Author: Ad Meskens,Paul Tytgat
In this book the classical Greek construction problems are explored in a didactical, enquiry based fashion using Interactive Geometry Software (IGS). The book traces the history of these problems, stating them in modern terminology. By focusing on constructions and the use of IGS the reader is confronted with the same problems that ancient mathematicians once faced. The reader can step into the footsteps of Euclid, Viète and Cusanus amongst others and then by experimenting and discovering geometric relationships far exceed their accomplishments. Exploring these problems with the neusis-method lets him discover a class of interesting curves. By experimenting he will gain a deeper understanding of how mathematics is created. More than 100 exercises guide him through methods which were developed to try and solve the problems. The exercises are at the level of undergraduate students and only require knowledge of elementary Euclidean geometry and pre-calculus algebra. It is especially well-suited for those students who are thinking of becoming a mathematics teacher and for mathematics teachers.
An Introduction with Phase Portraits
Author: Elias Wegert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book provides a systematic introduction to functions of one complex variable. Its novel feature is the consistent use of special color representations – so-called phase portraits – which visualize functions as images on their domains. Reading Visual Complex Functions requires no prerequisites except some basic knowledge of real calculus and plane geometry. The text is self-contained and covers all the main topics usually treated in a first course on complex analysis. With separate chapters on various construction principles, conformal mappings and Riemann surfaces it goes somewhat beyond a standard programme and leads the reader to more advanced themes. In a second storyline, running parallel to the course outlined above, one learns how properties of complex functions are reflected in and can be read off from phase portraits. The book contains more than 200 of these pictorial representations which endow individual faces to analytic functions. Phase portraits enhance the intuitive understanding of concepts in complex analysis and are expected to be useful tools for anybody working with special functions – even experienced researchers may be inspired by the pictures to new and challenging questions. Visual Complex Functions may also serve as a companion to other texts or as a reference work for advanced readers who wish to know more about phase portraits.
Author: Thorleif Boman
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
"Builds on the premise that language and thought are inevitably and inextricably bound up with each other. . . . A classic study of the differences between Greek and Hebrew thought."—John E. Rexrine, Colgate University
Author: Francesco Russo
Providing an introduction to both classical and modern techniques in projective algebraic geometry, this monograph treats the geometrical properties of varieties embedded in projective spaces, their secant and tangent lines, the behavior of tangent linear spaces, the algebro-geometric and topological obstructions to their embedding into smaller projective spaces, and the classification of extremal cases. It also provides a solution of Hartshorne’s Conjecture on Complete Intersections for the class of quadratic manifolds and new short proofs of previously known results, using the modern tools of Mori Theory and of rationally connected manifolds. The new approach to some of the problems considered can be resumed in the principle that, instead of studying a special embedded manifold uniruled by lines, one passes to analyze the original geometrical property on the manifold of lines passing through a general point and contained in the manifold. Once this embedded manifold, usually of lower codimension, is classified, one tries to reconstruct the original manifold, following a principle appearing also in other areas of geometry such as projective differential geometry or complex geometry.
Author: Dimitry Kozlov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This volume is the first comprehensive treatment of combinatorial algebraic topology in book form. The first part of the book constitutes a swift walk through the main tools of algebraic topology. Readers - graduate students and working mathematicians alike - will probably find particularly useful the second part, which contains an in-depth discussion of the major research techniques of combinatorial algebraic topology. Although applications are sprinkled throughout the second part, they are principal focus of the third part, which is entirely devoted to developing the topological structure theory for graph homomorphisms.
Author: Bart De Bruyn
This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end of the book. This book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in the fields of combinatorics and incidence geometry.
A Collection of Classical Proofs
Author: Oswald Baumgart
This book is the English translation of Baumgart’s thesis on the early proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law (“Über das quadratische Reciprocitätsgesetz. Eine vergleichende Darstellung der Beweise”), first published in 1885. It is divided into two parts. The first part presents a very brief history of the development of number theory up to Legendre, as well as detailed descriptions of several early proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law. The second part highlights Baumgart’s comparisons of the principles behind these proofs. A current list of all known proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law, with complete references, is provided in the appendix. This book will appeal to all readers interested in elementary number theory and the history of number theory.
Moduli Spaces and Arithmetic
Author: Asher Auel,Brendan Hassett,Anthony Várilly-Alvarado,Bianca Viray
The contributions in this book explore various contexts in which the derived category of coherent sheaves on a variety determines some of its arithmetic. This setting provides new geometric tools for interpreting elements of the Brauer group. With a view towards future arithmetic applications, the book extends a number of powerful tools for analyzing rational points on elliptic curves, e.g., isogenies among curves, torsion points, modular curves, and the resulting descent techniques, as well as higher-dimensional varieties like K3 surfaces. Inspired by the rapid recent advances in our understanding of K3 surfaces, the book is intended to foster cross-pollination between the fields of complex algebraic geometry and number theory. Contributors: · Nicolas Addington · Benjamin Antieau · Kenneth Ascher · Asher Auel · Fedor Bogomolov · Jean-Louis Colliot-Thélène · Krishna Dasaratha · Brendan Hassett · Colin Ingalls · Martí Lahoz · Emanuele Macrì · Kelly McKinnie · Andrew Obus · Ekin Ozman · Raman Parimala · Alexander Perry · Alena Pirutka · Justin Sawon · Alexei N. Skorobogatov · Paolo Stellari · Sho Tanimoto · Hugh Thomas · Yuri Tschinkel · Anthony Várilly-Alvarado · Bianca Viray · Rong Zhou
Helping Children Learn Mathematics
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Center for Education,Mathematics Learning Study Committee
Publisher: National Academies Press
Adding It Up explores how students in pre-K through 8th grade learn mathematics and recommends how teaching, curricula, and teacher education should change to improve mathematics learning during these critical years. The committee identifies five interdependent components of mathematical proficiency and describes how students develop this proficiency. With examples and illustrations, the book presents a portrait of mathematics learning: Research findings on what children know about numbers by the time they arrive in pre-K and the implications for mathematics instruction. Details on the processes by which students acquire mathematical proficiency with whole numbers, rational numbers, and integers, as well as beginning algebra, geometry, measurement, and probability and statistics. The committee discusses what is known from research about teaching for mathematics proficiency, focusing on the interactions between teachers and students around educational materials and how teachers develop proficiency in teaching mathematics.
New Approaches to an Ancient Affinity
Author: Nathalie Sinclair,William Higginson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This collection of essays explores the ancient affinity between the mathematical and the aesthetic, focusing on fundamental connections between these two modes of reasoning and communicating. From historical, philosophical and psychological perspectives, with particular attention to certain mathematical areas such as geometry and analysis, the authors examine ways in which the aesthetic is ever-present in mathematical thinking and contributes to the growth and value of mathematical knowledge.
Author: Donald L. Vossler
Publisher: Academic Press
The study of two-dimensional analytic geometry has gone in and out of fashion several times over the past century, however this classic field of mathematics has once again become popular due to the growing power of personal computers and the availability of powerful mathematical software systems, such as Mathematica, that can provide an interactive environment for studying the field. By combining the power of Mathematica with an analytic geometry software system called Descarta2D, the author has succeeded in meshing an ancient field of study with modern computational tools, the result being a simple, yet powerful, approach to studying analytic geometry. Students, engineers and mathematicians alike who are interested in analytic geometry can use this book and software for the study, research or just plain enjoyment of analytic geometry. Mathematica provides an attractive environment for studying analytic geometry. Mathematica supports both numeric and symbolic computations meaning that geometry problems can be solved for special cases using numbers, as well as general cases producing formulas. Mathematica also has good facilities for producing graphical plots which are useful for visualizing the graphs of two-dimensional geometry. * A classic study in analytic geometry, complete with in-line Mathematica dialogs illustrating every concept as it is introduced * Excellent theoretical presentation *Fully explained examples of all key concepts * Interactive Mathematica notebooks for the entire book * Provides a complete computer-based environment for study of analytic geometry * All chapters and reference material are provided on CD-ROM in addition to being printedin the book * Complete software system: Descarta2D * A software system, including source code, for the underlying computer implementation, called Descarta2D is provided * Part VII of the book is a listing of the (30) Mathematica files supporting Descarta2D; the source code is also supplied on CD-ROM * Explorations * More than 120 challenging problems in analytic geometry are posed; Complete solutions are provided both as interactive Mathematica notebooks on CD-ROM and as printed material in the book * Mathematica and Descarta2D Hints expand the reader's knowledge and understanding of Descarta2D and Mathematica * Sortware developed with Mathematica 3.0 and is compatible with Mathematica 4.0 * Detailed reference manual * Complete documentation for Descarta2D * Fully integrated into the Mathematica Help Browser
Author: Serge Tabachnikov
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
This book is devoted to billiards in their relation with differential geometry, classical mechanics, and geometrical optics. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate topics course (but contains more material than can be realistically taught in one semester). Although the minimum prerequisites include only the standard material usually covered in the first two years of college (the entire calculus sequence, linear algebra), readers should show some mathematical maturity and strongly rely on their mathematical common sense. As a reward, they will be taken to the forefront of current research.
all thirteen books complete in one volume : the Thomas L. Heath translation
Author: Euclid,Dana Densmore
Publisher: Green Lion Pr
The classic Heath translation, in a completely new layout with plenty of space and generous margins. An affordable but sturdy sewn hardcover student and teacher edition in one volume, with minimal notes and a new index/glossary.
Author: H. S. M. Coxeter,Samuel L. Greitzer
A fascinating collection of geometric proofs and properties.
The Polyhedron Formula and the Birth of Topology
Author: David S. Richeson
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Leonhard Euler's polyhedron formula describes the structure of many objects--from soccer balls and gemstones to Buckminster Fuller's buildings and giant all-carbon molecules. Yet Euler's formula is so simple it can be explained to a child. Euler's Gem tells the illuminating story of this indispensable mathematical idea. From ancient Greek geometry to today's cutting-edge research, Euler's Gem celebrates the discovery of Euler's beloved polyhedron formula and its far-reaching impact on topology, the study of shapes. In 1750, Euler observed that any polyhedron composed of V vertices, E edges, and F faces satisfies the equation V-E+F=2. David Richeson tells how the Greeks missed the formula entirely; how Descartes almost discovered it but fell short; how nineteenth-century mathematicians widened the formula's scope in ways that Euler never envisioned by adapting it for use with doughnut shapes, smooth surfaces, and higher dimensional shapes; and how twentieth-century mathematicians discovered that every shape has its own Euler's formula. Using wonderful examples and numerous illustrations, Richeson presents the formula's many elegant and unexpected applications, such as showing why there is always some windless spot on earth, how to measure the acreage of a tree farm by counting trees, and how many crayons are needed to color any map. Filled with a who's who of brilliant mathematicians who questioned, refined, and contributed to a remarkable theorem's development, Euler's Gem will fascinate every mathematics enthusiast.
Author: Gerard A. Venema
This book provides an inquiry-based introduction to advanced Euclidean geometry. It utilizes dynamic geometry software, specifically GeoGebra, to explore the statements and proofs of many of the most interesting theorems in the subject. Topics covered include triangle centers, inscribed, circumscribed, and escribed circles, medial and orthic triangles, the nine-point circle, duality, and the theorems of Ceva and Menelaus, as well as numerous applications of those theorems. The final chapter explores constructions in the Poincaré disk model for hyperbolic geometry. The book can be used either as a computer laboratory manual to supplement an undergraduate course in geometry or as a stand-alone introduction to advanced topics in Euclidean geometry. The text consists almost entirely of exercises (with hints) that guide students as they discover the geometric relationships for themselves. First the ideas are explored at the computer and then those ideas are assembled into a proof of the result under investigation. The goals are for the reader to experience the joy of discovering geometric relationships, to develop a deeper understanding of geometry, and to encourage an appreciation for the beauty of Euclidean geometry.
Author: Titu Andreescu,Bogdan Enescu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Mathematical Olympiad Treasures aims at building a bridge between ordinary high school exercises and more sophisticated, intricate and abstract concepts in undergraduate mathematics. The book contains a stimulating collection of problems in the subjects of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, number theory and combinatorics. While it may be considered a sequel to "Mathematical Olympiad Challenges," the focus is on engaging a wider audience to apply techniques and strategies to real-world problems. Throughout the book students are encouraged to express their ideas, conjectures, and conclusions in writing. The goal is to help readers develop a host of new mathematical tools that will be useful beyond the classroom and in a number of disciplines.
Author: Victor W. Guillemin,Johannes Sjöstrand
This book features a selection of articles by Louis Boutet de Monvel and presents his contributions to the theory of partial differential equations and analysis. The works selected here reveal his central role in the development of his field, including three cornerstones: firstly, analytic pseudodifferential operators, which have become a fundamental aspect of analytic microlocal analysis, and secondly the Boutet de Monvel calculus for boundary problems for elliptic partial differential operators, which is still an important tool also in index theory. Thirdly, Boutet de Monvel was one of the first people to recognize the importance of the existence of generalized functions, whose singularities are concentrated on a single ray in phase space, which led him to make essential contributions to hypoelliptic operators and to a very successful and influential calculus of Toeplitz operators with applications to spectral and index theory. Other topics treated here include microlocal analysis, star products and deformation quantization as well as problems in several complex variables, index theory and geometric quantization. This book will appeal to both experts in the field and students who are new to this subject.
Author: Bruno Després
This book focuses on the interplay between Eulerian and Lagrangian conservation laws for systems that admit physical motivation and originate from continuum mechanics. Ultimately, it highlights what is specific to and beneficial in the Lagrangian approach and its numerical methods. The two first chapters present a selection of well-known features of conservation laws and prepare readers for the subsequent chapters, which are dedicated to the analysis and discretization of Lagrangian systems. The text is at the frontier of applied mathematics and scientific computing and appeals to students and researchers interested in Lagrangian-based computational fluid dynamics. It also serves as an introduction to the recent corner-based Lagrangian finite volume techniques.