet in the coming decades. The broad themes of food systems and people, agriculture and the environment, the science of agriculture, agricultural products, and agricultural production systems are covered in more than 200 separate chapters of this work. The book provides information that serves as the foundation for discussion of the food and environment challenges of the world. An international group of highly respected authors addresses these issues from a global perspective and provides the background, references, and linkages for further exploration of each of topics of this comprehensive work. Addresses important challenges of sustainability and efficiency from a global perspective. Takes a detailed look at the important issues affecting the agricultural and food industries today. Full colour throughout.
Promoting Social, Economic and Environmental Resilience
Author: Stuart W. Bunting
Category: Technology & Engineering
View: 1642Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, principally fish, molluscs, crustaceans and marine algae. It has seen phenomenal worldwide growth in the past fifty years and many people view it as the best solution for the provision of high quality protein to feed the world's growing population, particularly with the rapid decline in wild marine fish populations. Aquaculture now contributes approximately one third of the world's fish production, and has increased by about eight per cent annually over the last thirty years, while wild capture fishery production has remained static. Focused on developing more sustainable aquaculture practices, this book provides an ideal advanced-level textbook. It is based on extensive evidence and knowledge of best practices, with guidance on appropriate adaptation and uptake in a variety of environmental, geographic, socio-economic and political settings. The author concentrates on low-impact aquaculture systems and approaches, which have minimal adverse effects on the environment. He also emphasizes socially responsible and equitable aquaculture development; to enhance the natural resource base and livelihoods. Drawing on a range of case-studies from around the world, the objective is to show where progress in terms of developing ecologically sound and socially responsible forms of aquaculture has been made. A tool-box of approaches to support widespread adoption and appropriate adaptation of regenerating aquaculture strategies is provided, ensuring the book will have practical relevance for both students and professionals.
Managing Agriculture-fishery-aquaculture Conflicts
Category: Technology & Engineering
View: 3730This book focuses on the challenges people face in managing agricultural crops, aquaculture, fisheries and related ecosystems in areas of coastal zones in the tropics of Asia, Africa, Australia and South America. Challenges arise from conflicts in the use of natural resources among different stakeholders. Through many case studies, the book discusses the nature of these conflicts and identifies what is known and not known about how to manage them. Case studies include: · trade-offs between enhancing agricultural production and maintenance of rural livelihoods and aquatic biodiversity.· lessons learnt from the conversion of mangrove forests to shrimp farms.
Reconnecting People, Land, and Nature
Author: Jules N. Pretty
View: 622'Refreshingly fluent narrative, brimming full of stories and metaphors' Tim O'Riordan, University of East Anglia, UK 'A great balance between storytelling and analysis which points to the critical need for gaining control over resources' Jacqueline Ashby, CIAT, Colombia 'Full of supporting evidence and clear arguments' Norman Uphoff, Cornell University, US 'A wonderful book, put together with such vision and passion' Mark Ritchie, Institute of Agriculture and Trade Policy, US 'A superb volume. This is a valuable monograph that all policy-makers, scholars and farmers must read to understand their roles and responsibilities' Vo-Tong Xuan, Angiang University, Vietnam 'Beautifully written. The implications of the book's ideas are deep and extensive' Julia Guivant, University of Florianopolis, Brazil Something is wrong with our agricultural and food systems. Despite great progress in increasing productivity in recent decades, hundreds of millions of people remain hungry and malnourished, and further millions suffer for eating too much food or the wrong sort. Agri-Culture envisages the expansion of a new form of food production and consumption founded on more ecological principles and in harmony with the cultures, knowledges and collective capacities of the producers themselves. It draws on many stories of successful agricultural transformation in developing and industrialized countries, but with a warning that true prosperity will depend on the radical reform of the institutions and policies that control global food futures, and fundamental changes in the way we think. The time has come for the next agricultural revolution.
Author: Har Darshan Kumar
Publisher: Daya Books
View: 2259Sustainable water management, food security and water security being some of the most critical issues facing the world in the 21st century - dubbed the Century of Water : this monograph outlines various options for proactive management of fisheries and aquaculture to sustainably meet the growing food requirements of millions of people living in developing countries both in rural areas and in cities. Both freshwater and marine fisheries are covered. Besides giving production statistics calculated by various organisations, the book lists traditional as well as potentially promising newer organisms suitable for aquaculture in swamps, ponds, marshes, lakes and mangroves not only as a source of nutritious food but also as employment avenues for small-scale or marginal fisherfolk. The book can server as an introductory text for courses in fisheries and aquaculture both in traditional universities and in marine and freshwater institutes. Contents Chapter 1: General Introduction; Definitions, Definition of categories, Fish description, Sustainable development, Unsustainable fisheries, Aquaculture sustainability and food security, Wastes for aquaculture, Sustainable use of living marine sustainable, Aquaculture, Role of local governments in sustainable development, Enhancements systems approach to aquaculture, Quality, Safety, Marketing and trade of aquaculture products, Growth enhancement by genetic manipulation management concerns; Chapter 2: Fish Farming; Introduction, Sustainable aquaculture, Organic aquaculture, Genetics and aquaculture, Nutrition and feeding, Rapid fattening of Wild-caught eels, Exotic species, Salmon farming, Poverty alleviation, Box 2.1 CARP (Cyprinus carpio linnaeus), (Family Cyprinidae), Aquatic resources and the livelihoods of poor people, Water quality: Dissolved oxygen for sustainable aquaculture, Types of systems, Infrastructure and support technologies, Recirculation, Recirculation technology, Some new approaches, Fish cage systems, Inshore-nearshore cage farms, Offshore cage farming, Integrated cage-cum-pond aquaculture system, Abalone culture, Agriculture-aquaculture integration, Choice of fish species, Public health, Fodder-fish integration, Refuges, Stocking for rice-fish culture, Species-specific biology, Feeding and maintenance in rice-fish system, Management, Effects on rice yield, Benefits and potentials, Fish for integrated pest management in rice production, Fish as predators in rice fields, Shrimp farming in the sonoran desert; Chapter 3: Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture; Introduction, Trends in fishery development, Stock assessment, Global shellfish production, Fisheries and bioeconomics, The value of fisheries, Surplus production models, Stability, Multispecies assessment, Length, weight and age determination, Global synchrony in fish population variations, Marine protected areas, Scales relevant to recruitment in large marine, Ecosystems, Growth, survival and recruitment in large marine ecosystems (LMEs), Growth, Density-independent factors, Intrinsic or innate factors, A generalized concept of recruitment factors, Recruitment research in large marine, Ecosystems, Scallop farming, Sustainable shrimp culture, Aquaculture shrimp culture, Aquaculture in africa, Sustainable commercial aquaculture in sub-saharan africa, Sea urchin aquaculture (Echinoculture), Marine biotechnology and aquaculture, Biosecurity for shrimp aquaculture, Polyploidy in shrimp; Chapter 4: Coastal Aquaculture; Introduction, Global aquaculture production, Production systems, Cage cultivation, Chemicals and their applications, Soil and water treatments, Fertilizers, Disinfectants, Antibacterial agents, Therapeutants other than antibacterials, Pesticides, Herbicides/Algicides, Feed additives, Hormones, Issues of concern, Persistence, Residues in non-cultured organisms, Toxicity to non-target species, Stimulation of resistance, Effects on sediment biogeochemistry, Nutrient enrichment, Health of farm workers, Residues in seafood, Quality assurance of chemicals used in aquaculture, Difficulties in effluent treatment, Need for environmental fate and effects, Information, Salmon aquaculture, Prawn cultivation, Milkfish aquaculture in the philippines, Marine shrimp aquaculture in thailand; Chapter 5: Fisheries, Farming and Aquaculture in China and India; Introduction, Marine fisheries development, Selected species for sea farming, Seaweed, Molluscs, Abalone, Curstaceans (shrimp), Echinoderms (Sea cucumbers), Box 5.1 Sea cucumber, Marine fish (Left-eyed flounder), Sea farming and sea ranching systems, Inland fishery enhancements in china, Enhancement methods, Protection of natural fish resources, Stocking, Cage and pen fish culture, Reservoir fisheries, Marine capture fisheries (india), Inappropriate exploitation patterns, Target fishing, Managment versus exploitation, Sea ranching, Mariculture, Aquaculture, Shrimp production, Diversity and sustainability in aquaculture production, Regulation of egg production in crustaceans; Chapter 6: Inland Fisheries; Introduction, Perspectives, Polyculture, Transition from commercial to recreational use, Valuation, Environmental issues, Tilapia-the aquatic chicken, Tilapia genetics, Bird predation, Monosex populations, Lobster farming, Koura farming, Aquaculture techniques, Fishery biomanipulation, Fish removal, Stocking piscivorous fish, Impact of biomanipulation on fishery and fish stocks; Chapter 7: Wetlands and Mangroves; Introduction, Wetlands, Classes, Major Problems, Subsistence production and commercial production, Objectives of wetland management, Protection of wetlands, Management and conservation of wetlands in large lakes, Wetlands and shoreline gradients, Water level fluctuations, A model for changes in shoreline wetlands, A model for frequency and intensity of flooding, Centrifugal organization, Management guidelines, Mangroves-conversion into fish farms, Mangrove losses from shrimp farming, Aquaculture in wetlands of north india, nepal and bangladesh, Shrimp culture in india and bangladesh, Homestead catfish culture in bangladesh, Rice-cum-fish cultivation in nepal; Chapter 8: Freshwater Aquaculture in Europe; Introduction, Finfish production, The fish species, The role of introduced freshwater species in aquaculture production, Fish for industrial systems, Hygiene in foodstuffs, Production, products and sales, FAO code of conduct for responsible fisheries, FEAP code of conduct, Impact on trade of environmental and health/ hygiene legislation, Competition among aquaculture products, fish and non-fish meat products, Management of inland fisheries and aquaculture: Social, economic and cultural perspectives, Solutions, Inland fisheries in germany, Lake restoration in denmark; Chapter 9: Management of fisheries and aquaculture; Introduction, Models as a management tool, Articles relating to food safety, Article 6- General principles, Article 7- Fisheries management, Rehabilitation, Fisheries management and safety at sea, Role of fishermen, Good management practices, Sector level operating principles, Use of GMPs, Relationship of GMPs with other environmental management initiatives; Benefits of GMPs, Process for site specific SMPs, Initiation and participation co-management, Sector-level management needs, Integrated resource management, Management post-johannesburg, Five module LME approach, Management of post-harvest problems, Components of a national plan; Chapter 10: Environmental concerns; Introduction, Effects of fisheries on marine ecosystems, Overfishing, Impact of dams on fisheries, Aquatic macrophytes as a habitat of vectors and hosts of tropical diseases and biological control, Using fish, Aquaculture and inland fisheries, Global edible fish supply, Outlook, Inland fisheries, Threats, Managing species introductions, Pest fish in freshwater, Impacts of marine aquaculture, Secondary production in the oceans and the response to climate change, Effects of ultraviolet radiation on fisheries, Diel variation of DNA damage and repair, Effects of UV-B on fish in the antarctic, Effects of UV-B on phytoplankton, Variability of solar UV-B, Environmental effects of mussel farming, Minimizing environmental impacts of shrimp feeds.
Key Challenges and Concrete Solutions
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
Category: Social Science
View: 396Young people account for a large percentage of the rural population, and are often unemployed or underemployed, despite the need for labour force in agriculture. Rural youth face many hurdles in trying to earn a livelihood. They do not perceive agriculture as a remunerative or prestigious profession, and until they find meaningful economic opportunities and attractive environments in rural areas, they will continue to migrate to cities. This trend not only contributes to the emerging phenomenon of over-urbanization and growing unemployment in urban areas, but is also expected to affect global food production. Investing in young people living in rural areas is therefore key to enhancing agricultural productivity, boosting rural economies and ensuring food security. This publication provides real life examples on how to re-engage youth in agriculture. It shows how tailor-made educational programmes can provide rural youth with the skills and insights needed to engage in farming and adopt environmentally friendly production methods. Many of the initiatives and approaches reported in this study originate from the youth themselves. The following study was a joint undertaking of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA).
a five country review
Author: Abu Hayat Md. Saiful Islam
Publisher: Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften
View: 9998The author examines the dynamics of participation in and welfare impact of integrated aquaculture-agriculture (IAA) value chain by using three-year panel data from indigenous households in the northern and north-western regions of Bangladesh. By different panel estimation methods he analyses the IAA value chain participation dynamics and indicates that education and household size, access to extensions and market information, community-based organisations (CBO) membership are positively associated with participation and continuing participation in IAA value chain activities. Welfare impact results indicate that IAA value chain participation is positively correlated to household income and consumption frequency of some goods, particularly fish. Assessment of the comparative socio-environmental impacts of rice monoculture and rice-fish based IAA practices suggests that rice-fish based IAA is a sustainable alternative to rice monoculture.
The PD/A CRSP in Rwanda, Honduras, the Philippines, and Thailand
Author: T. S. Walker
Publisher: International Potato Center
Category: Agricultural innovations
View: 4098The variety case studies; The IPM case studies; The seed system case studies.