Failures of American Civil Justice in International Perspective

Author: James R. Maxeiner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139504894

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 4279

Civil justice in the United States is neither civil nor just. Instead it embodies a maxim that the American legal system is a paragon of legal process which assures its citizens a fair and equal treatment under the law. Long have critics recognized the system's failings while offering abundant criticism but few solutions. This book provides a comparative-critical introduction to civil justice systems in the United States, Germany and Korea. It shows the shortcomings of the American system and compares them with German and Korean successes in implementing the rule of law. The author argues that these shortcomings could easily be fixed if the American legal systems were open to seeing how other legal systems' civil justice processes handle cases more efficiently and fairly. Far from being a treatise for specialists, this book is an introductory text for civil justice in the three aforementioned legal systems.

Failures of American Methods of Lawmaking in Historical and Comparative Perspectives

Author: James R. Maxeiner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108195830

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 2121

In this book, James R. Maxeiner takes on the challenge of demonstrating that historically American law makers did consider a statutory methodology as part of formulating laws. In the nineteenth century, when the people wanted laws they could understand, lawyers inflicted judge-made, statute-destroying, common law on them. Maxeiner offers the cure for common law, in the form of sensible statute law. Building on this historical evidence, Maxeiner shows how rule-making in civil law jurisdictions in other countries makes for a far more equitable legal system. Sensible statute laws fit together: one statute governs, as opposed to several laws that even lawyers have trouble disentangling. In a statute law system, lawmakers make laws for the common good in sensible procedures, and judges apply sensible laws and do not make them. This book shows how such a system works in Germany and would be a solution for the American legal system as well.

Prozessmodelle im Zivilverfahrensrecht

Erfolg des Hauptverhandlungsmodells auch in der Schweiz?

Author: Nicole Jasmin Bettinger

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161543005

Category: Law

Page: 332

View: 968

Zur Gewahrung umfassenden Rechtsschutzes bedarf es bei der Gestaltung von Verfahrensrecht eines Ausgleichs zwischen Formstrenge und Freiheit. Daneben darf allerdings auch die kulturelle Komponente des Rechts nicht vernachlassigt werden. Dieser Gedanke fuhrte im Zivilprozessrecht zur Ausbildung dreier Prozessmodelle, die den moglichen Verfahrensablauf im Erkenntnisverfahren abbilden. Das Hauptverhandlungsmodell verdrangt derzeit bei Reformen in unterschiedlichen Rechtskulturen das trial-Modell und das italienisch-kanonische Modell immer mehr. Aufgrund der kulturellen Vielfalt der Schweiz sah sich der Schweizer Gesetzgeber einer Vielzahl kantonaler Regelungen und der Umsetzung verschiedener Prozessmodelle gegenuber, als er 2011 den Schritt hin zur ersten eidgenossischen Zivilprozessordnung wagte. Die Autorin untersucht neben dem Erfolg des Hauptverhandlungsmodells, wie der Schweizer Gesetzgeber ein konsensfahiges Regelwerk geschaffen hat und wie dieses im Kontext der aktuellen Rechtsentwicklung im Zivilprozessrecht zu sehen ist.

Verfahrenskonzentration durch compulsory counterclaims in den US-amerikanischen Zivilprozessordnungen

Author: Gerrit Cornelius Niehoff

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161534539

Category: Law

Page: 311

View: 8952

English summary: The concentration of procedures helps to provide efficient conflict-resolutions and therefore serves the interests of all parties involved. In American civil procedures, the parties are already directed by a multi-facetted doctrine of legal force, derived from common law, which structures the course of legal proceedings. Therefore, defendants are compelled as a matter of legal preclusion to present any connected counterclaims as compulsory counterclaims in the same process. Gerrit Cornelius Niehoff illustrates the process by which the existing claims of different parties are concentrated on the basis of legal procedures and subsequently investigates the obligation of defendants to make any connected claims directed against the plaintiff through compulsory counterclaims. The author develops on this basis a rational balance of interests between the parties, which concerns in particular the protection-worthy interests of the defendants concerning the dispositional freedom about their claims. German description: Verfahrenskonzentration dient der wirtschaftlichen Streitbeilegung und liegt daher im Interesse aller Beteiligten. Im US-amerikanischen Zivilprozess werden die Parteien bereits durch die dem Common Law entstammende, ausserst facettenreiche Rechtskraftlehre zu einer umfassenden Prozessfuhrung angehalten. Daruber hinaus trifft den Beklagten kraft Gesetzes eine praklusionsbewehrte Last zur Einfuhrung konnexer Gegenanspruche als compulsory counterclaims in das Verfahren. Gerrit Cornelius Niehoff stellt die aufgrund der Rechtskraft bestehenden Konzentrationslasten der Parteien dar und untersucht im Anschluss die an den Beklagten gerichtete Widerklagelast durch compulsory counterclaims . Auf dieser Grundlage entwickelt der Autor einen angemessenen Interessenausgleich zwischen den Beteiligten, der insbesondere die schutzwurdigen Interessen des Beklagten an der Dispositionsfreiheit uber seine Anspruche berucksichtigt.

Goals of Civil Justice and Civil Procedure in Contemporary Judicial Systems

Author: Alan Uzelac

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 331903443X

Category: Law

Page: 263

View: 1767

This book is a collection of papers that address a fundamental question: What is the role of civil justice and civil procedure in the various national traditions in the contemporary world? The book presents striking differences among a range of countries and legal traditions, but also points to common trends and open issues. It brings together prominent experts, professionals and scholars from both civil and common law jurisdictions. It represents all main legal traditions ranging from Europe (Germanic and Romanic countries, Scandinavia, ex-Socialist countries) and Russia to the Americas (North and South) and China (Mainland and Hong Kong). While addressing the main issue – the goals of civil justice – the book discusses the most topical concerns regarding the functioning and efficiency of national systems of civil justice. These include concerns such as finding the appropriate balance between accurate fact-finding and the right to a fair trial within a reasonable time, the processing of hard cases and the function of civil justice as a specific public service. In the mosaic of contrasts and oppositions special place is devoted to the continuing battle between the individualistic/liberal approach and the collectivist/paternalistic approach – the battle in which, seemingly, paternalistic tendencies regain momentum in a number of contemporary justice systems.

The New Jim Crow

Masseninhaftierung und Rassismus in den USA

Author: Michelle Alexander

Publisher: Antje Kunstmann

ISBN: 3956141598

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 9220

Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.

Racialization, Crime, and Criminal Justice in Canada

Author: Wendy Chan,Dorothy Chunn

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442605766

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 1440

Race still matters in Canada, and in the context of crime and criminal justice, it matters a lot. In this book, the authors focus on the ways in which racial minority groups are criminalized, as well as the ways in which the Canadian criminal justice system is racialized. Employing an intersectional analysis, Chan and Chunn explore how the connection between race and crime is further affected by class, gender, and other social relations.The text covers not only conventional topics such as policing, sentencing, and the media, but also neglected areas such as the criminalization of immigration, poverty, and mental illness.

Rule of Law in Latin America

The International Promotion of Judicial Reform

Author: Pilar Domingo,Rachel Sieder

Publisher: Brookings Inst Press

ISBN: 9781900039390

Category: Law

Page: 176

View: 3113

This volume analyzes the judicial reform processes funded by international donor organizations in Latin America. As billions of dollars are spent on judicial reform, it is pertinent to ask about the fate of these projects. The authors examine the way in which international organizations rationalize and prioritize their reform proposals and agenda in Latin America; how reform agendas are implemented and followed up (or not); how international donor organizations relate to national governments and civil society, and to each other; and what factors account for the successes and failures of their reform initiatives. The book also addresses the question of the connection between rule of law reform and broader processes of regime consolidation and state building, from both a political and a social perspective.

International perspectives on civil justice

essays in honour of Sir Jack I.H. Jacob, Q.C.

Author: Sir Jack Isaac Hai Jacob,Ian Richard Scott

Publisher: Carswell Legal Pubns

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 282

View: 8175

Global Perspectives on the Rule of Law

Author: James J. Heckman,Robert L. Nelson,Lee Cabatingan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135202664

Category: Law

Page: 358

View: 9994

Global Perspectives on the Rule of Law is a collection of original research on the rule of law from a panel of leading economists, political scientists, legal scholars, sociologists and historians. The chapters critically analyze the meaning and foundations of the rule of law and its relationship to economic and democratic development, challenging many of the underlying assumptions guiding the burgeoning field of rule of law development. The combination of jurisprudential, quantitative, historical/comparative, and theoretical analyses seeks to chart a new course in scholarship on the rule of law: the volume as a whole takes seriously the role of law in pursuing global justice, while confronting the complexity of instituting the rule of law and delivering its promised benefits. Written for scholars, practitioners, and policy-makers, Global Perspectives on the Rule of Law offers a unique combination of jurisprudential and empirical research that will be provocative and relevant to those who are attempting to understand and advance the rule of law globally. The chapters progress from broad questions regarding current rule of development efforts and the concept of rule of law to more specific issues pertaining to economic and democratic development. Specific countries, such as China, India, and seventeenth century England and the Netherlands, serve as case studies in some chapters, while broad global surveys feature in other chapters. Indeed, this impressive scope of research ushers in the next generation of scholarship in this area.

International Perspectives on the Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offenders

Theory, Practice and Research

Author: Dr Douglas P. Boer,Dr Reinhard Eher,Dr Leam A. Craig,Dr Michael H. Miner,Dr Friedemann Pfäfflin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119996200

Category: Psychology

Page: 752

View: 5039

International Perspectives on the Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offenders: Theory, Practice and Research provides the first truly global perspective on the assessment and treatment of sex offenders. Presents a comprehensive overview of current theories and practices relating to the assessment and treatment of sex offenders throughout the world, including the US, Europe, and Australasia Covers all the major developments in the areas of risk assessment, treatment, and management Includes chapters written by internationally respected practitioners and researchers experienced in working with sexual offenders such as Bill Marshall, Ruth Mann, Karl Hanson and Jayson Ware

Handbook of Restorative Justice

A Global Perspective

Author: Dennis Sullivan,Larry Tifft

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134260792

Category: Social Science

Page: 592

View: 2675

Handbook of Restorative Justice is a collection of original, cutting-edge essays that offer an insightful and critical assessment of the theory, principles and practices of restorative justice around the globe. This much-awaited volume is a response to the cry of students, scholars and practitioners of restorative justice, for a comprehensive resource about a practice that is radically transforming the way the human community responds to loss, trauma and harm. Its diverse essays not only explore the various methods of responding nonviolently to harms-done by persons, groups, global corporations and nation-states, but also examine the dimensions of restorative justice in relation to criminology, victimology, traumatology and feminist studies. In addition. They contain prescriptions for how communities might re-structure their family, school and workplace life according to restorative values. This Handbook is an essential tool for every serious student of criminal, social and restorative justice.

Die Hörigkeit der Frau

Author: John Stuart Mill

Publisher: e-artnow

ISBN: 8027205727

Category: Social Science

Page: 145

View: 1389

Diese Ausgabe von "Die Hörigkeit der Frau" wurde mit einem funktionalen Layout erstellt und sorgfältig formatiert. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) war ein englischer Philosoph und Ökonom und einer der einflussreichsten liberalen Denker des 19. Jahrhunderts. Er war Anhänger des Utilitarismus, der von Jeremy Bentham, dem Lehrer und Freund seines Vaters James Mill, entwickelt wurde. Aus dem Buch: "Bei allen zarteren Verrichtungen der Natur - von welchen die der belebten Schöpfung die zartesten und von diesen wieder die des Nervensystems die allerzartesten sind - hängen die Verschiedenheiten der Wirkung ebensowohl von der Verschiedenheit der betreffenden Organe nach ihrer Qualität wie nach ihrer Quantität ab, und wenn die Qualität eines Instrumentes nach der Feinheit und Sauberkeit des Werkes, das es verrichten kann, zu beurteilen ist, so weist dieser Schluß auf eine durchschnittlich feinere Qualität des Gehirnes und Nervensystems der Frauen als der Männer hin. Sieht man indes von allen abstrakten Unterschieden der Qualität ab, die zu belegen immer eine schwierige Sache bleibt, so weiß man doch, daß die Wirksamkeit eines Organes nicht allein von seinem Umfange, sondern von seiner Tätigkeit abhängt, und von dieser haben wir ein annäherndes Maß in der Kraft, mit welcher das Blut durch dasselbe zirkuliert, da sowohl der Stimulus wie die ersetzende Kraft hauptsächlich von dieser Zirkulation abhängt."

Perspectives on Presidential Leadership

An International View of the White House

Author: Michael Patrick Cullinane,Clare Frances Elliott

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113507903X

Category: Political Science

Page: 236

View: 6594

In 2011 Barack Obama invited ten distinguished biographers to the White House to ask them one question: which past American president should I emulate? This was not the first time Obama asked scholars this, but the answer he received would differ as presidential legacies waxed and waned. In 2008 Obama chose Lincoln; in 2009, Reagan; and in 2010, Theodore Roosevelt. Perspectives on Presidential Leadership is an examination of presidential legacy, and in particular an analysis of the first ever UK ranking of American presidents which took place in 2011. In thirteen chapters, thirteen individual presidential administrations are assessed. Some presidents have been considered a success, others a failure; both types are featured in these thirteen case studies in a measured attempt to understand how the perception of presidential leadership evolves, shifts, and contorts across three centuries of American politics. The case studies also derive from the expertise of the collected British, Irish and Canadian authors, all of whom are leading scholars in their fields, and many of which took part in the 2011 survey. At a time when understanding presidential legacy is in high demand, this book offers a unique international perspective. Through extended commentary and inter-disciplinary study of the UK perspective it provides groundbreaking research.

The Thin Justice of International Law

A Moral Reckoning of the Law of Nations

Author: Steven R. Ratner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191009113

Category: Law

Page: 500

View: 4025

In a world full of armed conflict and human misery, global justice remains one of the most compelling missions of our time. Understanding the promises and limitations of global justice demands a careful appreciation of international law, the web of binding norms and institutions that help govern the behaviour of states and other global actors. This book provides a new interdisciplinary approach to global justice, one that integrates the work and insights of international law and contemporary ethics. It asks whether the core norms of international law are just, appraising them according to a standard of global justice derived from the fundamental values of peace and the protection of human rights. Through a combination of a careful explanation of the legal norms and philosophical argument, Ratner concludes that many international law norms meet such a standard of justice, even as distinct areas of injustice remain within the law and the verdict is still out on others. Among the subjects covered in the book are the rules on the use of force, self-determination, sovereign equality, the decision making procedures of key international organizations, the territorial scope of human rights obligations (including humanitarian intervention), and key areas of international economic law. Ultimately, the book shows how an understanding of international law's moral foundations will enrich the global justice debate, while exposing the ethical consequences of different rules.

Pluralism in International Criminal Law

Author: Elies van Sliedregt,Sergey Vasiliev

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019100829X

Category: Law

Page: 410

View: 7940

Despite the growth in international criminal courts and tribunals, the majority of cases concerning international criminal law are prosecuted at the domestic level. This means that both international and domestic courts have to contend with a plethora of relevant, but often contradictory, judgments by international institutions and by other domestic courts. This book provides a detailed investigation into the impact this pluralism has had on international criminal law and procedure, and examines the key problems which arise from it. The work identifies the various interpretations of the concept of pluralism and discusses how it manifests in a broad range of aspects of international criminal law and practice. These include substantive jurisdiction, the definition of crimes, modes of individual criminal responsibility for international crimes, sentencing, fair trial rights, law of evidence, truth-finding, and challenges faced by both international and domestic courts in gathering, testing and evaluating evidence. Authored by leading practitioners and academics in the field, the book employs pluralism as a methodological tool to advance the debate beyond the classic view of 'legal pluralism' leading to a problematic fragmentation of the international legal order. It argues instead that pluralism is a fundamental and indispensable feature of international criminal law which permeates it on several levels: through multiple legal regimes and enforcement fora, diversified sources and interpretations of concepts, and numerous identities underpinning the law and practice. The book addresses the virtues and dangers of pluralism, reflecting on the need for, and prospects of, harmonization of international criminal law around a common grammar. It ultimately brings together the theories of legal pluralism, the comparative law discourse on legal transplants, harmonization, and convergence, and the international legal debate on fragmentation to show where pluralism and divergence will need to be accepted as regular, and even beneficial, features of international criminal justice.

English private law

Author: Peter Birks

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780199243334

Category: Law

Page: 1760

View: 4144

This work has become a key point of reference on English private law for lawyers in the UK and throughout the world. Packed within its 2,000 pages users will find a lucid, concise yet immensely authoritative account of all of the key areas of private law. Each section is written by anacknowledged expert, bringing to bear their experience and understanding to provide a clear distillation and analysis of the relevant subject. The second supplement, included in this set, fully updates the main volumes with all developments affecting English Private Law up to January 2004.

Freakonomics

überraschende Antworten auf alltägliche Lebensfragen ; [warum wohnen Drogenhändler bei ihren Müttern? Führt mehr Polizei zu weniger Kriminalität? Sind Swimmingpools gefährlicher als Revolver? Macht gute Erziehung glücklich?]

Author: Steven D. Levitt,Stephen J. Dubner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783442154517

Category:

Page: 411

View: 3636

Sind Swimmingpools gefährlicher als Revolver? Warum betrügen Lehrer? Der preisgekrönte Wirtschaftswissenschaftler Steven D. Levitt kombiniert Statistiken, deren Zusammenführung und Gegenüberstellung auf den ersten Blick absurd erscheint, durch seine Analysetechnik aber zu zahlreichen Aha-Effekten führt. Ein äußerst unterhaltsamer Streifzug durch die Mysterien des Alltags, der uns schmunzeln lässt und stets über eindimensionales Denken hinausführt.

Armed State Building

Confronting State Failure, 1898-2012

Author: Paul D. Miller

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801469538

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 2324

Since 1898, the United States and the United Nations have deployed military force more than three dozen times in attempts to rebuild failed states. Currently there are more state-building campaigns in progress than at any time in the past century—including Afghanistan, Bosnia, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, Sudan, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, and Lebanon—and the number of candidate nations for such campaigns in the future is substantial. Even with a broad definition of success, earlier campaigns failed more than half the time. In this book, Paul D. Miller brings his decade in the U.S. military, intelligence community, and policy worlds to bear on the question of what causes armed, international state-building campaigns by liberal powers to succeed or fail. The United States successfully rebuilt the West German and Japanese states after World War II but failed to build a functioning state in South Vietnam. After the Cold War the United Nations oversaw relatively successful campaigns to restore order, hold elections, and organize post-conflict reconstruction in Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, and elsewhere, but those successes were overshadowed by catastrophes in Angola, Liberia, and Somalia. The recent effort in Iraq and the ongoing one in Afghanistan—where Miller had firsthand military, intelligence, and policymaking experience—are yielding mixed results, despite the high levels of resources dedicated and the long duration of the missions there. Miller outlines different types of state failure, analyzes various levels of intervention that liberal states have tried in the state-building process, and distinguishes among the various failures and successes those efforts have provoked.