Elements of Finite Model Theory

Author: Leonid Libkin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662070030

Category: Mathematics

Page: 318

View: 7818

Emphasizes the computer science aspects of the subject. Details applications in databases, complexity theory, and formal languages, as well as other branches of computer science.

Finite Model Theory and Its Applications

Author: Erich Grädel,Phokion G. Kolaitis,Leonid Libkin,Maarten Marx,Joel Spencer,Moshe Y. Vardi,Yde Venema,Scott Weinstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540688048

Category: Computers

Page: 437

View: 5306

Finite model theory,as understoodhere, is an areaof mathematicallogic that has developed in close connection with applications to computer science, in particular the theory of computational complexity and database theory. One of the fundamental insights of mathematical logic is that our understanding of mathematical phenomena is enriched by elevating the languages we use to describe mathematical structures to objects of explicit study. If mathematics is the science of patterns, then the media through which we discern patterns, as well as the structures in which we discern them, command our attention. It isthis aspect oflogicwhichis mostprominentin model theory,“thebranchof mathematical logic which deals with the relation between a formal language and its interpretations”. No wonder, then, that mathematical logic, and ?nite model theory in particular, should ?nd manifold applications in computer science: from specifying programs to querying databases, computer science is rife with phenomena whose understanding requires close attention to the interaction between language and structure. This volume gives a broadoverviewof some central themes of ?nite model theory: expressive power, descriptive complexity, and zero–one laws, together with selected applications to database theory and arti?cial intelligence, es- cially constraint databases and constraint satisfaction problems. The ?nal chapter provides a concise modern introduction to modal logic,which emp- sizes the continuity in spirit and technique with ?nite model theory.

Finite Model Theory

Author: Heinz-Dieter Ebbinghaus,Jörg Flum

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540287884

Category: Mathematics

Page: 360

View: 9413

This is a thoroughly revised and enlarged second edition that presents the main results of descriptive complexity theory, that is, the connections between axiomatizability of classes of finite structures and their complexity with respect to time and space bounds. The logics that are important in this context include fixed-point logics, transitive closure logics, and also certain infinitary languages; their model theory is studied in full detail. The book is written in such a way that the respective parts on model theory and descriptive complexity theory may be read independently.

Descriptive Complexity

Author: Neil Immerman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461205395

Category: Computers

Page: 268

View: 4096

By virtue of the close relationship between logic and relational databases, it turns out that complexity has important applications to databases such as analyzing the parallel time needed to compute a query, and the analysis of nondeterministic classes. This book is a relatively self-contained introduction to the subject, which includes the necessary background material, as well as numerous examples and exercises.

Decision Procedures

An Algorithmic Point of View

Author: Daniel Kroening,Ofer Strichman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662504979

Category: Computers

Page: 356

View: 1285

A decision procedure is an algorithm that, given a decision problem, terminates with a correct yes/no answer. Here, the authors focus on theories that are expressive enough to model real problems, but are still decidable. Specifically, the book concentrates on decision procedures for first-order theories that are commonly used in automated verification and reasoning, theorem-proving, compiler optimization and operations research. The techniques described in the book draw from fields such as graph theory and logic, and are routinely used in industry. The authors introduce the basic terminology of satisfiability modulo theories and then, in separate chapters, study decision procedures for each of the following theories: propositional logic; equalities and uninterpreted functions; linear arithmetic; bit vectors; arrays; pointer logic; and quantified formulas.

Complexity of Constraints

An Overview of Current Research Themes

Author: Nadia Creignou,Phokion G. Kolaitis,Heribert Vollmer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540928006

Category: Computers

Page: 321

View: 1299

Nowadays constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are ubiquitous in many different areas of computer science, from artificial intelligence and database systems to circuit design, network optimization, and theory of programming languages. Consequently, it is important to analyze and pinpoint the computational complexity of certain algorithmic tasks related to constraint satisfaction. The complexity-theoretic results of these tasks may have a direct impact on, for instance, the design and processing of database query languages, or strategies in data-mining, or the design and implementation of planners. This state-of-the-art survey contains the papers that were invited by the organizers after conclusion of an International Dagstuhl-Seminar on Complexity of Constraints, held in Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, in October 2006. A number of speakers were solicited to write surveys presenting the state of the art in their area of expertise. These contributions were peer-reviewed by experts in the field and revised before they were collated to the 9 papers of this volume. In addition, the volume contains a reprint of a survey by Kolaitis and Vardi on the logical approach to constraint satisfaction that first appeared in 'Finite Model Theory and its Applications', published by Springer in 2007.

Introduction to Circuit Complexity

A Uniform Approach

Author: Heribert Vollmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662039273

Category: Computers

Page: 272

View: 8125

An advanced textbook giving a broad, modern view of the computational complexity theory of boolean circuits, with extensive references, for theoretical computer scientists and mathematicians.

DNA Computing

New Computing Paradigms

Author: Gheorghe Paun,Grzegorz Rozenberg,Arto Salomaa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540641964

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 8160

This is the first book on DNA computing, a molecular approach that may revolutionize computing-replacing silicon with carbon and microchips with DNA molecules. The book starts with an introduction to DNA computing, exploring the power of complementarity, the basics of biochemistry, and language and computation theory. It then brings the reader to the most advanced theories develop thus far in this emerging research area.

Temporal Logic and State Systems

Author: Fred Kröger,Stephan Merz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540674012

Category: Computers

Page: 436

View: 5591

Temporal logic has developed over the last 30 years into a powerful formal setting for the specification and verification of state-based systems. Based on university lectures given by the authors, this book is a comprehensive, concise, uniform, up-to-date presentation of the theory and applications of linear and branching time temporal logic; TLA (Temporal Logic of Actions); automata theoretical connections; model checking; and related theories. All theoretical details and numerous application examples are elaborated carefully and with full formal rigor, and the book will serve as a basic source and reference for lecturers, graduate students and researchers.

Handbook of Weighted Automata

Author: Manfred Droste,Werner Kuich,Heiko Vogler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642014925

Category: Computers

Page: 608

View: 3487

The purpose of this Handbook is to highlight both theory and applications of weighted automata. Weighted finite automata are classical nondeterministic finite automata in which the transitions carry weights. These weights may model, e. g. , the cost involved when executing a transition, the amount of resources or time needed for this,or the probability or reliability of its successful execution. The behavior of weighted finite automata can then be considered as the function (suitably defined) associating with each word the weight of its execution. Clearly, weights can also be added to classical automata with infinite state sets like pushdown automata; this extension constitutes the general concept of weighted automata. To illustrate the diversity of weighted automata, let us consider the following scenarios. Assume that a quantitative system is modeled by a classical automaton in which the transitions carry as weights the amount of resources needed for their execution. Then the amount of resources needed for a path in this weighted automaton is obtained simply as the sum of the weights of its transitions. Given a word, we might be interested in the minimal amount of resources needed for its execution, i. e. , for the successful paths realizing the given word. In this example, we could also replace the “resources” by “profit” and then be interested in the maximal profit realized, correspondingly, by a given word.

Modeling Time in Computing

Author: Carlo A. Furia,Dino Mandrioli,Angelo Morzenti,Matteo Rossi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642323324

Category: Computers

Page: 424

View: 3351

Models that include a notion of time are ubiquitous in disciplines such as the natural sciences, engineering, philosophy, and linguistics, but in computing the abstractions provided by the traditional models are problematic and the discipline has spawned many novel models. This book is a systematic thorough presentation of the results of several decades of research on developing, analyzing, and applying time models to computing and engineering. After an opening motivation introducing the topics, structure and goals, the authors introduce the notions of formalism and model in general terms along with some of their fundamental classification criteria. In doing so they present the fundamentals of propositional and predicate logic, and essential issues that arise when modeling time across all types of system. Part I is a summary of the models that are traditional in engineering and the natural sciences, including fundamental computer science: dynamical systems and control theory; hardware design; and software algorithmic and complexity analysis. Part II covers advanced and specialized formalisms dealing with time modeling in heterogeneous software-intensive systems: formalisms that share finite state machines as common “ancestors”; Petri nets in many variants; notations based on mathematical logic, such as temporal logic; process algebras; and “dual-language approaches” combining two notations with different characteristics to model and verify complex systems, e.g., model-checking frameworks. Finally, the book concludes with summarizing remarks and hints towards future developments and open challenges. The presentation uses a rigorous, yet not overly technical, style, appropriate for readers with heterogeneous backgrounds, and each chapter is supplemented with detailed bibliographic remarks and carefully chosen exercises of varying difficulty and scope. The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in computer science, while researchers and practitioners in other scientific and engineering disciplines interested in time modeling with a computational flavor will also find the book of value, and the comparative and conceptual approach makes this a valuable introduction for non-experts. The authors assume a basic knowledge of calculus, probability theory, algorithms, and programming, while a more advanced knowledge of automata, formal languages, and mathematical logic is useful.

Theory of Reversible Computing

Author: Kenichi Morita

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431566066

Category: Computers

Page: 457

View: 2829

This book describes reversible computing from the standpoint of the theory of automata and computing. It investigates how reversibility can be effectively utilized in computing. A reversible computing system is a “backward deterministic” system such that every state of the system has at most one predecessor. Although its definition is very simple, it is closely related to physical reversibility, one of the fundamental microscopic laws of Nature. Authored by the leading scientist on the subject, this book serves as a valuable reference work for anyone working in reversible computation or in automata theory in general. This work deals with various reversible computing models at several different levels, which range from the microscopic to the macroscopic, and aims to clarify how computation can be carried out efficiently and elegantly in these reversible computing models. Because the construction methods are often unique and different from those in the traditional methods, these computing models as well as the design methods provide new insights for future computing systems. Organized bottom-up, the book starts with the lowest scale of reversible logic elements and circuits made from them. This is followed by reversible Turing machines, the most basic computationally universal machines, and some other types of reversible automata such as reversible multi-head automata and reversible counter machines. The text concludes with reversible cellular automata for massively parallel spatiotemporal computation. In order to help the reader have a clear understanding of each model, the presentations of all different models follow a similar pattern: the model is given in full detail, a short informal discussion is held on the role of different elements of the model, and an example with illustrations follows each model.

Parameterized Complexity Theory

Author: J. Flum,M. Grohe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540299530

Category: Computers

Page: 495

View: 8893

This book is a state-of-the-art introduction into both algorithmic techniques for fixed-parameter tractability and the structural theory of parameterized complexity classes. It presents detailed proofs of recent advanced results that have not appeared in book form before and replaces the earlier publication "Parameterized Complexity" by Downey and Fellows as the definitive book on this subject. The book will interest computer scientists, mathematicians and graduate students engaged with algorithms and problem complexity.

Design and Analysis of Randomized Algorithms

Introduction to Design Paradigms

Author: J. Hromkovic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540279032

Category: Computers

Page: 277

View: 2357

Systematically teaches key paradigmic algorithm design methods Provides a deep insight into randomization

Products of Automata

Author: Ferenc Gecseg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642616119

Category: Computers

Page: 108

View: 1571

Both theoretical and practical considerations motivate the repre sentation of objects as certain compositions of simpler ones. In the theory of automata this observation has led to the concepts of pro ducts and complete systems of automata. In the general form of the products of automata all the component automata are fed back to one another. With this very broad notion of products, the realization of automata with large numbers of states by means of compositions of basic components is a highly involved process; this increases the possibility of errors. In order to decrease the complexity of feedbacks, a hierarchy of products called lXi-pro ducts was introduced some 10 years ago, where i runs over the set of all non-negative integers. In an IXcproduct the index set of the component automata is linearly ordered. The input of each automaton in the product may depend on the states of all automata preceding it, i. e. , all component automata steer all those automata which follow them in the product. Furthermore, at most the next i-I automata (including itself) may be fed back to the input of a given component automaton. Thus for iXcproducts the lengths of feedbacks are at most i. The aim of this monograph is to give a systematic account of iXi-Products. It consists of five chapters, a reference section, and an index. The first chapter contains the necessary concepts and results from universal algebra, automata, and sequential machines.

Boolean Functions and Computation Models

Author: Peter Clote,Evangelos Kranakis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662049430

Category: Computers

Page: 602

View: 3643

The two internationally renowned authors elucidate the structure of "fast" parallel computation. Its complexity is emphasised through a variety of techniques ranging from finite combinatorics, probability theory and finite group theory to finite model theory and proof theory. Non-uniform computation models are studied in the form of Boolean circuits; uniform ones in a variety of forms. Steps in the investigation of non-deterministic polynomial time are surveyed as is the complexity of various proof systems. Providing a survey of research in the field, the book will benefit advanced undergraduates and graduate students as well as researchers.

Extremal Combinatorics

With Applications in Computer Science

Author: Stasys Jukna

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662046504

Category: Computers

Page: 378

View: 2777

This is a concise, up-to-date introduction to extremal combinatorics for non-specialists. Strong emphasis is made on theorems with particularly elegant and informative proofs which may be called the gems of the theory. A wide spectrum of the most powerful combinatorial tools is presented, including methods of extremal set theory, the linear algebra method, the probabilistic method and fragments of Ramsey theory. A thorough discussion of recent applications to computer science illustrates the inherent usefulness of these methods.

Fundamentals of Algebraic Graph Transformation

Author: Hartmut Ehrig,Karsten Ehrig,Ulrike Prange,Gabriele Taentzer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540311882

Category: Computers

Page: 390

View: 2682

This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. It contains an introduction to classical graphs. Basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. The book develops typed attributed graph transformation and contains a practical case study.

Mathematical Reviews

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 6372