Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition

Author: Nagaiyar Krishnamurthy,Chiranjib Kumar Gupta

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466576383

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 839

View: 359

New Edition Now Covers Recycling, Environmental Issues, and Analytical Determination Employing four decades of experience in the rare metal and rare earths industry, the authors of Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition present the entire subject of rare earth elements with depth and accuracy. This second edition updates the most important developments from the past 10 years. It emphasizes advances made in rare-earth materials processing (converting a rare-earth metal, alloy, or compound to a device-ready material), breakthroughs in the area of rare-earth separation, and now includes a chapter on the recycling of rare earth elements from magnets, batteries, and phosphors among others, covering both manufacturing scrap or materials in end of life devices. Essential to Your Collection This second edition presents comprehensive, detailed, and up-to-date coverage that includes: All aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy A status of rare earth extraction from various world resources Flow sheets that can be used for rare earths separation, metal reduction, alloy making, refining and end product materials preparation Techniques of various rare earths recycling options An outline of environmental issues in rare earths mining and processing Methods of rare earths determination and analyses of components and impurities in rare earth materials Information extensively linked to primary literature with a complete listing of references A narration of the changing scenario of world rare earth resources and possibility of their exploitation An indispensable resource, Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition explains the many aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy clearly and systematically. The text reveals process implementation possibilities and research opportunities, and considers potential solutions to the challenges impacting this rapidly changing industry.

The Rare Earth Elements

An Introduction

Author: J.H.L. Voncken

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319268090

Category: Science

Page: 127

View: 9852

This book deals with the rare earth elements (REE), which are a series of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide series of elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium). They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application. This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.

Rare Earths

Science, Technology, Production and Use

Author: Jacques Lucas,Pierre Lucas,Thierry Le Mercier,Alain Rollat,William G. Davenport

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444627448

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 410

View: 771

High-technology and environmental applications of the rare-earth elements (REE) have grown dramatically in diversity and importance over the past four decades. This book provides a scientific understanding of rare earth properties and uses, present and future. It also points the way to efficient recycle of the rare earths in end-of-use products and efficient use of rare earths in new products. Scientists and students will appreciate the book's approach to the availability, structure and properties of rare earths and how they have led to myriad critical uses, present and future. Experts should buy this book to get an integrated picture of production and use (present and future) of rare earths and the science behind this picture. This book will prove valuable to.non-scientists as well in order to get an integrated picture of production and use of rare earths in the 21st Century, and the science behind this picture. Defines the chemical, physical and structural properties of rare earths. Gives the reader a basic understanding of what rare earths can do for us. Describes uses of each rare earth with chemical, physics, and structural explanations for the properties that underlie those uses. Allows the reader to understand how rare earths behave and why they are used in present applications and will be used in future applications. Explains to the reader where and how rare earths are found and produced and how they are best recycled to minimize environmental impact and energy and water consumption.

Extractive Metallurgy of Copper

Author: A.K. Biswas,W.G. Davenport

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483287858

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 518

View: 1879

A completely revised and up-to-date edition containing comprehensive industrial data. The many significant changes which occurred during the 1980s and 1990s are chronicled. Modern high intensity smelting processes are presented in detail, specifically flash, Contop, Isasmelt, Noranda, Teniente and direct-to-blister smelting. Considerable attention is paid to the control of SO2 emissions and manufacture of H2SO4. Recent developments in electrorefining, particularly stainless steel cathode technology are examined. Leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning are evaluated together with their impact upon optimizing mineral resource utilization. The volume targets the recycling of copper and copper alloy scrap as an increasingly important source of copper and copper alloys. Copper quality control is also discussed and the book incorporates an important section on extraction economics. Each chapter is followed by a summary of concepts previously described and offers suggested further reading and references.

Extractive Metallurgy of Copper

Author: Mark E. Schlesinger

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080967892

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 455

View: 1467

Rev. ed. of: Extractive metallurgy of copper / A.K. Biswas and W.G. Davenport. 1994. 3rd ed.

Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals

Author: Frank Kenneth Crundwell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080968090

Category: Science

Page: 610

View: 2012

This book describes and explains the methods by which three related ores and recyclables are made into high purity metals and chemicals, for materials processing. It focuses on present day processes and future developments rather than historical processes. Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts - with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage. The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subject gained through the author's previous writings (particularly Extractive Metallurgy of Copper in four editions) and extensive experience. Due to the multiple metals involved and because each metal originates in several types of ore - e.g. tropical ores and arctic ores this necessitates a multi-contributor work drawing from multiple networks and both engineering and science. Synthesizes detailed review of the fundamental chemistry and physics of extractive metallurgy with practical lessons from industrial consultancies at the leading international plants Discusses Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals for the first time in one book Reviews extraction of multiple metals from the same tropical or arctic ore Industrial, international and multidisciplinary focus on current standards of production supports best practice use of industrial resources

Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths

Extraction and Separation

Author: Dezhi Qi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128139218

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 804

View: 7368

Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths: Extraction and Separation provides the basic knowledge for rare earth extraction and separation, including flow sheet selection criteria and related technology. The book includes the latest research findings on all rare earth separation processes, methods of controlling operation costs, and strategies that help lower wastewater and waste solid discharge. It discusses many real process parameters and actual situations in rare earth separation plants, also examining the basic principles, technologies, process parameters and advances and achievements in the area of rare earth extraction and separation. In addition, the book covers extraction separation theory as developed by Professor Guanxian Xu and Professor Chunhua Yan and the creative use of a computational simulation program to replace the bench scale and pilot plant tests and directly design rare earth extraction separation processes. Outlines the theory of solvent extraction and separation of rare earths (REs) Provides the necessary tools for a REs separation plant design Includes a unique simulation program for the calculation of all process parameters Includes Chinese nomenclature that is useful for identifying the various processes, also comparing it to the global literature

Extractive Metallurgy of Niobium

Author: C. K. Gupta,A. K. Suri

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849360718

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 272

View: 4969

The growth and development witnessed today in modern science, engineering, and technology owes a heavy debt to the rare, refractory, and reactive metals group, of which niobium is a member. Extractive Metallurgy of Niobium presents a vivid account of the metal through its comprehensive discussions of properties and applications, resources and resource processing, chemical processing and compound preparation, metal extraction, and refining and consolidation. Typical flow sheets adopted in some leading niobium-producing countries for the beneficiation of various niobium sources are presented, and various chemical processes for producing pure forms of niobium intermediates such as chloride, fluoride, and oxide are discussed. The book also explains how to liberate the metal from its intermediates and describes the physico-chemical principles involved. It is an excellent reference for chemical metallurgists, hydrometallurgists, extraction and process metallurgists, and minerals processors. It is also valuable to a wide variety of scientists, engineers, technologists, and students interested in the topic.

Separation Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earth Elements

Author: Jack Zhang,Baodong Zhao,Bryan Schreiner

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319282352

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 259

View: 6083

This book describes in a comprehensive manner the technical aspects of separation of rare earth elements into individual elements for industrial and commercial use. The authors include details on and differentiate among the effective separation of rare earth elements for various parts of the world. They introduce new applications of separation of rare earth elements from concentrates of diverse ore types.

Rare Metal Technology 2016

Author: Shafiq Alam,Hojong Kim,Neale R. Neelameggham,Takanari Ouchi,Harald Oosterhof

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119274826

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 224

View: 2174

This collection presents the papers presented in the symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Paper topics include the extraction and processing of elements like antimony, arsenic, gold, indium, palladium, platinum, rare earth metals including yttrium and neodymium, titanium, tungsten, and vanadium. The rare processing techniques covered include direct extraction process for rare earth element recovery; biosorption of precious metals; fluorination behavior of uranium and zirconium mixture of fuel debris treatment; and recovery of valuable components of commodity metals such as zinc, nickel, and metals from slag.

Handbook on Rare Earth Metals and Alloys (Properties, Extraction, Preparation and Applications)

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers

Publisher: ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.

ISBN: 8178331209

Category:

Page: 688

View: 3616

Rare earths are essential constituents of more than 100 mineral species and present in many more through substitution. They have a marked geochemical affinity for calcium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, fluoride, phosphate and carbonate ions. Industrially important minerals, which are utilized at present for rare earths production, are essentially three, namely monazite, bastnasite and xenotime. In modern time techniques for exploration of rare earths and yttrium minerals include geologic identification of environments of deposition and surface as well as airborne reconnaissance with magnetometric and radiometric equipment. There are numerous applications of rare earths such as in glass making industry, cracking catalysts, electronic and optoelectronic devices, medical technology, nuclear technology, agriculture, plastic industry etc. Lot of metals and alloys called rare earth are lying in the earth which required to be processed. Some of the important elements extracted from rare earths are uranium, lithium, beryllium, selenium, platinum metals, tantalum, silicon, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, cadmium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium etc. There are different methods involved in production of metals and non metals from rare earths for example; separation, primary crushing, secondary crushing, wet grinding, dry grinding etc. The rare earths are silver, silverymwhite, or gray metals; they have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air, have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties this makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals. Rare earths are found with non metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. At present all the rare earth resources in India are in the form of placer monazite deposits, which also carry other industrially important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite and garnet. Some of the fundamentals of the book are commercially important rare earth minerals, exploration for rare earth resources, rare earth resources of the world, some rare earth minerals and their approximate compositions, rare earths in cracking catalysts, rare earth based phosphors, interdependence of applications and production of rare earths, uranium alloys, conversion of ores to lithium chemicals, characterization and analysis of very pure silicon, derivation of molybdenum metal, electoplating and chromizing, electrolytic production of titanium, heat treatment of titanium alloys, tensile properties of alloys etc. The book covers occurrence of rare earth, resources of the world, production of lithium metals, compounds derived from the metals, chemical properties of beryllium, uses of selenium, derivation of molybdenum metals, ore concentration and treatment and many more. This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.

Rare Earths

Science, Technology, Production and Use

Author: Jacques Lucas,Pierre Lucas,Thierry Le Mercier,Alain Rollat,William G. Davenport

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444627448

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 410

View: 6032

High-technology and environmental applications of the rare-earth elements (REE) have grown dramatically in diversity and importance over the past four decades. This book provides a scientific understanding of rare earth properties and uses, present and future. It also points the way to efficient recycle of the rare earths in end-of-use products and efficient use of rare earths in new products. Scientists and students will appreciate the book's approach to the availability, structure and properties of rare earths and how they have led to myriad critical uses, present and future. Experts should buy this book to get an integrated picture of production and use (present and future) of rare earths and the science behind this picture. This book will prove valuable to.non-scientists as well in order to get an integrated picture of production and use of rare earths in the 21st Century, and the science behind this picture. Defines the chemical, physical and structural properties of rare earths. Gives the reader a basic understanding of what rare earths can do for us. Describes uses of each rare earth with chemical, physics, and structural explanations for the properties that underlie those uses. Allows the reader to understand how rare earths behave and why they are used in present applications and will be used in future applications. Explains to the reader where and how rare earths are found and produced and how they are best recycled to minimize environmental impact and energy and water consumption.

Rare Metal Technology 2015

Author: Neale Neelameggham,Shafiq Alam,Harald Oosterhof,Animesh Jha,David Dreisinger,Shijie Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319481886

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 264

View: 2616

This collection presents the papers from a symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Paper topics include the extraction and processing of elements like antimony, arsenic, calcium, chromium, hafnium, gold, indium, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, rare earth metals, rhenium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Rare processing techniques presented include bio leaching, molecular recognition technology, recovery of valuable components of commodity metals such as magnesium from laterite process wastes, titanium from ilmenites, and rare metals from wastes such as phosphors and LCD monitors.

Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 3: Industrial Processes

Author: N.A

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0080969895

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1810

View: 3997

Process metallurgy provides academics with the fundamentals of the manufacturing of metallic materials, from raw materials into finished parts or products. Coverage is divided into three volumes, entitled Process Fundamentals, encompassing process fundamentals, extractive and refining processes, and metallurgical process phenomena; Processing Phenomena, encompassing ferrous processing; non-ferrous processing; and refractory, reactive and aqueous processing of metals; and Industrial Processes, encompassing process modeling and computational tools, energy optimization, environmental aspects and industrial design. The work distils 400+ years combined academic experience from the principal editor and multidisciplinary 14-member editorial advisory board, providing the 2,608-page work with a seal of quality. The volumes will function as the process counterpart to Robert Cahn and Peter Haasen’s famous reference family, Physical Metallurgy (1996)--which excluded process metallurgy from consideration and which is currently undergoing a major revision under the editorship of David Laughlin and Kazuhiro Hono (publishing 2014). Nevertheless, process and extractive metallurgy are fields within their own right, and this work will be of interest to libraries supporting courses in the process area. Synthesizes the most pertinent contemporary developments within process metallurgy so scientists have authoritative information at their fingertips Replaces existing articles and monographs with a single complete solution, saving time for busy scientists Helps metallurgists to predict changes and consequences and create or modify whatever process is deployed

Hydrometallurgy

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Michael L. Free

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118732588

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 444

View: 2424

As the first book to compile the fundamentals, applications, reference information and analytical tools on the topic, Hydrometallurgy presents a condensed collection of information that can be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness with which metals are extracted, recovered, manufactured, and utilized in aqueous media in technically viable and reliable, environmentally responsible, and economically feasible ways. Suitable for students and researchers, this college-level overview addresses Fundamentals of Chemical Metallurgy in Aqueous Media, Speciation and Phase Diagrams, Rate Processes in Aqueous Metal Processing, Aqueous Metal Extraction and Leaching, Fundamentals of Metal Concentration Processes and more.

Waste Production and Utilization in the Metal Extraction Industry

Author: Sehliselo Ndlovu,Geoffrey S. Simate,Elias Matinde

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498767303

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 530

View: 1844

Increasingly stringent environmental regulations and industry adoption of waste minimization guidelines have thus, stimulated the need for the development of recycling and reuse options for metal related waste. This book, therefore, gives an overview of the waste generation, recycle and reuse along the mining, beneficiation, extraction, manufacturing and post-consumer value chain. This book reviews current status and future trends in the recycling and reuse of mineral and metal waste and also details the policy and legislation regarding the waste management, health and environmental impacts in the mining, beneficiation, metal extraction and manufacturing processes. This book is a useful reference for engineers and researchers in industry, policymakers and legislators in governance, and academics on the current status and future trends in the recycling and reuse of mineral and metal waste. Some of the key features of the book are as follows: Holistic approach to waste generation, recycling and reuse along the minerals and metals extraction. Detailed overview of metallurgical waste generation. Practical examples with complete flow sheets, techniques and interventions on waste management. Integrates the technical issues related to efficient resources utilization with the policy and regulatory framework. Novel approach to addressing future commodity shortages.

Extractive Metallurgy of Molybdenum

Author: C.K. Gupta

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351448994

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 7823

Extractive Metallurgy of Molybdenum provides an up-to-date, comprehensive account of the extraction and process metallurgy fields of molybdenum. The book covers the history of metallurgy of molybdenum from its beginnings to the present day. Topics discussed include molybdenum properties and applications, pyrometallurgy of molybdenum, hydrometallurgy of molybdenum, electrometallurgy of molybdenum, and a survey of molybdenum resources and processing. The book will be a useful reference for metallurgists, materials scientists, researchers, and students. It will also be an indispensable guide for world producers, processors, and traders of molybdenum.