Feynman's Operational Calculus and Beyond

Noncommutativity and Time-Ordering

Author: Gerald W Johnson,Michel L. Lapidus,Lance Nielsen

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191006882

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 7448

This book is aimed at providing a coherent, essentially self-contained, rigorous and comprehensive abstract theory of Feynman's operational calculus for noncommuting operators. Although it is inspired by Feynman's original heuristic suggestions and time-ordering rules in his seminal 1951 paper An operator calculus having applications in quantum electrodynamics, as will be made abundantly clear in the introduction (Chapter 1) and elsewhere in the text, the theory developed in this book also goes well beyond them in a number of directions which were not anticipated in Feynman's work. Hence, the second part of the main title of this book. The basic properties of the operational calculus are developed and certain algebraic and analytic properties of the operational calculus are explored. Also, the operational calculus will be seen to possess some pleasant stability properties. Furthermore, an evolution equation and a generalized integral equation obeyed by the operational calculus are discussed and connections with certain analytic Feynman integrals are noted. This volume is essentially self-contained and we only assume that the reader has a reasonable, graduate level, background in analysis, measure theory and functional analysis or operator theory. Much of the necessary remaining background is supplied in the text itself.

Fractal Zeta Functions and Fractal Drums

Higher-Dimensional Theory of Complex Dimensions

Author: Michel L. Lapidus,Goran Radunović,Darko Žubrinić

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319447068

Category: Mathematics

Page: 704

View: 7779

This monograph gives a state-of-the-art and accessible treatment of a new general higher-dimensional theory of complex dimensions, valid for arbitrary bounded subsets of Euclidean spaces, as well as for their natural generalization, relative fractal drums. It provides a significant extension of the existing theory of zeta functions for fractal strings to fractal sets and arbitrary bounded sets in Euclidean spaces of any dimension. Two new classes of fractal zeta functions are introduced, namely, the distance and tube zeta functions of bounded sets, and their key properties are investigated. The theory is developed step-by-step at a slow pace, and every step is well motivated by numerous examples, historical remarks and comments, relating the objects under investigation to other concepts. Special emphasis is placed on the study of complex dimensions of bounded sets and their connections with the notions of Minkowski content and Minkowski measurability, as well as on fractal tube formulas. It is shown for the first time that essential singularities of fractal zeta functions can naturally emerge for various classes of fractal sets and have a significant geometric effect. The theory developed in this book leads naturally to a new definition of fractality, expressed in terms of the existence of underlying geometric oscillations or, equivalently, in terms of the existence of nonreal complex dimensions. The connections to previous extensive work of the first author and his collaborators on geometric zeta functions of fractal strings are clearly explained. Many concepts are discussed for the first time, making the book a rich source of new thoughts and ideas to be developed further. The book contains a large number of open problems and describes many possible directions for further research. The beginning chapters may be used as a part of a course on fractal geometry. The primary readership is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in Fractal Geometry and other related fields, such as Complex Analysis, Dynamical Systems, Geometric Measure Theory, Harmonic Analysis, Mathematical Physics, Analytic Number Theory and the Spectral Theory of Elliptic Differential Operators. The book should be accessible to nonexperts and newcomers to the field.

The Feynman Integral and Feynman's Operational Calculus

Author: Gerald W. Johnson,Michel L. Lapidus

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198515722

Category: Mathematics

Page: 771

View: 2293

This book provides the most comprehensive mathematical treatment to date of the Feynman path integral and Feynman's operational calculus. It is accessible to mathematicians, mathematical physicists and theoretical physicists. Including new results and much material previously only available in the research literature, this book discusses both the mathematics and physics background that motivate the study of the Feynman path integral and Feynman's operational calculus, and also provides more detailed proofs of the central results.

Quantum Field Theory

A Tourist Guide for Mathematicians

Author: G. B. Folland

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821847058

Category: Mathematics

Page: 325

View: 4081

Quantum field theory has been a great success for physics, but it is difficult for mathematicians to learn because it is mathematically incomplete. Folland, who is a mathematician, has spent considerable time digesting the physical theory and sorting out the mathematical issues in it. Fortunately for mathematicians, Folland is a gifted expositor. The purpose of this book is to present the elements of quantum field theory, with the goal of understanding the behavior of elementary particles rather than building formal mathematical structures, in a form that will be comprehensible to mathematicians. Rigorous definitions and arguments are presented as far as they are available, but the text proceeds on a more informal level when necessary, with due care in identifying the difficulties. The book begins with a review of classical physics and quantum mechanics, then proceeds through the construction of free quantum fields to the perturbation-theoretic development of interacting field theory and renormalization theory, with emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. The final two chapters present the functional integral approach and the elements of gauge field theory, including the Salam-Weinberg model of electromagnetic and weak interactions.

Mathematical Analysis of Evolution, Information, and Complexity

Author: Wolfgang Arendt,Wolfgang P. Schleich

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527628037

Category: Science

Page: 502

View: 6642

Mathematical Analysis of Evolution, Information, and Complexity deals with the analysis of evolution, information and complexity. The time evolution of systems or processes is a central question in science, this text covers a broad range of problems including diffusion processes, neuronal networks, quantum theory and cosmology. Bringing together a wide collection of research in mathematics, information theory, physics and other scientific and technical areas, this new title offers elementary and thus easily accessible introductions to the various fields of research addressed in the book.

Quanta of Maths

Author: Alain Connes,Institut Henri Poincaré,Institut des hautes études scientifiques (Paris, France),Institut de mathématiques de Jussieu

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821852035

Category: Mathematics

Page: 675

View: 7747

The work of Alain Connes has cut a wide swath across several areas of mathematics and physics. Reflecting its broad spectrum and profound impact on the contemporary mathematical landscape, this collection of articles covers a wealth of topics at the forefront of research in operator algebras, analysis, noncommutative geometry, topology, number theory and physics. Specific themes covered by the articles are as follows: entropy in operator algebras, regular $C^*$-algebras of integral domains, properly infinite $C^*$-algebras, representations of free groups and 1-cohomology, Leibniz seminorms and quantum metric spaces; von Neumann algebras, fundamental Group of $\mathrm{II}_1$ factors, subfactors and planar algebras; Baum-Connes conjecture and property T, equivariant K-homology, Hermitian K-theory; cyclic cohomology, local index formula and twisted spectral triples, tangent groupoid and the index theorem; noncommutative geometry and space-time, spectral action principle, quantum gravity, noncommutative ADHM and instantons, non-compact spectral triples of finite volume, noncommutative coordinate algebras; Hopf algebras, Vinberg algebras, renormalization and combinatorics, motivic renormalization and singularities; cyclotomy and analytic geometry over $F_1$, quantum modular forms; differential K-theory, cyclic theory and S-cohomology.

In Search of the Riemann Zeros

Strings, Fractal Membranes and Noncommutative Spacetimes

Author: Michel Laurent Lapidus

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821842225

Category: Mathematics

Page: 558

View: 7842

Formulated in 1859, the Riemann Hypothesis is the most celebrated and multifaceted open problem in mathematics. In essence, it states that the primes are distributed as harmoniously as possible--or, equivalently, that the Riemann zeros are located on a single vertical line, called the critical line. In this book, the author proposes a new approach to understand and possibly solve the Riemann Hypothesis. His reformulation builds upon earlier (joint) work on complex fractal dimensions and the vibrations of fractal strings, combined with string theory and noncommutative geometry. Accordingly, it relies on the new notion of a fractal membrane or quantized fractal string, along with the modular flow on the associated moduli space of fractal membranes. Conjecturally, under the action of the modular flow, the spacetime geometries become increasingly symmetric and crystal-like, hence, arithmetic. Correspondingly, the zeros of the associated zeta functions eventually condense onto the critical line, towards which they are attracted, thereby explaining why the Riemann Hypothesis must be true. Written with a diverse audience in mind, this unique book is suitable for graduate students, experts and nonexperts alike, with an interest in number theory, analysis, dynamical systems, arithmetic, fractal or noncommutative geometry, and mathematical or theoretical physics.

Re-Thinking Time at the Interface of Physics and Philosophy

The Forgotten Present

Author: Albrecht von Müller,Thomas Filk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319104462

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 9714

The current volume of the Parmenides Series “On Thinking” addresses our deepest and most personal experience of the world, the experience of “the present,” from a modern perspective combining physics and philosophy. Many prominent researchers have contributed articles to the volume, in which they present models and express their opinions on and, in some cases, also their skepticism about the subject and how it may be (or may not be) addressed, as well as which aspects they consider most relevant in this context. While Einstein might have once hoped that “the present” would find its place in the theory of general relativity, in a later discussion with Carnap he expressed his disappointment that he was never able to achieve this goal. This collection of articles provides a unique overview of different modern approaches, representing not only a valuable summary for experts, but also a nearly inexhaustible source of profound and novel ideas for those who are simply interested in this question.

Basic Noncommutative Geometry

Author: Masoud Khalkhali

Publisher: European Mathematical Society

ISBN: 9783037190616

Category: Mathematics

Page: 223

View: 481

"Basic Noncommutative Geometry provides an introduction to noncommutative geometry and some of its applications. The book can be used either as a textbook for a graduate course on the subject or for self-study. It will be useful for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and theoretical physics and all those who are interested in gaining an understanding of the subject. One feature of this book is the wealth of examples and exercises that help the reader to navigate through the subject. While background material is provided in the text and in several appendices, some familiarity with basic notions of functional analysis, algebraic topology, differential geometry and homological algebra at a first year graduate level is helpful. Developed by Alain Connes since the late 1970s, noncommutative geometry has found many applications to long-standing conjectures in topology and geometry and has recently made headways in theoretical physics and number theory. The book starts with a detailed description of some of the most pertinent algebra-geometry correspondences by casting geometric notions in algebraic terms, then proceeds in the second chapter to the idea of a noncommutative space and how it is constructed. The last two chapters deal with homological tools: cyclic cohomology and Connes-Chern characters in K-theory and K-homology, culminating in one commutative diagram expressing the equality of topological and analytic index in a noncommutative setting. Applications to integrality of noncommutative topological invariants are given as well."--Publisher's description.

Motives, Quantum Field Theory, and Pseudodifferential Operators

Conference on Motives, Quantum Field Theory, and Pseudodifferential Operators, June 2-13, 2008, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts

Author: Alan L. Carey

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821851993

Category: Mathematics

Page: 349

View: 5986

This volume contains articles related to the conference ``Motives, Quantum Field Theory, and Pseudodifferntial Operators'' held at Boston University in June 2008, with partial support from the Clay Mathematics Institute, Boston University, and the National Science Foundation. There are deep but only partially understood connections between the three conference fields, so this book is intended both to explain the known connections and to offer directions for further research. In keeping with the organization of the conference, this book contains introductory lectures on each of the conference themes and research articles on current topics in these fields. The introductory lectures are suitable for graduate students and new Ph.D.'s in both mathematics and theoretical physics, as well as for senior researchers, since few mathematicians are expert in any two of the conference areas. Among the topics discussed in the introductory lectures are the appearance of multiple zeta values both as periods of motives and in Feynman integral calculations in perturbative QFT, the use of Hopf algebra techniques for renormalization in QFT, and regularized traces of pseudodifferential operators. The motivic interpretation of multiple zeta values points to a fundamental link between motives and QFT, and there are strong parallels between regularized traces and Feynman integral techniques. The research articles cover a range of topics in areas related to the conference themes, including geometric, Hopf algebraic, analytic, motivic and computational aspects of quantum field theory and mirror symmetry. There is no unifying theory of the conference areas at present, so the research articles present the current state of the art pointing towards such a unification.

Questioning the Foundations of Physics

Which of Our Fundamental Assumptions Are Wrong?

Author: Anthony Aguirre,Brendan Foster,Zeeya Merali

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319130455

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 5395

The essays in this book look at way in which the fundaments of physics might need to be changed in order to make progress towards a unified theory. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition “Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?”, which drew over 270 entries. As Nobel Laureate physicist Philip W. Anderson realized, the key to understanding nature’s reality is not anything “magical”, but the right attitude, “the focus on asking the right questions, the willingness to try (and to discard) unconventional answers, the sensitive ear for phoniness, self-deception, bombast, and conventional but unproven assumptions.” The authors of the eighteen prize-winning essays have, where necessary, adapted their essays for the present volume so as to (a) incorporate the community feedback generated in the online discussion of the essays, (b) add new material that has come to light since their completion and (c) to ensure accessibility to a broad audience of readers with a basic grounding in physics. The Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi, catalyzes, supports, and disseminates research on questions at the foundations of physics and cosmology, particularly new frontiers and innovative ideas integral to a deep understanding of reality, but unlikely to be supported by conventional funding sources.

Fractal Geometry, Complex Dimensions and Zeta Functions

Geometry and Spectra of Fractal Strings

Author: Michel Lapidus,Machiel van Frankenhuijsen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461421756

Category: Mathematics

Page: 570

View: 1016

Number theory, spectral geometry, and fractal geometry are interlinked in this in-depth study of the vibrations of fractal strings, that is, one-dimensional drums with fractal boundary. Throughout Geometry, Complex Dimensions and Zeta Functions, Second Edition, new results are examined and a new definition of fractality as the presence of nonreal complex dimensions with positive real parts is presented. The new final chapter discusses several new topics and results obtained since the publication of the first edition.

Spectral Properties of Noncommuting Operators

Author: Brian R. Jefferies

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540707468

Category: Mathematics

Page: 184

View: 7148

Forming functions of operators is a basic task of many areas of linear analysis and quantum physics. Weyl’s functional calculus, initially applied to the position and momentum operators of quantum mechanics, also makes sense for finite systems of selfadjoint operators. By using the Cauchy integral formula available from Clifford analysis, the book examines how functions of a finite collection of operators can be formed when the Weyl calculus is not defined. The technique is applied to the determination of the support of the fundamental solution of a symmetric hyperbolic system of partial differential equations and to proving the boundedness of the Cauchy integral operator on a Lipschitz surface.

Deep Beauty

Understanding the Quantum World through Mathematical Innovation

Author: Hans Halvorson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113949922X

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 5085

No scientific theory has caused more puzzlement and confusion than quantum theory. Physics is supposed to help us to understand the world, but quantum theory makes it seem a very strange place. This book is about how mathematical innovation can help us gain deeper insight into the structure of the physical world. Chapters by top researchers in the mathematical foundations of physics explore new ideas, especially novel mathematical concepts at the cutting edge of future physics. These creative developments in mathematics may catalyze the advances that enable us to understand our current physical theories, especially quantum theory. The authors bring diverse perspectives, unified only by the attempt to introduce fresh concepts that will open up new vistas in our understanding of future physics.

Quantum Physics

A Functional Integral Point of View

Author: James Glimm,Arthur Jaffe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461247284

Category: Science

Page: 535

View: 5630

Describes fifteen years' work which has led to the construc- tion of solutions to non-linear relativistic local field e- quations in 2 and 3 space-time dimensions. Gives proof of the existence theorem in 2 dimensions and describes many properties of the solutions.

The Story of Physics

Author: Lloyd Motz,Jefferson Hane Weaver

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1489963057

Category: Science

Page: 412

View: 5700

The Legacy of Alladi Ramakrishnan in the Mathematical Sciences

Author: Krishnaswami Alladi,John R. Klauder,Calyampudi R. Rao

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441962638

Category: Mathematics

Page: 575

View: 8985

In the spirit of Alladi Ramakrishnan’s profound interest and contributions to three fields of science — Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics — this volume contains invited surveys and research articles from prominent members of these communities who also knew Ramakrishnan personally and greatly respected his influence in these areas of science. Historical photos, telegrams, and biographical narratives of Alladi Ramakrishnan’s illustrious career of special interest are included as well.

Mass and Motion in General Relativity

Author: Luc Blanchet,Alessandro Spallicci,Bernard Whiting

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048130153

Category: Science

Page: 626

View: 9471

From the infinitesimal scale of particle physics to the cosmic scale of the universe, research is concerned with the nature of mass. While there have been spectacular advances in physics during the past century, mass still remains a mysterious entity at the forefront of current research. Our current perspective on gravitation has arisen over millennia, through the contemplation of falling apples, lift thought experiments and notions of stars spiraling into black holes. In this volume, the world’s leading scientists offer a multifaceted approach to mass by giving a concise and introductory presentation based on insights from their respective fields of research on gravity. The main theme is mass and its motion within general relativity and other theories of gravity, particularly for compact bodies. Within this framework, all articles are tied together coherently, covering post-Newtonian and related methods as well as the self-force approach to the analysis of motion in curved space-time, closing with an overview of the historical development and a snapshot on the actual state of the art. All contributions reflect the fundamental role of mass in physics, from issues related to Newton’s laws, to the effect of self-force and radiation reaction within theories of gravitation, to the role of the Higgs boson in modern physics. High-precision measurements are described in detail, modified theories of gravity reproducing experimental data are investigated as alternatives to dark matter, and the fundamental problem of reconciling any theory of gravity with the physics of quantum fields is addressed. Auxiliary chapters set the framework for theoretical contributions within the broader context of experimental physics. The book is based upon the lectures of the CNRS School on Mass held in Orléans, France, in June 2008. All contributions have been anonymously refereed and, with the cooperation of the authors, revised by the editors to ensure overall consistency.

Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

New Edition

Author: John von Neumann

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400889928

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 3071

Quantum mechanics was still in its infancy in 1932 when the young John von Neumann, who would go on to become one of the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century, published Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics--a revolutionary book that for the first time provided a rigorous mathematical framework for the new science. Robert Beyer's 1955 English translation, which von Neumann reviewed and approved, is cited more frequently today than ever before. But its many treasures and insights were too often obscured by the limitations of the way the text and equations were set on the page. In this new edition of this classic work, mathematical physicist Nicholas Wheeler has completely reset the book in TeX, making the text and equations far easier to read. He has also corrected a handful of typographic errors, revised some sentences for clarity and readability, provided an index for the first time, and added prefatory remarks drawn from the writings of Léon Van Hove and Freeman Dyson. The result brings new life to an essential work in theoretical physics and mathematics.