Environmental Modelling

An Introduction

Author: Jo Smith,Pete Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199272068

Category: Science

Page: 180

View: 6811

The global environment is a complex mix of interlinked processes, about which observation can tell us a great deal. This book shows how modelling can be used to explain experimental observations, and how these observations - and data gathered - can be extrapolated to explain novel situations. It also illustrates how models are actively applied.

Modeling the Environment

An Introduction to System Dynamics Models of Environmental Systems

Author: Frederick Andrew Ford

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781559636018

Category: Political Science

Page: 401

View: 7045

Modeling techniques that allow managers and researchers to see in advance the consequences of actions and policies are becoming increasingly important to environmental management. Modeling the Environment is a basic introduction to one of the most widely known and used modeling techniques, system dynamics. Written in a clear and comprehensible style, the book: -- presents basic concepts of modeling using system dynamics -- illustrates the mechanics of model construction through a range of working models -- offers a rich array of exercises for students to use in applying principles and techniques used in the text -- walks students through the design and application of models of specific types of environmental systems Modeling the Environment requires little or no mathematical background and is appropriate for undergraduate environmental students as well as professionals new to modeling. Developed from the author's own introductory course, it is classroom-tested and represents an important contribution to the field of system dynamics.

Ecological Modelling

An Introduction

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen

Publisher: WIT Press

ISBN: 1845644085

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 2471

Addressing the basic concepts of ecological modelling, Jorgensen provides the user with a tool which can assist in the understanding of what various model types/network calculations can do, as well as outlining when to use which type as a tool to solve a specific problem.

Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen,G. Bendoricchio

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080440150

Category: Nature

Page: 530

View: 5255

This is a thoroughly revised and updated edition of an authoritative introduction to ecological modelling. Sven Erik Jørgensen, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Ecological Modelling, and Giuseppe Bendoricchio, Professor of Environmental Modelling at the University of Padova, Italy, offer compelling insights into the subject. This volume explains the concepts and processes involved in ecological modelling, presents the latest developments in the field and provides readers with the tools to construct their own models. The Third Edition features: • A detailed discussion and step-by-step outline of the modelling procedure. • An account of different model types including overview tables, examples and illustrations. • A comprehensive presentation of the submodels and unit processes used in modelling. • In-depth descriptions of the latest modelling techniques. • Structured exercises at the end of each chapter. • Three mathematical appendices and a subject index. This practical and proven book very effectively combines the theory, methodology and applications of ecological modelling. The new edition is an essential, up-to-date guide to a rapidly growing field.

Radioactive Releases in the Environment

Impact and Assessment

Author: John R. Cooper,Keith Randle,Ranjeet S. Sokhi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471899242

Category: Science

Page: 473

View: 7576

This text brings together in one single comprehensive reference,the fundamentals of radioactivity. It uniquely fills the gap in themarket, as no other books deal with environmental radioactivity tothis degree. * Timely and invaluable as the studies of environmental processesand the awareness of the impact of human activity on ourenvironment are increasing * Links all three main aspects of environmental radioactivity:Principles, Transport and Measurement * Useful to a wide readership - students, lecturers, researchers,companies and environmental consultants

Modelling Complex Ecological Dynamics

An Introduction into Ecological Modelling for Students, Teachers & Scientists

Author: Fred Jopp,Hauke Reuter,Broder Breckling

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642050299

Category: Science

Page: 397

View: 5296

Model development is of vital importance for understanding and management of ecological processes. Identifying the complex relationships between ecological patterns and processes is a crucial task. Ecological modelling—both qualitatively and quantitatively—plays a vital role in analysing ecological phenomena and for ecological theory. This textbook provides a unique overview of modelling approaches. Representing the state-of-the-art in modern ecology, it shows how to construct and work with various different model types. It introduces the background of each approach and its application in ecology. Differential equations, matrix approaches, individual-based models and many other relevant modelling techniques are explained and demonstrated with their use. The authors provide links to software tools and course materials. With chapters written by leading specialists, “Modelling Complex Ecological Dynamics” is an essential contribution to expand the qualification of students, teachers and scientists alike.

Hydraulic Modelling – An Introduction

Principles, Methods and Applications

Author: Pavel Novak,Vincent Guinot,Alan Jeffrey,Dominic E. Reeve

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203861620

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 602

View: 8532

Modelling forms a vital part of all engineering design, yet many hydraulic engineers are not fully aware of the assumptions they make. These assumptions can have important consequences when choosing the best model to inform design decisions. Considering the advantages and limitations of both physical and mathematical methods, this book will help you identify the most appropriate form of analysis for the hydraulic engineering application in question. All models require the knowledge of their background, good data and careful interpretation and so this book also provides guidance on the range of accuracy to be expected of the model simulations and how they should be related to the prototype. Applications to models include: open channel systems closed conduit flows storm drainage systems estuaries coastal and nearshore structures hydraulic structures. This an invaluable guide for students and professionals.

Introduction to Environmental Modeling

Author: William G. Gray,Genetha A. Gray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107571693

Category: Science

Page: 450

View: 5468

This textbook presents the timeless basic physical and mathematical principles and philosophy of environmental modeling to students who need to be taught how to think in a different way than they would for more narrowly-defined engineering or physics problems. Examples come from a range of hydrologic, atmospheric, and geophysical problems.

Dynamic Modeling of Environmental Systems

Author: Michael Deaton,James J. Winebrake

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387988801

Category: Mathematics

Page: 197

View: 4209

A primer on modeling concepts and applications that is specifically geared toward the environmental field. Sections on modeling terminology, the uses of models, the model-building process, and the interpretation of output provide the foundation for detailed applications. After an introduction to the basics of dynamic modeling, the book leads students through an analysis of several environmental problems, including surface-water pollution, matter-cycling disruptions, and global warming. The scientific and technical context is provided for each problem, and the methods for analyzing and designing appropriate modeling approaches is provided. While the mathematical content does not exceed the level of a first-semester calculus course, the book gives students all of the background, examples, and practice exercises needed both to use and understand environmental modeling. It is suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning-graduate level environmental professionals seeking an introduction to modeling in their field.

Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling

Applications in Environmental Management and Research

Author: S.E. Jorgensen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444535689

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 8359

Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling: Applications in Environmental Management and Research, Fourth Edition, provides a comprehensive discussion of the fundamental principles of ecological modeling. The first two editions of this book (published in 1986 and 1994) focused on the roots of the discipline the four main model types that dominated the field 30-40 years ago: (1) dynamic biogeochemical models; (2) population dynamic models; (3) ecotoxicological models; and (4) steady-state biogeochemical and energy models. The third edition focused on the mathematical formulations of ecological processes that are included in ecological models. This fourth edition uses the four model types previously listed as the foundation and expands the latest model developments in spatial models, structural dynamic models, and individual-based models. As these seven types of models are very different and require different considerations in the model development phase, a separate chapter is devoted to the development of each of the model types. Throughout the text, the examples given from the literature emphasize the application of models for environmental management and research. Presents the most commonly used model types with a step-by-step outline of the modeling procedure used for each Shows readers through an illustrated example of how to use each model in research and management settings New edition is revised to include only essential theory with a focus on applications Includes case studies, illustrations, and exercises (case study of an ecological problem with full illustration on how to solve the problem)

Integrated Environmental Modelling: Design and Tools

Author: F.M. Brouwer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400936133

Category: Science

Page: 223

View: 9762

In the mid 1980's - while a student at the department of econometrics at the Free University - I became an assistant at the Institute for Environmental Studies (IvM) of this university. My main task was assisting with the com putational aspects of the project 'an integrated environmental model: a case study in the Markiezaat area'. A number of methodological problems were for mulated during the operationalization phase of that project, such as the need to develop systematically an integrated model design and to look for means of handling different sources of information. Prof. Dr. P. Nijkamp of the Department of Regional Economics and Drs. L. Hordijk - at that time leader of the economic-technological research group at the IvM - therefore initiated a project proposal to be supported by the Netherlands Organisation for the Advancement of Pure Research (ZWO). Meanwhile I became an assistant to Prof. Dr. P. Nijkamp, surveying qualita ti ve statistical developments in the field of regional inequa li ty analysis. This inventory has been shown to be a relevant basis for the preparation of this book. In spring 1982 I began working at IvM on the above project on integrated environmental modelling.

Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling

An Introduction to Practical Applications

Author: Rod Barratt

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134194900

Category: Political Science

Page: 166

View: 1790

To comply with legal and other standards, businesses and regulators are increasingly required to make decisions based on risk assessments of the potential effects of their activities on the environment. Atmospheric dispersion modelling is a cost-effective method, allowing various scenarios to be explored before expensive investment takes place. This guide offers advice on this environmental management tool. Unlike much of the previous literature, it doesn't focus excessively on the mathematical theory behind the modelling or on modelling for specific regulatory purposes. Instead, it offers an understanding of the background to the methodologies, providing exercises to develop the skills to carry these out and including examples of the use of commercially available models to enable the reader to assess the results of modelling for risk assessment.

Modelling the Dispersion of Radionuclides in the Marine Environment

An Introduction

Author: Raúl Periánez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540273820

Category: Science

Page: 201

View: 8005

This guide details the techniques and numerical procedures required for numerical modelling of radioactivity dispersion in marine environments. The book goes beyond the basics of hydrodynamic modeling to analyze the latest trends in modeling.

Environmental Modelling and Prediction

Author: Gongbing Peng,Lance M. Leslie,Yaping Shao

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540674221

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 6854

In this book the authors consider the natural environment as an integrated system. The physical, chemical and biological processes that govern the behaviour of the environmental system can thus be understood through mathematical modelling, and their evolution can be studied by means of numerical simulation. The book contains a summary of various efficient approaches in atmospheric prediction, such as numerical weather prediction and statistical forecast of climate change, as well as other successful methods in land surface modelling. The authors explore new theories and methods in environment prediction such as systems analysis and information theory. Attention is given to new achievements in remote sensing tele-metering and geographic information systems.

Introduction to Systems Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jorgensen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 143985520X

Category: Nature

Page: 360

View: 6649

Possibly the first textbook to present a practically applicable ecosystems theory, Introduction to Systems Ecology helps readers understand how ecosystems work and how they react to disturbances. It demonstrates—with many examples and illustrations—how to apply the theory to explain observations and to make quantitative calculations and predictions. In this book, Sven Erik Jørgensen takes a first step toward integrating thermodynamics, biochemistry, hierarchical organization, and network theory into a holistic theory of systems ecology. The first part of the book covers the laws of thermodynamics and the basic biochemistry of living organisms, as well as the constraints they impose on ecosystems. To grow and develop, however, ecosystems have to evade these thermodynamic and biochemical constraints, so the second part of the book discusses the seven basic properties that enable ecosystems to grow, develop, and survive: They are open systems, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They are organized hierarchically. They have a high diversity. They have high buffer capacities toward changes. Their components are organized in cooperative networks, which allows for sophisticated feedback, regulation mechanisms, and higher efficiencies. They contain an enormous amount of information embodied in genomes. They have emerging system properties. This timely textbook also looks at how systems ecology is applied in integrated environmental management, particularly in ecological modeling and engineering and in the assessment of ecosystem health using ecological indicators. Acknowledging that there is still much room for improvement, it will inspire ecologists to develop a stronger and more widely applicable ecosystem theory.

Ecosystems

Author: Gordon Dickinson,Kevin Murphy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134319371

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 8991

In examining both theory and applications, this book, through useful examples, provides a stimulating introduction to ecosystems. It examines the nature, types and characteristics of ecosystems as well as investigating the interactions between various systems and human actions. Using functional ecology as the basis for applying the ecosystem concept in contemporary environmental science and ecology, this second edition of this highly successful volume has been updated to reflect the latest research. It incorporates a strengthened theme in the use of functional ecology in explaining how ecosystems work and how the ecosystem concept may be used in science and applied science, and coverage of the interactions between humans and ecosystems has been substantially bolstered with the addition of chapters on human impacts and large scale impacts on ecosystems, and global environmental change and the consequences for ecosystems. Presented in a student-friendly format, this book features boxed definitions, examples, case studies, summary points, discussion questions and annotated further reading lists. It provides a concise and accessible synthesis of both ecosystem theory and its applications, and will be a valuable resource for students of environmental studies, ecology and geography.

Computerised environmental modelling

a practical introduction using Excel

Author: Jack Hardisty,David M. Taylor,Sarah E. Metcalfe

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780471938224

Category: Science

Page: 204

View: 2137

Computerised Environmental Modelling A Practical Introduction Using Excel J. Hardisty, D. M. Taylor and S. E. Metcalfe The University of Hull, UK The study of the environment is currently developing into a rigorous and demanding analytical science that requires the use of sophisticated environmental models. The increasing demand for graduates trained to deal with complex environmental issues gives rise to the problem of how environmental modelling should be taught. Computerised Environmental Modelling, which is based upon an existing undergraduate course, addresses this problem by presenting a readable (and tested) introduction to the subject through an easy to use software environment. Simple numerical models taught through widely available spreadsheets do away with the need for language-specific training. Students now no longer need to program before they can model. Divided into three sections, the book first deals with the general principles of environmental systems modelling, then with a series of examples that familiarise the reader with the use of spreadsheets (in particular with Excel). Finally a set of new and topical environmental models are presented, including ocean, meteorological, hydrological, and extinction models. A supplementary disk, which holds all the programs discussed in the text, can be purchased upon request by returning the reply card at the back of the book. Both the disk and the text will greatly benefit all undergraduates who would like to acquire a comprehensive understanding of environmental modelling techniques.

Introduction to Ecological Modelling

Author: Mike Gillman,Rosemary Hails

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780632036349

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 6792

At present, most books on ecological modelling rely on very complex mathematics, resulting in students and researchers shying away from investigating the potential uses of ecological models and their methods of construction. This new book aims to open up this exciting area to a much wider audience. Assuming only basic mathematical knowledge, the text uses case studies to show how a relatively small set of techniques of model construction can be used in a wide range of important applications. Researchers will find it an invaluable guide to using ecological models in their work. Uses case studies to clearly demonstrate the applications of ecological models. Avoids complex mathematics. A practical how-to guide for ecological researchers. Sample ecological models available via this web site.

An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics

Author: John M. Reynolds

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons

ISBN: 9780470975442

Category: Science

Page: 712

View: 1425

An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics, 2nd Edition, describes the rapidly developing field of near-surface geophysics. The book covers a range of applications including mineral, hydrocarbon and groundwater exploration, and emphasises the use of geophysics in civil engineering and in environmental investigations. Following on from the international popularity of the first edition, this new, revised, and much expanded edition contains additional case histories, and descriptions of geophysical techniques not previously included in such textbooks. The level of mathematics and physics is deliberately kept to a minimum but is described qualitatively within the text. Relevant mathematical expressions are separated into boxes to supplement the text. The book is profusely illustrated with many figures, photographs and line drawings, many never previously published. Key source literature is provided in an extensive reference section; a list of web addresses for key organisations is also given in an appendix as a valuable additional resource. Covers new techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Sounding, Controlled- Source EM, shear-wave seismic refraction, and airborne gravity and EM techniques Now includes radioactivity surveying and more discussions of down-hole geophysical methods; hydrographic and Sub-Bottom Profiling surveying; and UneXploded Ordnance detection Expanded to include more forensic, archaeological, glaciological, agricultural and bio-geophysical applications Includes more information on physio-chemical properties of geological, engineering and environmental materials Takes a fully global approach Companion website with additional resources available at www.wiley.com/go/reynolds/introduction2e Accessible core textbook for undergraduates as well as an ideal reference for industry professionals The second edition is ideal for students wanting a broad introduction to the subject and is also designed for practising civil and geotechnical engineers, geologists, archaeologists and environmental scientists who need an overview of modern geophysical methods relevant to their discipline. While the first edition was the first textbook to provide such a comprehensive coverage of environmental geophysics, the second edition is even more far ranging in terms of techniques, applications and case histories.