Data Not Dogma
Author: Peter Kareiva,Michelle Marvier,Brian Silliman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This edited volume assembles some of the most intriguing voices in modern conservation biology. Collectively they highlight many of the most challenging questions being asked in conservation science today, each of which will benefit from new experiments, new data, and new analyses. The book's principal aim is to inspire readers to tackle these uncomfortable issues head-on. A second goal is to be reflective and consider how the field has reacted to challenges, and to what extent these challenges advance conservation science. A concluding chapter will synthesize common themes that emerge from the experiences of the authors in these debates and discuss how best to guard against confirmation bias. The hope is that this book will lead to greater conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity by harnessing the engine of constructive scientific scepticism in service of better results.
Author: Peter Kareiva,Michelle Marvier
Now is the time for conservation science—a mission-oriented scientific enterprise that seeks to protect nature, including Earth’s animals, plants, and ecosystems, in the face of unprecedented human demands upon the planet. Conservation scientists apply principles from ecology, population genetics, economics, political science, and other natural and social sciences to manage and preserve nature. The focus of this textbook is first and foremost on protecting nature and especially Earth’s biota. It also contains a heavy emphasis on highlighting strategies to better connect the practice of conservation with the needs and priorities of a growing human population. Now used at over 150 colleges and universities, Conservation Science is an original and modern approach to conservation. Conservation Science was primarily written primarily for undergraduates and beginning graduate students who are interested either in academic careers or working in conservation at government agencies, non-governmental organizations, or international institutions.
Author: Kathleen Hall Jamieson,Dan Kahan,Dietram A. Scheufele
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The proposal to vaccinate adolescent girls against the human papilloma virus ignited political controversy, as did the advent of fracking and a host of other emerging technologies. These disputes attest to the persistent gap between expert and public perceptions. Complicating the communication of sound science and the debates that surround the societal applications of that science is a changing media environment in which misinformation can elicit belief without corrective context and likeminded individuals are prone to seek ideologically comforting information within their own self-constructed media enclaves. Drawing on the expertise of leading science communication scholars from six countries, The Oxford Handbook of the Science of Science Communication not only charts the media landscape - from news and entertainment to blogs and films - but also examines the powers and perils of human biases - from the disposition to seek confirming evidence to the inclination to overweight endpoints in a trend line. In the process, it draws together the best available social science on ways to communicate science while also minimizing the pernicious effects of human bias. The Handbook adds case studies exploring instances in which communication undercut or facilitated the access to scientific evidence. The range of topics addressed is wide, from genetically engineered organisms and nanotechnology to vaccination controversies and climate change. Also unique to this book is a focus on the complexities of involving the public in decision making about the uses of science, the regulations that should govern its application, and the ethical boundaries within which science should operate. The Handbook is an invaluable resource for researchers in the communication fields, particularly in science and health communication, as well as to scholars involved in research on scientific topics susceptible to distortion in partisan debate.
Environmental Science and Ethics
Author: Jonathan A. Newman,Gary Varner,Stefan Linquist
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Imagine that you are an environmentalist who passionately believes that it is wrong to drill for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. How do you convince someone that a decision to drill is wrong? Debates about the environment and how humans ought to treat it have gone on for decades, yet arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity often lack empirical substance or are philosophically naïve, making them far less effective than they could be. This book critically examines arguments that are commonly offered in support of biodiversity conservation. The authors adopt a skeptical viewpoint to thoroughly test the strength of each argument and, by demonstrating how scientific evidence can be integrated with philosophical reasoning, they help environmentalists to better engage with public debate and judiciously inform public policy. This interdisciplinary and accessible book is essential reading for anyone who engages in discussions about the value of biodiversity conservation.
For Biodiversity Research and Monitoring
Author: Pierre Taberlet,Aurélie Bonin,Lucie Zinger,Eric Coissac
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Environmental DNA (eDNA) refers to DNA that can be extracted from environmental samples (such as soil, water, feces, or air) without the prior isolation of any target organism. The analysis of environmental DNA has the potential of providing high-throughput information on taxa and functional genes in a given environment, and is easily amenable to the study of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. It can provide an understanding of past or present biological communities as well as their trophic relationships, and can thus offer useful insights into ecosystem functioning. There is now a rapidly-growing interest amongst biologists in applying analysis of environmental DNA to their own research. However, good practices and protocols dealing with environmental DNA are currently widely dispersed across numerous papers, with many of them presenting only preliminary results and using a diversity of methods. In this context, the principal objective of this practical handbook is to provide biologists (both students and researchers) with the scientific background necessary to assist with the understanding and implementation of best practices and analyses based on environmental DNA.
How Nature Is Thriving in an Age of Extinction
Author: Chris D. Thomas
Human activity has irreversibly changed the natural environment. But the news isn't all bad. It's accepted wisdom today that human beings have permanently damaged the natural world, causing extinction, deforestation, pollution, and of course climate change. But in Inheritors of the Earth, biologist Chris Thomas shows that this obscures a more hopeful truth--we're also helping nature grow and change. Human cities and mass agriculture have created new places for enterprising animals and plants to live, and our activities have stimulated evolutionary change in virtually every population of living species. Most remarkably, Thomas shows, humans may well have raised the rate at which new species are formed to the highest level in the history of our planet. Drawing on the success stories of diverse species, from the ochre-colored comma butterfly to the New Zealand pukeko, Thomas overturns the accepted story of declining biodiversity on Earth. In so doing, he questions why we resist new forms of life, and why we see ourselves as unnatural. Ultimately, he suggests that if life on Earth can recover from the asteroid that killed off the dinosaurs, it can survive the onslaughts of the technological age. This eye-opening book is a profound reexamination of the relationship between humanity and the natural world.
The Ecology of a Complex System
Author: Richard Ostfeld
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Most human diseases come from nature, from pathogens that live and breed in non-human animals and are "accidentally" transmitted to us. Human illness is only the culmination of a complex series of interactions among species in their natural habitats. To avoid exposure to these pathogens, we must understand which species are involved, what regulates their abundance, and how they interact. Lyme disease affects the lives of millions of people in the US, Europe, and Asia. It is the most frequently reported vector-borne disease in the United States; About 20,000 cases have been reported each year over the past five years, and tens of thousands more go unrecognized and unreported. Despite the epidemiological importance of understanding variable LD risk, such pursuit has been slow, indirect, and only partially successful, due in part to an overemphasis on identifying the small subset of 'key players' that contribute to Lyme disease risk, as well as a general misunderstanding of effective treatment options. This controversial book is a comprehensive, synthetic review of research on the ecology of Lyme disease in North America. It describes how humans get sick, why some years and places are so risky and others not. It challenges dogma - for instance, that risk is closely tied to the abundance of deer - and replaces it with a new understanding that embraces the complexity of species and their interactions. It describes why the place where Lyme disease emerged - coastal New England - set researchers on mistaken pathways. It shows how tiny acorns have enormous impacts on our probability of getting sick, why biodiversity is good for our health, why living next to a small woodlot is dangerous, and why Lyme disease is an excellent model system for understanding many other human and animal diseases. Intended for an audience of professional and student ecologists, epidemiologists, and other health scientists, it is written in an informal style accessible also to non-scientists interested in human health and conservation.
Collaborative Approaches to Watershed Management
Author: Paul A. Sabatier,Will Focht,Mark Lubell,Zev Trachtenberg,Arnold Vedlitz,Marty Matlock
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Political Science
In recent years, water resource management in the United States has begun a shift away from top-down, government agency-directed decision processes toward a collaborative approach of negotiation and problem solving. Rather than focusing on specific pollution sources or specific areas within a watershed, this new process considers the watershed as a whole, seeking solutions to an interrelated set of social, economic, and environmental problems. Decision making involves face-to-face negotiations among a variety of stakeholders, including federal, state, and local agencies, landowners, environmentalists, industries, and researchers.Swimming Upstream analyzes the collaborative approach by providing a historical overview of watershed management in the United States and a normative and empirical conceptual framework for understanding and evaluating the process. The bulk of the book looks at a variety of collaborative watershed planning projects across the country. It first examines the applications of relatively short-term collaborative strategies in Oklahoma and Texas, exploring issues of trust and legitimacy. It then analyzes factors affecting the success of relatively long-term collaborative partnerships in the National Estuary Program and in 76 watersheds in Washington and California. Bringing analytical rigor to a field that has been dominated by practitioners' descriptive accounts, Swimming Upstream makes a vital contribution to public policy, public administration, and environmental management.
Author: A. L. Stanford,J. M. Tanner
Publisher: Academic Press
Physics for Students of Science and Engineering is a calculus-based textbook of introductory physics. The book reviews standards and nomenclature such as units, vectors, and particle kinetics including rectilinear motion, motion in a plane, relative motion. The text also explains particle dynamics, Newton's three laws, weight, mass, and the application of Newton's laws. The text reviews the principle of conservation of energy, the conservative forces (momentum), the nonconservative forces (friction), and the fundamental quantities of momentum (mass and velocity). The book examines changes in momentum known as impulse, as well as the laws in momentum conservation in relation to explosions, collisions, or other interactions within systems involving more than one particle. The book considers the mechanics of fluids, particularly fluid statics, fluid dynamics, the characteristics of fluid flow, and applications of fluid mechanics. The text also reviews the wave-particle duality, the uncertainty principle, the probabilistic interpretation of microscopic particles (such as electrons), and quantum theory. The book is an ideal source of reference for students and professors of physics, calculus, or related courses in science or engineering.
Author: Franck Courchamp,Ludek Berec,Joanna Gascoigne
Publisher: Oxford University Press
When a plant or animal becomes rare, individuals may suffer because of a lack of others of the same species. They may find it difficult to reproduce or raise young, escape from predators in a crowd or keep warm in winter. This means that each individual in the population is less successful, and as a consequence the population may decline still further, with the possibility of extinction. This phenomenon is called an Allee effect, after the ecologist who firstsuggested the idea. As many species become rare as a result of human activities, Allee effects become more and more relevant to ecologists and conservation biologists who study thescience of rarity, and also to conservationists and managers who try and protect endangered populations. This book provides a scholarly yet accessible overview of the Allee effect, the mechanisms which drive it and its consequences for population dynamics, evolution and conservation.
Primates, Predators, and Human Evolution, Expanded Edition
Author: Donna Hart
Category: Social Science
Man the Hunted argues that primates, including the earliest members of the human family, have evolved as the prey of any number of predators, including wild cats and dogs, hyenas, snakes, crocodiles, and even birds. The authors' studies of predators on monkeys and apes are supplemented here with the observations of naturalists in the field and revealing interpretations of the fossil record. Eyewitness accounts of the 'man the hunted' drama being played out even now give vivid evidence of its prehistoric significance. This provocative view of human evolution suggests that countless adaptations that have allowed our species to survive (from larger brains to speech), stem from a considerably more vulnerable position on the food chain than we might like to imagine. The myth of early humans as fearless hunters dominating the earth obscures our origins as just one of many species that had to be cautious, depend on other group members, communicate danger, and come to terms with being merely one cog in the complex cycle of life.
Author: Paul Adam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
A broad introduction to the ecology of the unique environment of the saltmarsh.
A History of Rangeland Science
Author: Nathan F. Sayre
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Rangelands are vast, making up one quarter of the United States and forty percent of the Earth’s ice-free land. And while contemporary science has revealed a great deal about the environmental impacts associated with intensive livestock production—from greenhouse gas emissions to land and water degradation—far less is known about the historic role science has played in rangeland management and politics. Steeped in US soil, this first history of rangeland science looks to the origins of rangeland ecology in the late nineteenth-century American West, exploring the larger political and economic forces that—together with scientific study—produced legacies focused on immediate economic success rather than long-term ecological well being. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, a variety of forces—from the Homestead Act of 1862 to the extermination of bison, foreign investment, and lack of government regulation—promoted free-for-all access to and development of the western range, with disastrous environmental consequences. To address the crisis, government agencies turned to scientists, but as Nathan F. Sayre shows, range science grew in a politically fraught landscape. Neither the scientists nor the public agencies could escape the influences of bureaucrats and ranchers who demanded results, and the ideas that became scientific orthodoxy—from fire suppression and predator control to fencing and carrying capacities—contained flaws and blind spots that plague public debates about rangelands to this day. Looking at the global history of rangeland science through the Cold War and beyond, The Politics of Scale identifies the sources of past conflicts and mistakes and helps us to see a more promising path forward, one in which rangeland science is guided less by capital and the state and more by communities working in collaboration with scientists.
Author: David Lindenmayer,Andrew F. Bennett,Richard Hobbs
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
This book summarizes the main discoveries, management insights and policy initiatives in the science, management and policy arenas associated with temperate woodlands in Australia. More than 60 of Australia's leading researchers, policy makers and natural resource managers have contributed to the volume. It features new perspectives on the integration of woodland management and agricultural production, including the latest thinking about whole of paddock restoration and carbon farming, as well as financial and social incentive schemes to promote woodland conservation and management. Temperate Woodland Conservation and Management will be a key supporting aid for farmers, natural resource managers, policy makers, and people involved in NGO landscape restoration and management. KEY FEATURES * High quality chapters from the nation's leading researchers, managers and policy makers in temperate woodlands * New perspectives on the integration of woodland management and agricultural production * Easy to follow format that distills key new insights and lessons for future conservation and management initiatives
Author: David S. Jachowski,Joshua J. Millspaugh,Paul L. Angermeier,Rob Slotow
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Reintroduction of Fish and Wildlife Populations provides a practical step-by-step guide to successfully planning, implementing, and evaluating the reestablishment of animal populations in former habitats or their introduction in new environments. In each chapter, experts in reintroduction biology outline a comprehensive synthesis of core concepts, issues, techniques, and perspectives. This manual and reference supports scientists and managers from fisheries and wildlife professions as they plan reintroductions, initiate releases of individuals, and manage restored populations over time. Covering a broad range of taxonomic groups, ecosystems, and global regions, this edited volume is an essential guide for academics, students, and professionals in natural resource management.
Practical Studio Applications
Author: Stephane Elmosnino
Publisher: Oxford University Press
With this all-in-one manual, students and teachers have an easy-to-read reference that provides a reliable and current rundown of the world of sound production, from planning a recording session to mastering the final product. Organized by four main topics - pre-production, recording various instruments, mixing theories and tools, and mastering - Audio Production Principles follows the actual flow of instruction given over the course of a student's tenure. Chapters address etiquette and basic operations for any recording session written in useful, tutorial style language, providing guidelines for beginner audio engineers on topics including pre-production, equipment selection, and mixing tips by instrument. Jumpstarting the mastering process, lessons delve into features unique to specific tools and techniques. All sections offer instructional scenarios of studio setups, asking students to brainstorm the best production technique for each situation. These exercises also help teachers generate new ideas for instruction and production projects of their own.
Against the Domestication of Earth
Author: George Wuerthner
Publisher: Island Press
Is it time to embrace the so-called “Anthropocene”—the age of human dominion—and to abandon tried-and-true conservation tools such as parks and wilderness areas? Is the future of Earth to be fully domesticated, an engineered global garden managed by technocrats to serve humanity? The schism between advocates of rewilding and those who accept and even celebrate a “post-wild” world is arguably the hottest intellectual battle in contemporary conservation. In Keeping the Wild, a group of prominent scientists, writers, and conservation activists responds to the Anthropocene-boosters who claim that wild nature is no more (or in any case not much worth caring about), that human-caused extinction is acceptable, and that “novel ecosystems” are an adequate replacement for natural landscapes. With rhetorical fists swinging, the book’s contributors argue that these “new environmentalists” embody the hubris of the managerial mindset and offer a conservation strategy that will fail to protect life in all its buzzing, blossoming diversity. With essays from Eileen Crist, David Ehrenfeld, Dave Foreman, Lisi Krall, Harvey Locke, Curt Meine, Kathleen Dean Moore, Michael Soulé, Terry Tempest Williams and other leading thinkers, Keeping the Wild provides an introduction to this important debate, a critique of the Anthropocene boosters’ attack on traditional conservation, and unapologetic advocacy for wild nature.
Author: Grzegorz Mikusiński,Jean-Michel Roberge,Robert J. Fuller
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Ecology and Conservation of Forest Birds is a unique review of current understanding of the relationships between forest birds and their changing environments. Large ecological changes are being driven by forest management, climate change, introduced pests and pathogens, abiotic disturbances, and overbrowsing. Many forest bird species have suffered population declines, with the situation being particularly severe for birds dependent on attributes such as dead wood, old trees and structurally complex forests. With a focus on the non-tropical parts of the Northern Hemisphere, the text addresses the fundamental evolutionary and ecological aspects of forest birds using original data analyses and synthesising reviews. The characteristics of bird assemblages and their habitats in different European forest types are explored, together with the macroecological patterns of bird diversity and conservation issues. The book provides a valuable reference for ecologists, ornithologists, conservation professionals, forest industry employees, and those interested in birds and nature.
Author: Eric May,Mark Jones
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Category: Antiques & Collectibles
Conservation of artefacts and heritage materials is an increasingly popular and fascinating area, spanning both historical and scientific disciplines. Materials come in many forms ranging from sunken ships to tapestries, from buildings to books. With this wide range of matrices and materials to analyse and preserve, an interdisciplinary approach is needed drawing upon skills from many areas of knowledge. Conservation Science: Heritage Materials links these fields of research together forming a comprehensive text book that discusses analytical aspects, wall paintings, organic and inorganic materials. It provides up to date information on subjects including research on decay and degradation and an understanding of the deterioration mechanisms of historic and artistic works. Also included are a number of case studies of particularly important finds including the upkeep of the Mary Rose and the preservation of the sail on Nelsons ship HMS Victory. This book provides an essential guide and reference source for those working in all areas of heritage conservation.