Elements of Finite Model Theory

Author: Leonid Libkin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662070030

Category: Mathematics

Page: 318

View: 9616

Emphasizes the computer science aspects of the subject. Details applications in databases, complexity theory, and formal languages, as well as other branches of computer science.

Finite Model Theory and Its Applications

Author: Erich Grädel,Phokion G. Kolaitis,Leonid Libkin,Maarten Marx,Joel Spencer,Moshe Y. Vardi,Yde Venema,Scott Weinstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540688048

Category: Computers

Page: 437

View: 363

Finite model theory,as understoodhere, is an areaof mathematicallogic that has developed in close connection with applications to computer science, in particular the theory of computational complexity and database theory. One of the fundamental insights of mathematical logic is that our understanding of mathematical phenomena is enriched by elevating the languages we use to describe mathematical structures to objects of explicit study. If mathematics is the science of patterns, then the media through which we discern patterns, as well as the structures in which we discern them, command our attention. It isthis aspect oflogicwhichis mostprominentin model theory,“thebranchof mathematical logic which deals with the relation between a formal language and its interpretations”. No wonder, then, that mathematical logic, and ?nite model theory in particular, should ?nd manifold applications in computer science: from specifying programs to querying databases, computer science is rife with phenomena whose understanding requires close attention to the interaction between language and structure. This volume gives a broadoverviewof some central themes of ?nite model theory: expressive power, descriptive complexity, and zero–one laws, together with selected applications to database theory and arti?cial intelligence, es- cially constraint databases and constraint satisfaction problems. The ?nal chapter provides a concise modern introduction to modal logic,which emp- sizes the continuity in spirit and technique with ?nite model theory.

Finite Model Theory

Author: Heinz-Dieter Ebbinghaus,Jörg Flum

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662031825

Category: Mathematics

Page: 327

View: 1840

Finite model theory has its origin in classical model theory, but owes its systematic development to research from complexity theory. The book presents the main results of descriptive complexity theory, that is, the connections between axiomatizability of classes of finite structures and their complexity with respect to time and space bounds. The logics that are important in this context include fixed- point logics, transitive closure logics, and also certain infinitary languages; their model theory is studied in full detail. Other topics include DATALOG languages, quantifiers and oracles, 0-1 laws, and optimization and approximation problems. The book is written in such a way that the resp. parts on model theory and descriptive complexity theory may be read independently.

Introduction to Circuit Complexity

A Uniform Approach

Author: Heribert Vollmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662039273

Category: Computers

Page: 272

View: 4651

An advanced textbook giving a broad, modern view of the computational complexity theory of boolean circuits, with extensive references, for theoretical computer scientists and mathematicians.

Decision Procedures

An Algorithmic Point of View

Author: Daniel Kroening,Ofer Strichman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662504979

Category: Computers

Page: 356

View: 7139

A decision procedure is an algorithm that, given a decision problem, terminates with a correct yes/no answer. Here, the authors focus on theories that are expressive enough to model real problems, but are still decidable. Specifically, the book concentrates on decision procedures for first-order theories that are commonly used in automated verification and reasoning, theorem-proving, compiler optimization and operations research. The techniques described in the book draw from fields such as graph theory and logic, and are routinely used in industry. The authors introduce the basic terminology of satisfiability modulo theories and then, in separate chapters, study decision procedures for each of the following theories: propositional logic; equalities and uninterpreted functions; linear arithmetic; bit vectors; arrays; pointer logic; and quantified formulas.

Descriptive Complexity

Author: Neil Immerman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461205395

Category: Computers

Page: 268

View: 1727

By virtue of the close relationship between logic and relational databases, it turns out that complexity has important applications to databases such as analyzing the parallel time needed to compute a query, and the analysis of nondeterministic classes. This book is a relatively self-contained introduction to the subject, which includes the necessary background material, as well as numerous examples and exercises.

Temporal Logic and State Systems

Author: Fred Kröger,Stephan Merz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540674012

Category: Computers

Page: 436

View: 9886

Temporal logic has developed over the last 30 years into a powerful formal setting for the specification and verification of state-based systems. Based on university lectures given by the authors, this book is a comprehensive, concise, uniform, up-to-date presentation of the theory and applications of linear and branching time temporal logic; TLA (Temporal Logic of Actions); automata theoretical connections; model checking; and related theories. All theoretical details and numerous application examples are elaborated carefully and with full formal rigor, and the book will serve as a basic source and reference for lecturers, graduate students and researchers.

Complexity of Constraints

An Overview of Current Research Themes

Author: Nadia Creignou,Phokion G. Kolaitis,Heribert Vollmer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540928006

Category: Computers

Page: 321

View: 4672

Nowadays constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are ubiquitous in many different areas of computer science, from artificial intelligence and database systems to circuit design, network optimization, and theory of programming languages. Consequently, it is important to analyze and pinpoint the computational complexity of certain algorithmic tasks related to constraint satisfaction. The complexity-theoretic results of these tasks may have a direct impact on, for instance, the design and processing of database query languages, or strategies in data-mining, or the design and implementation of planners. This state-of-the-art survey contains the papers that were invited by the organizers after conclusion of an International Dagstuhl-Seminar on Complexity of Constraints, held in Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, in October 2006. A number of speakers were solicited to write surveys presenting the state of the art in their area of expertise. These contributions were peer-reviewed by experts in the field and revised before they were collated to the 9 papers of this volume. In addition, the volume contains a reprint of a survey by Kolaitis and Vardi on the logical approach to constraint satisfaction that first appeared in 'Finite Model Theory and its Applications', published by Springer in 2007.

DNA Computing

New Computing Paradigms

Author: Gheorghe Paun,Grzegorz Rozenberg,Arto Salomaa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540641964

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 1775

This is the first book on DNA computing, a molecular approach that may revolutionize computing-replacing silicon with carbon and microchips with DNA molecules. The book starts with an introduction to DNA computing, exploring the power of complementarity, the basics of biochemistry, and language and computation theory. It then brings the reader to the most advanced theories develop thus far in this emerging research area.

Quantifiers and Cognition: Logical and Computational Perspectives

Author: Jakub Szymanik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319287494

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 211

View: 2200

This volume on the semantic complexity of natural language explores the question why some sentences are more difficult than others. While doing so, it lays the groundwork for extending semantic theory with computational and cognitive aspects by combining linguistics and logic with computations and cognition. Quantifier expressions occur whenever we describe the world and communicate about it. Generalized quantifier theory is therefore one of the basic tools of linguistics today, studying the possible meanings and the inferential power of quantifier expressions by logical means. The classic version was developed in the 1980s, at the interface of linguistics, mathematics and philosophy. Before this volume, advances in "classic" generalized quantifier theory mainly focused on logical questions and their applications to linguistics, this volume adds a computational component, the third pillar of language use and logical activity. This book is essential reading for researchers in linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, logic, AI, and computer science.

Extremal Combinatorics

With Applications in Computer Science

Author: Stasys Jukna

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642173640

Category: Computers

Page: 412

View: 1952

This book is a concise, self-contained, up-to-date introduction to extremal combinatorics for nonspecialists. There is a strong emphasis on theorems with particularly elegant and informative proofs, they may be called gems of the theory. The author presents a wide spectrum of the most powerful combinatorial tools together with impressive applications in computer science: methods of extremal set theory, the linear algebra method, the probabilistic method, and fragments of Ramsey theory. No special knowledge in combinatorics or computer science is assumed – the text is self-contained and the proofs can be enjoyed by undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science. Over 300 exercises of varying difficulty, and hints to their solution, complete the text. This second edition has been extended with substantial new material, and has been revised and updated throughout. It offers three new chapters on expander graphs and eigenvalues, the polynomial method and error-correcting codes. Most of the remaining chapters also include new material, such as the Kruskal—Katona theorem on shadows, the Lovász—Stein theorem on coverings, large cliques in dense graphs without induced 4-cycles, a new lower bounds argument for monotone formulas, Dvir's solution of the finite field Kakeya conjecture, Moser's algorithmic version of the Lovász Local Lemma, Schöning's algorithm for 3-SAT, the Szemerédi—Trotter theorem on the number of point-line incidences, surprising applications of expander graphs in extremal number theory, and some other new results.

Design and Analysis of Randomized Algorithms

Introduction to Design Paradigms

Author: J. Hromkovic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540279032

Category: Computers

Page: 277

View: 7222

Systematically teaches key paradigmic algorithm design methods Provides a deep insight into randomization

Theory of Reversible Computing

Author: Kenichi Morita

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431566066

Category: Computers

Page: 457

View: 6816

This book describes reversible computing from the standpoint of the theory of automata and computing. It investigates how reversibility can be effectively utilized in computing. A reversible computing system is a “backward deterministic” system such that every state of the system has at most one predecessor. Although its definition is very simple, it is closely related to physical reversibility, one of the fundamental microscopic laws of Nature. Authored by the leading scientist on the subject, this book serves as a valuable reference work for anyone working in reversible computation or in automata theory in general. This work deals with various reversible computing models at several different levels, which range from the microscopic to the macroscopic, and aims to clarify how computation can be carried out efficiently and elegantly in these reversible computing models. Because the construction methods are often unique and different from those in the traditional methods, these computing models as well as the design methods provide new insights for future computing systems. Organized bottom-up, the book starts with the lowest scale of reversible logic elements and circuits made from them. This is followed by reversible Turing machines, the most basic computationally universal machines, and some other types of reversible automata such as reversible multi-head automata and reversible counter machines. The text concludes with reversible cellular automata for massively parallel spatiotemporal computation. In order to help the reader have a clear understanding of each model, the presentations of all different models follow a similar pattern: the model is given in full detail, a short informal discussion is held on the role of different elements of the model, and an example with illustrations follows each model.

Parameterized Complexity Theory

Author: J. Flum,M. Grohe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540299530

Category: Computers

Page: 495

View: 540

This book is a state-of-the-art introduction into both algorithmic techniques for fixed-parameter tractability and the structural theory of parameterized complexity classes. It presents detailed proofs of recent advanced results that have not appeared in book form before and replaces the earlier publication "Parameterized Complexity" by Downey and Fellows as the definitive book on this subject. The book will interest computer scientists, mathematicians and graduate students engaged with algorithms and problem complexity.

An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications

Author: Ming Li,Paul Vitányi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387498201

Category: Mathematics

Page: 792

View: 3314

“The book is outstanding and admirable in many respects. ... is necessary reading for all kinds of readers from undergraduate students to top authorities in the field.” Journal of Symbolic Logic Written by two experts in the field, this is the only comprehensive and unified treatment of the central ideas and applications of Kolmogorov complexity. The book presents a thorough treatment of the subject with a wide range of illustrative applications. Such applications include the randomness of finite objects or infinite sequences, Martin-Loef tests for randomness, information theory, computational learning theory, the complexity of algorithms, and the thermodynamics of computing. It will be ideal for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers in computer science, mathematics, cognitive sciences, philosophy, artificial intelligence, statistics, and physics. The book is self-contained in that it contains the basic requirements from mathematics and computer science. Included are also numerous problem sets, comments, source references, and hints to solutions of problems. New topics in this edition include Omega numbers, Kolmogorov–Loveland randomness, universal learning, communication complexity, Kolmogorov's random graphs, time-limited universal distribution, Shannon information and others.

Handbook of Weighted Automata

Author: Manfred Droste,Werner Kuich,Heiko Vogler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642014925

Category: Computers

Page: 608

View: 7760

The purpose of this Handbook is to highlight both theory and applications of weighted automata. Weighted finite automata are classical nondeterministic finite automata in which the transitions carry weights. These weights may model, e. g. , the cost involved when executing a transition, the amount of resources or time needed for this,or the probability or reliability of its successful execution. The behavior of weighted finite automata can then be considered as the function (suitably defined) associating with each word the weight of its execution. Clearly, weights can also be added to classical automata with infinite state sets like pushdown automata; this extension constitutes the general concept of weighted automata. To illustrate the diversity of weighted automata, let us consider the following scenarios. Assume that a quantitative system is modeled by a classical automaton in which the transitions carry as weights the amount of resources needed for their execution. Then the amount of resources needed for a path in this weighted automaton is obtained simply as the sum of the weights of its transitions. Given a word, we might be interested in the minimal amount of resources needed for its execution, i. e. , for the successful paths realizing the given word. In this example, we could also replace the “resources” by “profit” and then be interested in the maximal profit realized, correspondingly, by a given word.

Introduction to the Theory of Computation

Author: Michael Sipser

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1285401069

Category: Computers

Page: 504

View: 6926

Now you can clearly present even the most complex computational theory topics to your students with Sipser's distinct, market-leading INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COMPUTATION, 3E. The number one choice for today's computational theory course, this highly anticipated revision retains the unmatched clarity and thorough coverage that make it a leading text for upper-level undergraduate and introductory graduate students. This edition continues author Michael Sipser's well-known, approachable style with timely revisions, additional exercises, and more memorable examples in key areas. A new first-of-its-kind theoretical treatment of deterministic context-free languages is ideal for a better understanding of parsing and LR(k) grammars. This edition's refined presentation ensures a trusted accuracy and clarity that make the challenging study of computational theory accessible and intuitive to students while maintaining the subject's rigor and formalism. Readers gain a solid understanding of the fundamental mathematical properties of computer hardware, software, and applications with a blend of practical and philosophical coverage and mathematical treatments, including advanced theorems and proofs. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COMPUTATION, 3E's comprehensive coverage makes this an ideal ongoing reference tool for those studying theoretical computing. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Theoretical Computer Science

Introduction to Automata, Computability, Complexity, Algorithmics, Randomization, Communication, and Cryptography

Author: Juraj Hromkovič

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540140153

Category: Computers

Page: 313

View: 3573

Juraj Hromkovic takes the reader on an elegant route through the theoretical fundamentals of computer science. The author shows that theoretical computer science is a fascinating discipline, full of spectacular contributions and miracles. The book also presents the development of the computer scientist's way of thinking as well as fundamental concepts such as approximation and randomization in algorithmics, and the basic ideas of cryptography and interconnection network design.

Fundamentals of Algebraic Graph Transformation

Author: Hartmut Ehrig,Karsten Ehrig,Ulrike Prange,Gabriele Taentzer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540311882

Category: Computers

Page: 390

View: 8050

This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. It contains an introduction to classical graphs. Basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. The book develops typed attributed graph transformation and contains a practical case study.

Handbook of Satisfiability

Author: A. Biere,M. Heule,H. van Maaren

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 160750376X

Category: Computers

Page: 980

View: 426

“Satisfiability (SAT) related topics have attracted researchers from various disciplines: logic, applied areas such as planning, scheduling, operations research and combinatorial optimization, but also theoretical issues on the theme of complexity and much more, they all are connected through SAT. My personal interest in SAT stems from actual solving: The increase in power of modern SAT solvers over the past 15 years has been phenomenal. It has become the key enabling technology in automated verification of both computer hardware and software. Bounded Model Checking (BMC) of computer hardware is now probably the most widely used model checking technique. The counterexamples that it finds are just satisfying instances of a Boolean formula obtained by unwinding to some fixed depth a sequential circuit and its specification in linear temporal logic. Extending model checking to software verification is a much more difficult problem on the frontier of current research. One promising approach for languages like C with finite word-length integers is to use the same idea as in BMC but with a decision procedure for the theory of bit-vectors instead of SAT. All decision procedures for bit-vectors that I am familiar with ultimately make use of a fast SAT solver to handle complex formulas. Decision procedures for more complicated theories, like linear real and integer arithmetic, are also used in program verification. Most of them use powerful SAT solvers in an essential way. Clearly, efficient SAT solving is a key technology for 21st century computer science. I expect this collection of papers on all theoretical and practical aspects of SAT solving will be extremely useful to both students and researchers and will lead to many further advances in the field.”--Edmund Clarke (FORE Systems University Professor of Computer Science and Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, winner of the 2007 A.M. Turing Award)