GFP Whole Cell Microbial Biosensors

Scale-up and scale-down effects on biopharmaceutical processes

Author: Frank Delvigne

Publisher: Momentum Press

ISBN: 1606504177

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 52

View: 4972

Two strategies are usually considered for the optimization of microbial bioprocesses. The first one involves genetic or metabolic engineering of the target microbial strains in order to improve its production efficiency or its tolerance to adverse conditions. The second one is based on the chemical engineering improvement of the bioreactors and scaling-up rules. This work is more particularly dedicated to this second class of parameters. Recent developments in bioreactor technologies follow the scaling-out principle, i.e. carrying out several cultures in parallel with controlled conditions for screening purposes. Several mini-bioreactor concepts, i.e. bioreactor with working volume of 1 to 100 mL with controlling devices, have been developed following this principle. In general, chemical engineering similarities between conventional stirred bioreactors and their miniature equivalent are well characterized. However, the actual scaling-up rules are not able to cope with the complexity of the microbial stress response. Indeed, microbial stress response still remains not completely understood considering the process perturbations and the environmental fluctuations accompanying the scaling-up to industrial bioreactors. At this time, this kind of response can only be experimentally predicted by using scale-down bioreactors, i.e. lab-scale bioreactors designed in order to reproduce mixing imperfections that have to be expected at large-scale. However, the use of such an approach is time consuming and requires an experimented staff to elaborate the scaling-down protocols. Indeed, bioprocess development involves several steps which cannot be necessarily linked with each other considering the different cultivation equipment used.

Applied Microbiology

Author: Sanjai Saxena

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 8132222598

Category: Medical

Page: 190

View: 540

The book is oriented towards undergraduates science and engineering students; postgraduates and researchers pursuing the field of microbiology, biotechnology, chemical - biochemical engineering and pharmacy. Various applications of microorganisms have been covered broadly and have been appropriately reflected in depth in 12 different chapters. The book begins with an insight to the diverse niche of microorganisms which have been explored and exploited in development of various biotechnological products and green processes. Further, how these microorganisms have been genetically modified to improve the desired traits for achieving optimal production of microbially derived products is discussed in the second chapter. Major route of production of microbially derived products and processes is through fermentation technology and therefore due emphasis on different aspects of fermentation technology has been given in the subsequent chapter. The development and deployment of biopesticides and biofertilizers which find tremendous application have been separately discussed under agricultural applications. Application of microbes for the removal of pollutants, recovery of metals and oils has also been discussed under environmental applications. The role of microbial systems in development of fermented foods and beverages have also been discussed in Chapter 6. The application of microbes in production of commodity chemicals and fine chemicals has also been discussed in separate chapters. A chapter has been dedicated to the tremendous applications of microbially produced enzymes in different industrial sectors. Another unique facet of this book is explaining the different methods by which desired traits of microorganisms have been improved for their efficacious and economical exploitation in the industry. A chapter is dedicated to exploitation of microorganisms in development of vaccines for human and veterinary use. Finally, the last chapter discusses the role of immobilization in optimization of industrial processes and development of microbial biosensors for industrial applications. Thus, this book is a holistic approach providing information on the present applications of microorganisms.

Cell-Based Biosensors

Author: Jaroslav Racek

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566761901

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 107

View: 3305

SOME ADVANTAGES OF CELL-BASED BIOSENSORS: Isolation, purification, and immobilization of enzymes are often very difficult; these can be omitted with cell-based biosensors. Some enzymes can lose their activity during isolation or immobilization; this risk is eliminated by the use of whole cells. Enzymes in the cell's natural environment are usually extremely stable. Multi-step enzyme reactions in intact cells can be used, making it possible to avoid the preparation of complicated artificial multi-enzyme systems. Coenzymes and activators are often present in the cells, and thus, it is not necessary to add them into the system; the cell itself usually cares for their effective regeneration.

Bioluminescence & Chemiluminescence

Progress & Current Applications

Author: Larry J. Kricka,Philip E. Stanley

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812776624

Category: Bioluminescence

Page: 556

View: 3361

The Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Bioluminescence (BL) and Chemiluminescence (CL) contains up-to-date information on the latest developments in BL and CL presented by scientists from around the world.Light-emitting reactions are now a vital component of many key technologies in research and in routine analytical laboratories OCo replacing radionuclides in many situations. This volume presents a compilation of the latest developments from key experts and leading-edge researchers in this area."

Dehalogenation

Microbial Processes and Environmental Applications

Author: Max M. Häggblom,Ingeborg D. Bossert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306480115

Category: Science

Page: 502

View: 7187

Halogenated organic compounds constitute one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. The industrial production of new halogenated organic compounds has increased throughout the last century peaking in the 1960s, and continuing in widespread use today. Organohalides are integral to a variety of industrial applications, including use as solvents, degreasing agents, biocides, pharmaceuticals, plasticizers, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, and intermediates for chemical synthesis, to name a few. It is important to recognize the beneficial aspects of halogenated organic compounds, as well as their potentially deleterious impact on the environment and health. Recognition ofthe adverse environmental effects ofmanytypes oforganohalide compounds has led to efforts to reduce or eliminate the most problematic ones. Although organohalide compounds are typically considered to be anthropogenic industrial compounds, they have their counterpart in several thousands of natural biogenic and geogenic organohalides, representing most classes of organic chemicals. Natural sources account for a significant portion of the global organohalogen budget. This volume authored by recognized experts in the field provides a current perspective on how both natural and synthetic organohalides are formed and degraded, and how these processes are incorporated into a global halogen cycle. The focus is on microbial processes, since these play a major role both in the production and degradation, i. e. , cycling of halogenated organic compounds inthe environment. This book is organized into five parts. Part I, Introduction, provides a global perspective on the issues of organohalides and their fate in the environment.

Bioluminescent Microbial Biosensors

Design, Construction, and Implementation

Author: Gerald Thouand,Robert S. Marks

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814613665

Category: Medical

Page: 236

View: 4927

This book describes the design and the use of bioluminescent biosensors. It introduces beginners and experienced researchers starting in the microbiological biosensor domain to the practical aspects of building a luminescent microbial biosensor. It is also a source of information about other applications that use microbial cells. Each chapter focuses as far as possible on the technological conception of the presented biosensor with a clear demonstration of the issues in the design and how to reach the proof of concept. The book is divided into three practical sections facilitating the reader to easily access the information, starting from the bioreporter handling (free, immobilized, or spore) to the engineering of the measurement platform (fiber optic, CCD, lensless platform, free-cell bioreactor, CD platform).

Whole Cell Sensing Systems I

Reporter Cells and Devices

Author: Shimshon Belkin,Man Bock Gu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642123627

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 3242

Table of Contents Reporter cells: - Yeast Based Sensors by Mifumi Shimomura-Shimizu and Isao Karube - Mammalian Cell-Based Sensor Systems by Pratik Banerjee, Briana Franz, and Arun K. Bhunia - Fluorescent and Bioluminescent Cell-Based Sensors: Strategies for Their Preservation by Amol Date, Patrizia Pasini, and Sylvia Daunert - Electrochemical Cell-Based Sensors by Eliora Z. Ron and Judith Rishpon - Microbial Cell Arrays by Tal Elad, Jin Hyung Lee, Man Bock Gu, and Shimshon Belkin Devices: - Surface Functionalization for Protein and Cell Patterning by Pascal Colpo , Ana Ruiz , Laura Ceriotti , and François Rossi - Fiber-Optic Based Cell Sensors by Evgeni Eltzov and Robert S. Marks - Electronic Interfacing with Living Cells by James T. Fleming - On-Chip Detection of Cellular Activity by R. Almog , R. Daniel , S. Vernick , A. Ron , H. Ben-Yoav, and Y. Shacham-Diamand

Luminescent Proteins—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464992886

Category: Science

Page: 498

View: 2829

Luminescent Proteins—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Luminescent Proteins. The editors have built Luminescent Proteins—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Luminescent Proteins in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Luminescent Proteins—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Pseudomonas

Biotransformations, Pathogenesis, and Evolving Biotechnology

Author: Simon Silver

Publisher: Amer Society for Microbiology

ISBN: N.A

Category: Pseudomonas

Page: 423

View: 1095

Based on a symposium held in Chicago, IL. July 1989. Topics included pathogenesis, plant-bacterial interactions, biotransformations, plasmids, vectors, gene mapping, cloning, and cell envelope and transport. Printed on acidic paper. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Advances in Applied Microbiology

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080564548

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 491

Volume 40 contains state-of-the-art, comprehensive reviews about applied microbiology, biotechnology, and microbial ecology, including a two-part review on "Challenges in Commercial Biotechnology" by Dr. Ales Prokopand a review on microbial cellulases.

Whole Cell Sensing System II

Applications

Author: Shimshon Belkin,Man Bock Gu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642128521

Category: Science

Page: 214

View: 5668

Applications: - Applications of Microbial Cell Sensors, by Mifumi Shimomura-Shimizu and Isao Karube - Whole-Cell Bioreporters for the Detection of Bioavailable Metals, by Anu Hynninen and Marko Virta - Bacteriophage-Based Pathogen Detection, by Steven Ripp - Cell-Based Genotoxicity Testing, by Georg Reifferscheid and Sebastian Buchinger - Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Reporter Systems Based on the Use of Mammalian Cells, by Christa Baumstark-Khan, Christine E. Hellweg, and Günther Reitz - Live Cell Optical Sensing for High Throughput Applications, by Ye Fang - Cyanobacterial Bioreporters as Sensors of Nutrient Availability, by George S. Bullerjahn, Ramakrishna Boyanapalli, Mark J. Rozmarynowycz, and R. Michael L. McKay - Application of Microbial Bioreporters in Environmental Microbiology and Bioremediation, by E. E. Diplock , H. A. Alhadrami , and G. I. Paton

Omics in Soil Science

Author: Giacomo Pietramellara Paolo Nannipieri

Publisher: Caister Academic Press

ISBN: 1908230940

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 208

View: 3732

Soil is a unique biological system with an abundant microflora and a very high microbial diversity capable of performing multiple key ecosystem functions. The detection of genes in soil has improved the knowledge of unculturable microorganisms and led to a greater understanding of potential soil metabolic pathways. Further advances in understanding soil functionality are being realised by harnessing omics technologies such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, proteomics and volatilomics. The next challenge of systems biology and functional genomics is to integrate the information from omic approaches to give a more complete picture of soil as a biological system. This volume presents the state-of-the-art of omic applications in soil science, a field that is advancing rapidly on many fronts. Distinguished authors describe the application of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and proteomics to soil science. In particular the book covers the current and emerging omics techniques and the contribution of these approaches to a better assessment of soil functionality. The authors also explore the specific problems encountered in the application of various omics technologies to soil science and the future research requirements necessary to overcome the current limitations in this area. Topics covered include soil functional genomics, soil metagenomics, soil microbial ecology, soil metatranscriptomics, soil proteomics, soil volatilomics and soil proteogenomics. Omics techniques are also discussed in comparison with classical techniques. This book is both a practical guide and a recommended reference volume for all soil scientists.

Bacterial Sensors

Synthetic Design and Application Principles

Author: Jan Roelof van der Meer

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1598299115

Category: Computers

Page: 153

View: 6544

This lecture presents an in-depth treatment of the synthetic biological design principles of bacterial reporters, the engineering of which started as simple recombinant DNA puzzles, but has now become a more rational approach of choosing and combining sensing, controlling and reporting DNA 'parts'. Several examples of existing bacterial reporter designs and their genetic circuitry will be illustrated. Besides the design principles, the lecture also focuses on the application principles of bacterial reporter assays. A variety of assay formats will be illustrated, and principles of quantification will be dealt with. In addition to this discussion, substantial reference material is supplied in various Annexes."--P. [vi].

Quorum Sensing vs Quorum Quenching: A Battle with No End in Sight

Author: Vipin Chandra Kalia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 8132219821

Category: Science

Page: 391

View: 5889

Microbial relationships with all life forms can be as free living, symbiotic or pathogenic. Human beings harbor 10 times more microbial cells than their own. Bacteria are found on the skin surface, in the gut and other body parts. Bacteria causing diseases are the most worrisome. Most of the infectious diseases are caused by bacterial pathogens with an ability to form biofilm. Bacteria within the biofilm are up to 1000 times more resistant to antibiotics. This has taken a more serious turn with the evolution of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Health Departments are making efforts to reduce high mortality and morbidity in man caused by them. Bacterial Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density dependent phenomenon is responsible for a wide range of expressions such as pathogenesis, biofilm formation, competence, sporulation, nitrogen fixation, etc. Majority of these organisms that are important for medical, agriculture, aquaculture, water treatment and remediation, archaeological departments are: Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Clostridia, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Yersinia spp. Biosensors and models have been developed to detect QS systems. Strategies for inhibiting QS system through natural and synthetic compounds have been presented here. The biotechnological applications of QS inhibitors (QSIs) in diverse areas have also been dealt with. Although QSIs do not affect growth and are less likely to impose selective pressure on bacteria, however, a few reports have raised doubts on the fate of QSIs. This book addresses a few questions. Will bacteria develop mechanisms to evade QSIs? Are we watching yet another defeat at the hands of bacteria? Or will we be acting intelligently and survive the onslaughts of this Never Ending battle?

Manual of Environmental Microbiology

Author: Christon J. Hurst,Ronald L. Crawford,Jay L. Garland,David A. Lipson

Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press

ISBN: 1555813798

Category: Science

Page: 1293

View: 5015

The most definitive manual of microbes in air, water, and soil and their impact on human health and welfare. • Incorporates a summary of the latest methodology used to study the activity and fate of microorganisms in various environments. • Synthesizes the latest information on the assessment of microbial presence and microbial activity in natural and artificial environments. • Features a section on biotransformation and biodegradation. • Serves as an indispensable reference for environmental microbiologists, microbial ecologists, and environmental engineers, as well as those interested in human diseases, water and wastewater treatment, and biotechnology.

Biosensors Nanotechnology

Author: Ashutosh Tiwari,Anthony P. F. Turner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118773810

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 552

View: 2575

This book provides detailed reviews of a range of nanostructures used in the construction of biosensors as well as the applications of these biosensor nanotechnologies in the biological, chemical, and environmental monitoring fields Biological sensing is a fundamental tool for understanding living systems, but also finds practical application in medicine, drug discovery, process control, food safety, environmental monitoring, defense, and personal security. Moreover, a deeper understanding of the bio/electronic interface leads us towards new horizons in areas such as bionics, power generation, and computing. Advances in telecommunications, expert systems, and distributed diagnostics prompt us to question the current ways we deliver healthcare, while robust industrial sensors enable new paradigms in R&D and production. Despite these advances, there is a glaring absence of suitably robust and convenient sensors for body chemistries. This book examines some of the emerging technologies that are fueling scientific discovery and underpinning new products to enhance the length and quality of our lives. The 14 chapters written by leading experts cover such topics as: ZnO and graphene microelectrode applications in biosensing Assembly of polymers/metal nanoparticles Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors Impedimetric DNA sensing employing nanomaterials Graphene and carbon nanotube-based biosensors Computational nanochemistry study of the BFPF green fluorescent protein chromophore Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles Bioconjugated-nanoporous gold films in electrochemical biosensors The combination of molecular imprinting and nanotechnology Principles and properties of multiferroics and ceramics

Glowing Genes

A Revolution in Biotechnology

Author: Marc Zimmer

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 1615922490

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5511

Ranked 8th of 20 Best-Sellers in the Physiology 2005 Category compiled by YBP Library ServicesBioluminescence is a hot new subfield of biotechnology...Zimmer explains the science behind this...in a manner accessible to everyone. Even those who fear or avoid science books will enjoy it. In a creative and informal style, with touches of irony and humor, Zimmer easily imparts the sense of excitement displayed by researchers in this area.- Science & Theology News...an excellent biography of a molecule and a technology...a tale worth telling. It would make a great reference for student researchers, an independent reading assignment, or a source of excerpts with which to enrich biology teaching.- NSTA Recommends- Journal of College Science TeachingMany countermeasures currently being developed against chemical and biological threats posed by international terrorism rely directly or indirectly upon the discoveries described so elegantly in this book.- Keith B. Ward, Ph.D., Science Advisor and Program Manager, Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency, U. S. Department of Homeland SecurityMarc Zimmer has written the first popular science book on an amazing new area of biotechnology that will help fight cancer, create new products, improve agriculture, and combat terrorism. For more than one hundred and sixty million years, green fluorescent protein has existed in one species of jellyfish. In 1994 it was cloned, giving rise to a host of useful and potentially revolutionary applications in biotechnology. Today researchers are using this ancient glowing protein to pursue exciting new discoveries, from tracking the process of bacterial infection to detecting chemical and biological agents planted by terrorists.A recognized expert in this field, Zimmer begins with an overview of the many uses of these glowing genes to kill and image cancer cells, monitor bacterial infections, and light up in the presence of pollution. He then discusses the biological reasons that glowing proteins first evolved in jellyfish and fireflies, and looks at the history of bioluminescence and the dedicated scientists who devoted their careers to explaining this phenomenon. The story of how glowing genes were located, cloned, and then mass-produced is in itself a fascinating tale.Zimmer next turns to the serious, and not-so-serious, uses of fluorescent proteins. In agriculture it may soon be possible to produce crops that signal dryness by glowing. In industry a red fluorescent protein originally found in corals may find a use in sheep as a substitute for environmentally harmful wool dyes.Furthermore, the glowing gene revolution has led to significantly more humane treatment of laboratory animals. No longer must animal lives be sacrificed to understand disease processes; now researchers can observe the spread of cancer and infections by treating animals with green fluorescent genes and similar proteins.In the fight against terrorism a glowing gene has been created that lights up in the presence of anthrax spores, chemical warfare agents, and landmines. And in a completely different arena, we have already seen the emergence of transgenic art in Alba, the fluorescent bunny rabbit.Glowing Genes is a highly informative, fascinating, and entertaining read about a burgeoning area of biotechnology that promises soon to revolutionize our world.Marc Zimmer, Ph.D., is the Christian A. Johnson Distinguished Teaching Professor and professor of chemistry at Connecticut College. His research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health, and he has published more than fifty scientific papers, mainly on the topic of bioluminescence.

Recognition Receptors in Biosensors

Author: Mohammed Zourob

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441909190

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 863

View: 4665

Recognition receptors play a key role in the successful implementation of chemical and biosensors. Molecular recognition refers to non-covalent speci?c binding between molecules, one of which is typically a macromolecule or a molecular assembly, and the other is the target molecule (ligand or analyte). Biomolecular recognition is typically driven by many weak interactions such as hydrogen bo- ing, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, pi-pi interactions and electrostatic interaction (due to permanent charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles) the polarization of charge distributions by the interaction partner leading to ind- tion and dispersion forces, and Pauli-exclusion-principle-derived inter-atomic repulsion, and a strong, “attractive” force arising largely from the entropy of the solvent and termed the hydrophobic effect. In recent years, there has been much progress in understanding the forces that drive the formation of such complexes, and how these forces are relate to the physical properties of the interacting molecules and their environment allows rational design of molecules and materials that interact in speci?c and desired ways. This book presents a signi?cant and up-to-date review of the various recognition elements, their immobilization, characterization techniques by a panel of dist- guished scientists. This work is a comprehensive approach to the recognition receptors area presenting a thorough knowledge of the subject and an effective integration of these receptors on sensor surfaces in order to appropriately convey the state-of the-art fundamentals and applications of the most innovative approaches.

Viral Applications of Green Fluorescent Protein

Methods and Protocols

Author: Barry W. Hicks

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 357

View: 6063

This book detailing various applications of fluorescent proteins delivered by viruses contains lab protocols that enable researchers to create rapid, readily reproducible results. It also highlights tips on troubleshooting and how to avoid pitfalls.

Visualizing RNA Dynamics in the Cell

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128024887

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 3129

Methods in Enzymology: Visualizing RNA Dynamics in the Cell continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods visualizing RNA dynamics in the cell, and includes sections on such topics as identification of RNA cis-regulatory sequences, IRAS, IMAGEtags, MERFISH, plant RNA labeling using MS2, and visualization of 5S dynamics in live cells using photostable corn probe. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers research methods in visualizing RNA dynamics in the cell Contains sections on such topics as identification of RNA cis-regulatory sequences, IRAS, IMAGEtags, MERFISH, plant RNA labeling using MS2 and visualization of 5S dynamics in live cells using photostable corn probe