A Practical Approach
Author: W. Chan,Peter White
In the years since the publication of Atherton and Sheppard's volume, the technique of Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis has matured considerably and is now the standard approach for the routine production of peptides. The basic problems at the time of publication of this earlier work have now for the most part, been solved. As a result, innovators in the field have focussed their efforts to develop methodologies and chemistry for the synthesis of more complex structures. The focus of this new volume is much broader, and covers the essential procedures for the production of linear peptides and more advanced techniques for preparing cyclic, side-chain modified, phospho- and glycopeptides. Many other methods also deserving attention have been included: convergent peptide synthesis; peptide-protein conjugation; chemoselective ligation; and chemoselective purification. The difficult preparation of cysteine and methionine-containing peptides is also covered, as well as methods for overcoming aggregation during peptide chain assembly. Many of the techniques developed for the production of large arrays of peptides by parallel synthesis, such as t-bag, SPOT and PIN synthesis, have naturally been included. Finally, a survey of available automated instrumentation has also been provided.
Author: Todd Matthew Corneillie
A Practical Guide
Author: Fernando Albericio
Publisher: CRC Press
This volume provides the information needed to synthesize peptides by solid-phase synthesis (SPS) - employing polymeric support (resins), anchoring linkages (handles), coupling reagents (activators), and protection schemes. It presents strategies for creating a wide variety of compounds for drug discovery and analyzes peptides, DNA, carbohydrates, conjugates of biomolecules, and small molecules.
Author: Christian Schwabe,Erika E. Büllesbach
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Relaxin, perhaps more than any other hormone, has a varied history of eliciting enthusiasm, rejection, skepticism, and long lapses of neglect. Long after its discovery, it was a hormone in search of a physiological role in humans. Today, relaxin is implicated in mammary growth, development and function, ionotropic and chronotropic action on the heart, and angiogenic activity in both the peripheral tissues and the endometrium. It is best known for its effect on the uterus and the symphysis pubis in preparation for parturition. However, the literature suggests that not all functions occur in one species. This book describes how to obtain the necessary molecules or derivatives for research, reaching right into the design of new molecules for specific applications.
A Practical Approach
Author: Olwyn M. R. Westwood,Frank C. Hay
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Epitope Mapping covers all the major methods for the identification and definition of epitopes. The Pepscan assay is used to define B cell epitopes and makes use of synthetic peptides but can only be used if the amino acid sequence is known. It can be adapted for the delineation of both helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells. The identification of combined B and T cell epitopes can also be achieved using synthetic peptides. There are other methodologies for analysing for cytotoxic T cell epitopes such as the purification of antigens presented by MHC class I molecules and expression cloning. Site directed mutagenesis is also a powerful tool in epitope mapping and can be used to evaluate the role of single amino acids in immune complex formation. Protein footprinting makes use of monoclonal antibodies produced by hybridoma technology and relies on the fact that the epitope is protected from cleavage when bound as an antibody-antigen complex. It is only useful for small antigens. Other monoclonal antibody assays such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and haemaglutination and slot-blotting may also be used in epitope mapping. Random phage display libraries bring together the genetic and amino acid peptide sequence and can be screened with antibody and the resulting peptide DNA sequenced to confirm the amino acid sequence of a specific epitope. Investigation of carbohydrates can also be useful to epitope mapping as deglycosylation can lead to loss of antigenic activity. Epitopes are important to the pharmaceutical industry and wherever appropriate, pharmaceutical applications of the methods described are included. For each method there is a description of the technology, protocols, trouble-shooting, and advice on when to use the method. This book will therefore be invaluable to any researcher involved in epitope mapping.
A Practical Approach
Author: G. Brian Wisdom
Publisher: Irl Press
Category: Antigenic determinants.
"Peptide antigens and anti-peptide antibodies are widely used in biochemistry and molecular biology for the measurement, location, and purification of specific oligopeptides. More recently the application of these reagents has expanded, for example in the identification and mapping of the binding sites of antibodies and T-cell receptors and in the identification and characterization of proteins which are known only by their primary structure. This volume provides practical guidance to the major techniques used in the exploitation of peptide antigens and anti-peptide antibodies. The chapters give detailed protocols for the prediction of epitopes, peptides synthesis, the preparation of peptide immunogens, immunoaffinity chromatography, immunoassays, and the mapping of epitopes using both synthetic peptides and phage display systems." "Peptide Antigens: A Practical Approach covers all practical aspects of this important and growing subject. It is a unique compendium of methods for workers in biochemistry, molecular biology, and immunology who need to use this technology in their research."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Author: David Rickwood,B. D. Hames
Publisher: Irl Press
Author: John D. (Nick). Fisk
Author: Tadhg P. Begley
The first major reference at the interface of chemistry, biology, and medicine Chemical biology is a rapidly developing field that uses the principles, tools, and language of chemistry to answer important questions in the life sciences. It has enabled researchers to gather critical information about the molecular biology of the cell and is the fundamental science of drug discovery, playing a key role in the development of novel agents for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Now students and researchers across the range of disciplines that use chemical biology techniques have a single resource that encapsulates what is known in the field. It is an excellent place to begin any chemical biology investigation. Major topics addressed in the encyclopedia include: Applications of chemical biology Biomolecules within the cell Chemical views of biology Chemistry of biological processes and systems Synthetic molecules as tools for chemical biology Technologies and techniques in chemical biology Some 300 articles range from pure basic research to areas that have immediate applications in fields such as drug discovery, sensor technology, and catalysis. Novices in the field can turn to articles that introduce them to the basics, whereas experienced researchers have access to articles exploring the cutting edge of the science. Each article ends with a list of references to facilitate further investigation. With contributions from leading researchers and pioneers in the field, the Wiley Encyclopedia of Chemical Biology builds on Wiley's unparalleled reputation for helping students and researchers understand the crucial role of chemistry and chemical techniques in the life sciences.
Author: Leo A. Paquette
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This handbook, edited by Leo A. Paquette, focuses on chiral reagents used in asymmetric synthesis and is designed for the chemist at the bench.
Concepts, Strategies, and Applications
Author: Patrick H. Toy,Yulin Lam
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Presents both the fundamental concepts and the most recent applications in solid-phase organic synthesis With its emphasis on basic concepts, Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis guides readers through all the steps needed to design and perform successful solid-phase organic syntheses. The authors focus on the fundamentals of heterogeneous supports in the synthesis of organic molecules, explaining the use of a solid material to facilitate organic synthesis. This comprehensive text not only presents the fundamentals, but also reviews the most recent research findings and applications, offering readers everything needed to conduct their own state-of-the-art science experiments. Featuring chapters written by leading researchers in the field, Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis is divided into two parts: Part One, Concepts and Strategies, discusses the linker groups used to attach the synthesis substrate to the solid support, colorimetric tests to identify the presence of functional groups, combinatorial synthesis, and diversity-oriented synthesis. Readers will discover how solid-phase synthesis is currently used to facilitate the discovery of new molecular functionality. The final chapter discusses how using a support can change or increase reaction selectivity. Part Two, Applications, presents examples of the solid-phase synthesis of various classes of organic molecules. Chapters explore general asymmetric synthesis on a support, strategies for heterocyclic synthesis, and synthesis of radioactive organic molecules, dyes, dendrimers, and oligosaccharides. Each chapter ends with a set of conclusions that underscore the key concepts and methods. References in each chapter enable readers to investigate any topic in greater depth. With its presentation of basic concepts as well as recent findings and applications, Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis is the ideal starting point for students and researchers in organic, medicinal, and combinatorial chemistry who want to take full advantage of current solid-phase synthesis techniques.
Author: Stefan Bienz,Laurent Bigler,Thomas Fox,Herbert Meier
Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag
Dieses Standardwerk vermittelt alle notwendigen Kenntnisse für die Anwendung der spektroskopischen Methoden in der organischen Chemie. Einführende Grundlagentexte erläutern die Theorie, anschauliche Beispiele die Umsetzung in der Praxis. Dieses Buch ist Pflichtlektüre für Studierende der Chemie und Nachschlagewerk für Profis. Die 9. Auflage ist komplett überarbeitet und erweitert. Insbesondere das NMR-Kapitel und dessen 13C-NMR-Teil sind stark verändert gegenüber der Vorauflage. In aktualisierter Form präsentiert sich das Kapitel zum Umgang mit Spektren und analytischen Daten: Es erklärt die kombinierte Anwendung der Spektroskopie, enthält Anleitungen zur Interpretation analytischer Daten, hilft bei der Strukturaufklärung/-überprüfung und bietet Praxisbeispiele. Zusätzlich finden Nutzer des Buches Beispiele zur Interpretation analytischer Daten und Strukturaufklärung mit Lösungen kostenfrei auf unserer Website. Dozenten erhalten auf Anfrage alle Spektren des Werks zum Download.
Author: Paul Lloyd-Williams,Fernando Albericio,Ernest Giralt
Publisher: CRC Press
Organic chemists working on the synthesis of natural products have long found a special challenge in the preparation of peptides and proteins. However, more reliable, more efficient synthetic preparation methods have been developed in recent years. This reference evaluates the most important synthesis methods available today, and also considers methods that show promise for future applications. This text describes the state of the art in efficient synthetic methods for the synthesis of both natural and artificial large peptide and protein molecules. Subjects include an introduction to basic topics, linear solid-phase synthesis of peptides, peptide synthesis in solution, convergent solid-phase synthesis, methods for the synthesis of branched peptides, formation of disulfide bridges, and more. The book emphasizes strategies and tactics that must be considered for the successful synthesis of peptides.
Category: Chemistry, Technical
Author: American Chemical Society