Everyday Stalinism

Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times : Soviet Russia in the 1930s

Author: Sheila Fitzpatrick

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195050010

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 5591

Drawing on research from newly opened Soviet archives, a leading authority on modern Russian history shows how living conditions and day-to-day practices changed dramatically in Soviet Russia with Stalin's revolution of the 1930s--forcing ordinary people to live under extraordinary circumstances. 5 halftones. 5 illustrations.

Everyday Stalinism

Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s

Author: Sheila Fitzpatrick

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195050004

Category: Music

Page: 288

View: 2039

Focusing on urban areas in the 1930s, this college professor illuminates the ways that Soviet city-dwellers coped with this world, examining such diverse activities as shopping, landing a job, and other acts.

Everyday Stalinism

Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s

Author: Sheila Fitzpatrick

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199839247

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 2276

Here is a pioneering account of everyday life under Stalin, written by a leading authority on modern Russian history. Focusing on the urban population, Fitzpatrick depicts a world of privation, overcrowding, endless lines, and broken homes, in which the regime's promises of future socialist abundance rang hollowly. We read of a government bureaucracy that often turned life into a nightmare, and of how ordinary citizens tried to circumvent it. We also read of the secret police, whose constant surveillance was endemic at this time, and the waves of terror, like the Great Purges of 1937, which periodically cast society into turmoil.

Everyday Life in Early Soviet Russia

Taking the Revolution Inside

Author: Christina Kiaer,Eric Naiman

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253217929

Category: History

Page: 310

View: 3672

What did it mean to live as a subject of early Soviet modernity? In the 1920s and 1930s, in an environment where every element of daily life was supposed to be transformed by Soviet ideology, routine activities became ideologically significant, subject to debate and change. Drawing on original archival materials and theoretically informed, the essays in this volume examine ways in which Soviet citizens sought to align their private lives with the public nature of Soviet experience by taking the Revolution ""inside."" Topics discussed include the new sexuality, family loyalty during the Terror, the advertisement of Soviet commodities, the employment of domestic servants, children's toys and Pioneer camps, and narratives of self, ranging from diaries to secret police statements to monologues on the Soviet screen and stage. Bringing into dialogue essays by scholars in history, literature, sociology, art history, and film studies, this interdisciplinary volume contributes to the growing understanding of the Soviet Union as part of the history of modernity, rather than its totalitarian ""other.""

Stalin's Peasants

Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village After Collectivization

Author: Sheila Fitzpatrick

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195104592

Category: Religion

Page: 386

View: 4113

Drawing on newly-opened Soviet archives, especially the letters of complaint and petition with which peasants deluged the Soviet authorities in the 1930s, Stalin's Peasants analyzes peasants' strategies of resistance and survival in the new world of the collectivized village. Stalin's Peasants is a story of struggle between transformationally-minded Communists and traditionally-minded peasants over the terms of collectivization--a struggle of opposing practices, not a struggle in which either side clearly articulated its position. But it is also a story about the impact of collectivization on the internal social relations and culture of the village, exploring questions of authority and leadership, feuds, denunciations, rumors, and changes in religious observance. For the first time, it is possible to see the real people behind the facade of the "Potemkin village" created by Soviet propagandists. In the Potemkin village, happy peasants clustered around a kolkhoz (collective farm) tractor, praising Stalin and promising to produce more grain as a patriotic duty. In the real Russian village of the 1930s, as we learn from Soviet political police reports, sullen and hungry peasants described collectivization as a "second serfdom," cursed all Communists, and blamed Stalin personally for their plight. Sheila Fitzpatrick's work is truly a landmark in studies of the Stalinist period--a richly-documented social history told from the traumatic experiences of the long-suffering underclass of peasants. Anyone interested in Soviet and Russian history, peasant studies, or social history will appreciate this major contribution to our understanding of life in Stalin's Russia.

Stalinism as a Way of Life

A Narrative in Documents

Author: Lewis H. Siegelbaum,A. K. Sokolov

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300101270

Category: History

Page: 343

View: 2597

What was life like for ordinary Russian citizens in the 1930s? How did they feel about socialism and the acts committed in its name? This book provides English-speaking readers with the responses of those who experienced firsthand the events of the middle-Stalinist period. The book contains 157 documents - mostly letters to authorities from Soviet citizens, but also reports compiled by the secret police and Communist Party functionaries, internal government and party memoranda, and correspondence among party officials.

Stalinism

New Directions

Author: Sheila Fitzpatrick

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0415152348

Category: History

Page: 377

View: 8874

Stalinism is a provocative addition to the current debates related to the history of the Stalinist period of the Soviet Union. Sheila Fitzpatrick has collected together the newest and the most exciting work by young Russian, American and European scholars, as well as some of the seminal articles that have influenced them, in an attempt to reassess this contentious subject in the light of new data and new theoretical approaches. The articles are contextualized by a thorough introduction to the totalitarian/revisionist arguments and post-revisionist developments. Eschewing an exclusively high-political focus, the book draws together work on class, identity, consumption culture, and agency. Stalinist terror and nationalities policy are reappraised in the light of new archival findings. Stalinism offers a nuanced navigation of an emotive and misrepresented chapter of the Russian past.

Popular Opinion in Stalin's Russia

Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934-1941

Author: N.A

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521566766

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 2693

This book is a study of how ordinary Russians experienced life during the 'Great Terror' between 1934 and 1941.

Revolution on My Mind

Author: Jochen Hellbeck

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674021747

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 436

View: 802

Reveling the inner world of Stalin's Russia, this book shows diary-keeping was widespread as individuals struggled to adjust to Stalin's regime. It explores the forging of the revolutionary self, a study without precedent that speaks to the evolution of the individual in mass movements of our own time.

Thank You, Comrade Stalin!

Soviet Public Culture from Revolution to Cold War

Author: Jeffrey Brooks

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691004112

Category: History

Page: 319

View: 1174

Thank you, our Stalin, for a happy childhood." "Thank you, dear Marshal [Stalin], for our freedom, for our children's happiness, for life." Between the Russian Revolution and the Cold War, Soviet public culture was so dominated by the power of the state that slogans like these appeared routinely in newspapers, on posters, and in government proclamations. In this penetrating historical study, Jeffrey Brooks draws on years of research into the most influential and widely circulated Russian newspapers--including Pravda, Isvestiia, and the army paper Red Star--to explain the origins, the nature, and the effects of this unrelenting idealization of the state, the Communist Party, and the leader. Brooks shows how, beginning with Lenin, the Communists established a state monopoly of the media that absorbed literature, art, and science into a stylized and ritualistic public culture--a form of political performance that became its own reality and excluded other forms of public reflection. He presents and explains scores of self-congratulatory newspaper articles, including tales of Stalin's supposed achievements and virtue, accounts of the country's allegedly dynamic economy, and warnings about the decadence and cruelty of the capitalist West. Brooks pays particular attention to the role of the press in the reconstruction of the Soviet cultural system to meet the Nazi threat during World War II and in the transformation of national identity from its early revolutionary internationalism to the ideology of the Cold War. He concludes that the country's one-sided public discourse and the pervasive idea that citizens owed the leader gratitude for the "gifts" of goods and services led ultimately to the inability of late Soviet Communism to diagnose its own ills, prepare alternative policies, and adjust to new realities. The first historical work to explore the close relationship between language and the implementation of the Stalinist-Leninist program, Thank You, Comrade Stalin! is a compelling account of Soviet public culture as reflected through the country's press.

Death and Redemption

The Gulag and the Shaping of Soviet Society

Author: Steven A. Barnes

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400838615

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 3904

Death and Redemption offers a fundamental reinterpretation of the role of the Gulag--the Soviet Union's vast system of forced-labor camps, internal exile, and prisons--in Soviet society. Soviet authorities undoubtedly had the means to exterminate all the prisoners who passed through the Gulag, but unlike the Nazis they did not conceive of their concentration camps as instruments of genocide. In this provocative book, Steven Barnes argues that the Gulag must be understood primarily as a penal institution where prisoners were given one final chance to reintegrate into Soviet society. Millions whom authorities deemed "reeducated" through brutal forced labor were allowed to leave. Millions more who "failed" never got out alive. Drawing on newly opened archives in Russia and Kazakhstan as well as memoirs by actual prisoners, Barnes shows how the Gulag was integral to the Soviet goal of building a utopian socialist society. He takes readers into the Gulag itself, focusing on one outpost of the Gulag system in the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan, a location that featured the full panoply of Soviet detention institutions. Barnes traces the Gulag experience from its beginnings after the 1917 Russian Revolution to its decline following the 1953 death of Stalin. Death and Redemption reveals how the Gulag defined the border between those who would reenter Soviet society and those who would be excluded through death.

Stalin

Author: Hiroaki Kuromiya

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317867807

Category: History

Page: 246

View: 2888

This profile looks at how Stalin, despite being regarded as intellectually inferior by his rivals, managed to rise to power and rule the largest country in the world, achievieving divine-like status as a dictator. Through recently uncovered research material and Stalin’s archives in Moscow, Kuromiya analyzes how and why Stalin was a rare, even unique, politician who literally lived by politics alone. He analyses how Stalin understood psychology campaigns well and how he used this understanding in his political reign and terror. Kuromiya provides a convincing, concise and up-to-date analysis of Stalin’s political life.

The Landscape of Stalinism

The Art and Ideology of Soviet Space

Author: Jevgeni Dobrenko,Evgeny Dobrenko,Eric Naiman

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 9780295983332

Category: Art

Page: 315

View: 9599

This wide-ranging cultural history explores the expression of Bolshevik Party ideology through the lens of landscape, or, more broadly, space. In painting, architecture, literature, cinema, and song, images of landscape were enlisted to help mold the masses into joyful, hardworking citizens of a state with a radiant, utopian future. From backgrounds in history, art history, literary studies, and philosophy, the contributors show how Soviet space was sanctified, coded, and ‘sold’ as an ideological product.

A Spy in the Archives

A Memoir of Cold War Russia

Author: Sheila Fitzpatrick

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 1784532959

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 352

View: 5120

Moscow in the 1960s was the other side of the Iron Curtain: mysterious, exotic, even dangerous. In 1966 the historian Sheila Fitzpatrick travelled to Moscow to research in the Soviet archives. This was the era of Brezhnev, of a possible 'thaw' in the Cold War, when the Soviets couldn't decide either to thaw out properly or re-freeze. Moscow, the world capital of socialism, was renowned for its drabness. The buses were overcrowded; there were endemic shortages and endless queues. This was also the age of regular spying scandals and tit-for-tat diplomatic expulsions and it was no surprise that visiting students were subject to intense scrutiny by the KGB. Many of Fitzpatrick's friends were involved in espionage activities - and indeed others were accused of being spies or kept under close surveillance. In this book, Sheila Fitzpatrick provides a unique insight into everyday life in Soviet Moscow. Full of drama and colourful characters, her remarkable memoir highlights the dangers and drudgery faced by Westerners living under communism.

Origins of the Great Purges

The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933-1938

Author: John Arch Getty

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521335706

Category: History

Page: 276

View: 8992

This is a study of the structure of the Soviet Communist Party in the 1930s. Based upon archival and published sources, the work describes the events in the Bolshevik Party leading up to the Great Purges of 1937-1938. Professor Getty concludes that the party bureaucracy was chaotic rather than totalitarian, and that local officials had relative autonomy within a considerably fragmented political system. The Moscow leadership, of which Stalin was the most authoritarian actor, reacted to social and political processes as much as instigating them. Because of disputes, confusion, and inefficiency, they often promoted contradictory policies. Avoiding the usual concentration on Stalin's personality, the author puts forward the controversial hypothesis that the Great Purges occurred not as the end product of a careful Stalin plan, but rather as the bloody but ad hoc result of Moscow's incremental attempts to centralise political power.

Terror and Democracy in the Age of Stalin

The Social Dynamics of Repression

Author: Wendy Z. Goldman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521866149

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 9994

Terror and Democracy in Stalin's Russia is the first book devoted exclusively to popular participation in the “Great Terror,” a period in which millions of people were arrested, interrogated, shot, and sent to labor camps. In the unions and the factories, repression was accompanied by a mass campaign for democracy. Party leaders urged workers to criticize and remove corrupt and negligent officials. Workers, shop foremen, local Party members, and union leaders adopted the slogans of repression and used them, often against each other, to redress long-standing grievances. Using new, formerly secret archival sources, Terror and Democracy in Stalin's Russia shows how ordinary people moved in clear stages toward madness and self-destruction. Wendy Z. Goldman is a professor of history at Carnegie Mellon University. She is author of Women, the State and Revolution: Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917-1936 (Cambridge, 1993), winner of the Berkshire Conference Book Award, as well as Women at the Gates: Gender and Industry in Stalin's Russia (Cambridge, 2002).

The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913-1945

Author: Robert William Davies,Mark Harrison,S. G. Wheatcroft

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521457705

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 381

View: 2673

This book is ideal for students studying a key period of Soviet economic history. It brings together and makes available the results of the latest research on Soviet industrialization, using a vast amount of primary evidence, and the methods of quantitative economic analysis. Leading scholars in the field analyze the Soviet economy sector by sector, from agriculture to defense and technology, and look at the key indicators of economic health over the period: employment, national income, exports, and population trends. The book concludes with two chapters comparing the Russian economy at war under tsarism and communism.

Inventing the Enemy

Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia

Author: Wendy Z. Goldman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139498010

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 1390

Inventing the Enemy uses stories of personal relationships to explore the behaviour of ordinary people during Stalin's terror. Communist Party leaders strongly encouraged ordinary citizens and party members to 'unmask the hidden enemy' and people responded by flooding the secret police and local authorities with accusations. By 1937, every workplace was convulsed by hyper-vigilance, intense suspicion and the hunt for hidden enemies. Spouses, co-workers, friends and relatives disavowed and denounced each other. People confronted hideous dilemmas. Forced to lie to protect loved ones, they struggled to reconcile political imperatives and personal loyalties. Workplaces were turned into snake pits. The strategies that people used to protect themselves - naming names, pre-emptive denunciations, and shifting blame - all helped to spread the terror. Inventing the Enemy, a history of the terror in five Moscow factories, explores personal relationships and individual behaviour within a pervasive political culture of 'enemy hunting'.

The Stalin Era

Author: Philip Boobbyer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134739370

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 2918

This book provides a wide-ranging history of every aspect of Stalin's dictatorship over the peoples of the Soviet Union. Drawing upon a huge array of primary and secondary sources, The Stalin Era is a first-hand account of Stalinist thought, policy and and their effects. It places the man and his ideology into context both within pre-Revolutionary Russia, Lenin's Soviet Union and post-Stalinist Russia. The Stalin Era examines: * collectivisation * industrialisation * terror * government * the Cult of Stalin * education and Science * family * religion: The Russian Orthodox Church * art and the state.

Tear Off the Masks!

Identity and Imposture in Twentieth-Century Russia

Author: Sheila Fitzpatrick

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400843731

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 8598

When revolutions happen, they change the rules of everyday life--both the codified rules concerning the social and legal classifications of citizens and the unwritten rules about how individuals present themselves to others. This occurred in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, which laid the foundations of the Soviet state, and again in 1991, when that state collapsed. Tear Off the Masks! is about the remaking of identities in these times of upheaval. Sheila Fitzpatrick here brings together in a single volume years of distinguished work on how individuals literally constructed their autobiographies, defended them under challenge, attempted to edit the "file-selves" created by bureaucratic identity documentation, and denounced others for "masking" their true social identities. Marxist class-identity labels--"worker," "peasant," "intelligentsia," "bourgeois"--were of crucial importance to the Soviet state in the 1920s and 1930s, but it turned out that the determination of a person's class was much more complicated than anyone expected. This in turn left considerable scope for individual creativity and manipulation. Outright imposters, both criminal and political, also make their appearance in this book. The final chapter describes how, after decades of struggle to construct good Soviet socialist personae, Russians had to struggle to make themselves fit for the new, post-Soviet world in the 1990s--by "de-Sovietizing" themselves. Engaging in style and replete with colorful detail and characters drawn from a wealth of sources, Tear Off the Masks! offers unique insight into the elusive forms of self-presentation, masking, and unmasking that made up Soviet citizenship and continue to resonate in the post-Soviet world.