Author: Eric Wolanski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The book addresses the questions: Is Australia’s rapidly growing human population and economy environmentally sustainable for its estuaries and coasts? What is needed to enable sustainable development? To answer these questions, this book reports detailed studies of 20 iconic Australian estuaries and bays by leading Australian estuarine scientists. That knowledge is synthesised in time and space across Australia to suggest what Australian estuaries will look like in 2050 and beyond based on socio-economic decisions that are made now, and changes that are needed to ensure sustainability. The book also has a Prologue by Mr Malcolm Fraser, former Prime Minister of Australia, which bridges environmental science, population policy and sustainability.
Author: Simon J. Pittman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Seascape Ecology provides a comprehensive look at the state-of-the-science in the application of landscape ecology to the seas and provides guidance for future research priorities. The first book devoted exclusively to this rapidly emerging and increasingly important discipline, it is comprised of contributions from researchers at the forefront of seascape ecology working around the world. It presents the principles, concepts, methodology, and techniques informing seascape ecology and reports on the latest developments in the application of the approach to marine ecology and management. A growing number of marine scientists, geographers, and marine managers are asking questions about the marine environment that are best addressed with a landscape ecology perspective. Seascape Ecology represents the first serious effort to fill the gap in the literature on the subject. Key topics and features of interest include: The origins and history of seascape ecology and various approaches to spatial patterning in the sea The links between seascape patterns and ecological processes, with special attention paid to the roles played by seagrasses and salt marshes and animal movements through seascapes Human influences on seascape ecology—includes models for assessing human-seascape interactions A special epilogue in which three eminent scientists who have been instrumental in shaping the course of landscape ecology offer their insights and perspectives Seascape Ecology is a must-read for researchers and professionals in an array of disciplines, including marine biology, environmental science, geosciences, marine and coastal management, and environmental protection. It is also an excellent supplementary text for university courses in those fields.
A Social and Natural History
Author: Paul Boon
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
The Hawkesbury River is the longest coastal river in New South Wales. A vital source of water and food, it has a long Aboriginal history and was critical for the survival of the early British colony at Sydney. The Hawkesbury’s weathered shores, cliffs and fertile plains have inspired generations of artists. It is surrounded by an unparalleled mosaic of national parks, including the second-oldest national park in Australia, Ku-ring-gai National Park. Although it lies only 35 km north of Sydney, to many today the Hawkesbury is a ‘hidden river’ – its historical and natural significance not understood or appreciated. Until now, the Hawkesbury has lacked an up-to-date and comprehensive book describing how and when the river formed, how it functions ecologically, how it has influenced humans and their patterns of settlement and, in turn, how it has been affected by those settlements and their people. The Hawkesbury River: A Social and Natural History fills this gap. With chapters on the geography, geology, hydrology and ecology of the river through to discussion of its use by Aboriginal and European people and its role in transport, defence and culture, this highly readable and richly illustrated book paints a picture of a landscape worthy of protection and conservation. It will be of value to those who live, visit or work in the region, those interested in Australian environmental history, and professionals in biology, natural resource management and education.
Adaptations, Habitats, and Conservation
Author: Colin Levings
Publisher: UBC Press
Biologists have long marvelled at how anadromous salmonids -- fish that pass from rivers into oceans and back again -- survive as they migrate between these two very different environments. Yet, relatively little is understood about what happens to salmonids in the estuaries where they make this transition from fresh to salt water. This book distills the current knowledge of how eighteen salmonid species around the world (including salmon, steelhead, char, and trout) are adapted to estuaries. It discusses why the waters where rivers and oceans meet are critical to salmonid survival as well as how these vital habitats can be preserved and recovered.
Author: Eric Wolanski,Michael Elliott
Estuarine Ecohydrology, Second Edition, provides an ecohydrology viewpoint of an estuary as an ecosystem by focusing on its principal components, the river, the estuarine waters, the sediment, the nutrients, the wetlands, the oceanic influence, and the aquatic food web, as well as models of the health of an estuary ecosystem. Estuaries, the intersection of freshwater and coastal ecosystems, exhibit complex physical and biological processes which must be understood in order to sustain and restore them when necessary. This book demonstrates how, based on an understanding of the processes controlling estuarine ecosystem health, one can quantify its ability to cope with human stresses. The theories, models, and real-world solutions presented serve as a toolkit for designing a management plan for the ecologically sustainable development of estuaries. Provides a sound knowledge of the physical functioning of an estuary, a critical component of understanding its ecological functioning Ideal reference for those interested in marine biology, oceanography, coastal management, and sustainable development Describes the essentials behind conceptual and numerical models of the health of an estuary ecosystem and how to use these models to quantify both human impacts and the value of remediation and management measures Chapters are written in an accessible way that encourages collaboration between aquatic, marine, and wetland biologists, ecologists, oceanographers, geologists, geomorphologists, chemists, and ecosystem modelers Covers the physical, chemical, and biological elements of estuary environments, indicating that the essence of an estuary’s functioning lies in its connectivity with the adjacent catchment and the marine/coastal system
Author: Celine Rozenblat,Denise Pumain,Elkin Velasquez
Category: Social Science
This book reviews the recent evolutions of cities in the world according to entirely revised theoretical fundamentals of urban systems. It relies on a vision of cities sharing common dynamic features as co-evolving entities in complex systems. Systems of cities that are interdependent in their evolutions are characterized in the context of that dynamics. They are identified on various geographical scales—worldwide, regional, or national. Each system exhibits peculiarities that are related to its demographic, economic, and geopolitical history, and that are underlined by the systematic comparison of continental and regional urban systems, following a common template throughout the book. Multi-scale urban processes, whether local (one city), or within national systems (systems of cities), or linked to the expansion of transnational networks (towards global urban systems) throughout the world over the period 1950–2010 are deeply analyzed in 16 chapters. This global overview challenges urban governance for designing policies facing globalization and the subsequent ecological transition. The answers, which emerge from the diversity of situations in the world, add some reflections on and recommendations to the “urban system framework” proposed in the Habitat III agenda.
A survey of New City Proposals and Their Lessons for Australia’s 21st Century Development
Author: Julian Bolleter
Category: Social Science
This book examines failed new city proposals in Australia to understand the hurdles – environmental, societal, and economic – that have curtailed such visions. The lessons from these relative failures are important because, if projections for Australia’s 21st century population growth are borne out, we will need to build new cities this century. This is particularly the case in northern Australia, where the federal government projects a four-fold increase in population in the next four decades. The book aims that, when we commence 21st century new city dreaming, we have learnt from the mistakes of the past and, are not doomed to repeat them.
Global Food Security for the 21st Century
Author: Alex Evans
Publisher: Chatham Historical Society Incorporated
Category: Political Science
Global food prices have eased significantly from their record highs in the first part of 2008. As a worldwide economic downturn has gathered pace, commodity markets have weakened significantly. By October 2008, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization's F
An Introduction to the Study of the Physical Form of Cities
Author: Vítor Oliveira
Category: Social Science
This is a book about cities or, more precisely, about the physical form of cities. It starts presenting the main elements of urban form – streets, urban blocks, plots and buildings – structuring our cities and the fundamental actors and processes of transformation shaping these elements. It then applies this analytical framework to describe the evolution of cities over history as well as to explain the functioning of contemporary cities. After the initial focus on the ‘object’ (cities) the book describes how different researchers and different schools of thought have been dealing with this object since the emergence of Urban Morphology, as the science of urban form, in the turning to the twentieth century. Finally, the book tries to identify what are the most important (and specific) contributions that Urban Morphology has to offer to contemporary cities, societies and economies.
Past, Present, and Future
Author: Committee on Sea Level Rise in California, Oregon, and Washington,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Tide gauges show that global sea level has risen about 7 inches during the 20th century, and recent satellite data show that the rate of sea-level rise is accelerating. As Earth warms, sea levels are rising mainly because ocean water expands as it warms; and water from melting glaciers and ice sheets is flowing into the ocean. Sea-level rise poses enormous risks to the valuable infrastructure, development, and wetlands that line much of the 1,600 mile shoreline of California, Oregon, and Washington. As those states seek to incorporate projections of sea-level rise into coastal planning, they asked the National Research Council to make independent projections of sea-level rise along their coasts for the years 2030, 2050, and 2100, taking into account regional factors that affect sea level. Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington: Past, Present, and Future explains that sea level along the U.S. west coast is affected by a number of factors. These include: climate patterns such as the El Niño, effects from the melting of modern and ancient ice sheets, and geologic processes, such as plate tectonics. Regional projections for California, Oregon, and Washington show a sharp distinction at Cape Mendocino in northern California. South of that point, sea-level rise is expected to be very close to global projections. However, projections are lower north of Cape Mendocino because the land is being pushed upward as the ocean plate moves under the continental plate along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. However, an earthquake magnitude 8 or larger, which occurs in the region every few hundred to 1,000 years, would cause the land to drop and sea level to suddenly rise.
Author: Roland B. Stull
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Part of the excitement in boundary-layer meteorology is the challenge associated with turbulent flow - one of the unsolved problems in classical physics. An additional attraction of the filed is the rich diversity of topics and research methods that are collected under the umbrella-term of boundary-layer meteorology. The flavor of the challenges and the excitement associated with the study of the atmospheric boundary layer are captured in this textbook. Fundamental concepts and mathematics are presented prior to their use, physical interpretations of the terms in equations are given, sample data are shown, examples are solved, and exercises are included. The work should also be considered as a major reference and as a review of the literature, since it includes tables of parameterizatlons, procedures, filed experiments, useful constants, and graphs of various phenomena under a variety of conditions. It is assumed that the work will be used at the beginning graduate level for students with an undergraduate background in meteorology, but the author envisions, and has catered for, a heterogeneity in the background and experience of his readers.
Author: Laura Tateosian
This book introduces Python scripting for geographic information science (GIS) workflow optimization using ArcGIS. It builds essential programming skills for automating GIS analysis. Over 200 sample Python scripts and 175 classroom-tested exercises reinforce the learning objectives. Readers will learn to: • Write and run Python in the ArcGIS Python Window, the PythonWin IDE, and the PyScripter IDE • Work with Python syntax and data types • Call ArcToolbox tools, batch process GIS datasets, and manipulate map documents using the arcpy package • Read and modify proprietary and ASCII text GIS data • Parse HTML web pages and KML datasets • Create Web pages and fetch GIS data from Web sources. • Build user-interfaces with the native Python file dialog toolkit or the ArcGIS Script tools and PyToolboxes Python for ArcGIS is designed as a primary textbook for advanced-level students in GIS. Researchers, government specialists and professionals working in GIS will also find this book useful as a reference.
Water Reform in the Murray-Darling Basin
Author: Daniel Connell,R. Quentin Grafton
Publisher: ANU E Press
This unique book brings together 27 chapters from some of the world's leading practitioners and experts on environmental water, communities, law, economics and governance. Its goal is to understand the many dimensions of water in the Murray-Darling Basin and provide guidance about how to implement a water management plan that addresses the needs of communities, the economy and the environment. The comprehensiveness of topics covered, the expertise of its authors, and the absolute need to take a multidisciplinary approach to resolving the "wicked problem" of governing our scarce water resource makes this volume a must read for all who care about Australian communities and the environment.
Understanding the Ocean's Role in Human Health
Author: National Research Council,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Ocean's Role in Human Health
Publisher: National Academies Press
What can sharks teach us about our immune system? What can horseshoe crabs show us about eyesight? The more we learn about the ocean, the more we realize how critical these vast bodies of water are to our health and well-being. Sometimes the ocean helps us, as when a marine organism yields a new medical treatment. At other times, the ocean poses the threat of coastal storm surges or toxic algal blooms. From Monsoons to Microbes offers a deeper look into the oceans that surround us, often nurturing yet sometimes harming humankind. This book explores the links among physical oceanography, public health, epidemiology, marine biology, and medicine in understanding what the ocean has to offer. It will help readers grasp such important points as: How the ocean's sweeping physical processes create long-term phenomena such as El Nino and short-term disastrous events such as tsunamis--including what communities can do to prepare. What medicines and nutritional products have come from the ocean and what the prospects are for more such discoveries. How estuaries work--where salt and fresh water meet--and what can go wrong, as in the 7,000 square mile "dead zone" at the out-flow of the Mississippi River. How the growing demand for seafood and the expansion of ocean-going transport has increased our exposure to infectious agents--and how these agents can be tracked down and fought. Why "red tides" of toxic algae suddenly appear in previously unaffected coastal areas, and what happens when algal toxins find their way into our food supply or the air we breathe. The book recommends ways we can implement exciting new technologies to monitor the physics, chemistry, and biology of the ocean to recognize change as it happens. From the impact of worldwide atmospheric warming to the significance of exotic bacteria from submarine hydrothermal vents, the ocean has many depths left to explore.
Category: Coral reef conservation
Category: Political Science
Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning. The editors have built Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Author: Keith Walker,Paul Humphries
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
This edited volume reviews our past and present understanding of the ecology of Australian freshwater fishes. It compares patterns and processes in Australia with those on other continents, discusses the local relevance of ecological models from the northern hemisphere and considers how best to manage our species and their habitats in the face of current and future threats. In view of these challenges, the need for redress is urgent. The chapters are written by some of our foremost researchers and managers, developing themes that underpin our knowledge of the ecology, conservation and management of fish and fish habitats. For each theme, the authors formulate a synthesis of what is known, consider the need for new perspectives and identify gaps and opportunities for research, monitoring and management. The themes have an Australian context but draw upon ideas and principles developed by fish biologists in other parts of the world. The science of freshwater fish ecology in Australia has grown rapidly from its roots in natural history and taxonomy. This book offers an introduction for students, researchers and managers, one that the authors hope will carry Australian fish biology and resource management to new levels of understanding.
Migrations Between Freshwater and Marine Environments
Author: Robert Montgomery McDowall
Publisher: Timber Press (OR)
Category: Diadromous fishes.
This book describes the fish which exhibit diadromy, their life history strategies and the implications for fisheries. The book should therefore represent an important volume for workers in fish biology, animal physiology and behaviour, and fisheries.