Global Politics and Violent Non-state Actors

Author: Natasha Ezrow

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1526421577

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 3078

With inclusion of theories and causal factors for context, plenty of case studies for real-world application, and pedagogical features to encourage engagement, this book’s coverage also goes far beyond the traditional focus on terrorist groups to provide readers with a stimulating and wide-ranging introduction to the subject

Violent Non-state Actors in World Politics

Author: Kledja Mulaj

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231701204

Category: Political Science

Page: 475

View: 958

"This study of violent non-state actors is of a truly sweeping order that should be appreciated for its profusion of ideas. The individual authors, all experts in their respective fields, lay out the problems of analysis with the fullest respect for their complexity and state their case with remarkable clarity." Christopher Coker, London School of Economics "A high quality collection of essays. Case studies are written by leading experts in the field and are consistently fascinating." Jan Selby, Sussex University The 2008 attacks on Mumbai were carried out by a Pakistani militant group known as Lashkar i-Taiba, termed a "non-state actor" by Pakistan's president, Asif Zardari. In most cases, violent non-state actors (VNSAs) rise as a state fails, resorting to brutally effective, organized attacks to advance political aims and other goals. Currently operating in Afghanistan, Lebanon, Somalia, and Sudan, VNSAs can take the form of national liberation movements confronting an occupying force, insurgents engaged in protracted political and military struggles that chip away at a government's legitimacy, terrorists who threaten violence to effect political change, irregular yet recognizable armed forces working within an ungoverned area or failing state, and mercenary militias, such as those used by Shell or army-loaded units operating in the Niger Delta. The essays in this volume follow the political, economic, and social processes behind the emergence of VNSAs and the way in which they manipulate crises. Contributors isolate the point at which violence becomes desirable to the non-state actor and explore how this change alters the relationship between VNSAs and the state, and they track the influence of VNSAs on the rebuilding of the very governments they tear down. One of the first resources to describe these groups in depth, this volume decodes the internal structure of VNSAs, their recruitment strategies and ideologies their characteristics and partnerships, and their fundamental similarities and differences.

Violent Non-State Actors

From Anarchists to Jihadists

Author: Ersel Aydinli

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317201213

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 8958

Given the importance of violent non-state actors (VNSA) and their evolving role in global politics, dynamic frameworks of analysis are needed both to trace historical trajectories in the evolution of violent non-state actorness and to identify emerging patterns by examining modern day cases. This book examines the defining characteristics and evolutionary dynamics of VNSAs, and introduces a framework based on their autonomy, representation and influence providing a comparative analysis of the late 19th and early 20th centuries’ Anarchist movement and the modern-day Jihadist network. It explores the distinct characteristics of the Anarchists and Jihadists as VNSAs with global potential, not just describing them, but also seeking to understand what they are instances of. With a longitudinal analysis, the book also considers the types of changes that have occurred in the past 150 years and the possible role VNSAs may play in current and future power polity shifts away from states toward non-state actors. It concludes with both theoretical implications for the study of non-state actors and transnational relations, and practical implications for government agencies or private groups tasked with finding ways of countering such violent non-state actors. This important book will be of interest to students and scholars of international relations, political science, and terrorism/security studies. It will also be of interest to practitioners in the security services including think-tank analysts and government security analysts.

Violent Non-State Actors in Africa

Terrorists, Rebels and Warlords

Author: Caroline Varin,Dauda Abubakar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319513524

Category: Political Science

Page: 338

View: 5067

This book explores the rise and impact of violent non-state actors in contemporary Africa and the implications for the sovereignty and security of African states. Each chapter tackles a unique angle on violent organizations on the continent with the view of highlighting the conditions that lead to the rise and radicalization of these groups. The chapters further examine the ways in which governments have responded to the challenge and the national, regional and international strategies that they have adopted as a result. Chapter contributors to this volume examine the emergence of Islamist terrorists in Nigeria, Mali and Libya; rebels in DR Congo, Central African Republic, Ethiopia and Rwanda; and warlords and pirates in Somalia, Uganda and Sierra Leone.

Non-State Actors in World Politics

Author: D. Josselin,W. Wallace

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1403900906

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 9710

The involvement of non-state actors in world politics can hardly be characterised as novel, but intensifying economic and social exchange and the emergence of new modes of international governance have given them much greater visibility and, many would argue, a more central role. Non-state Actors in World Politics offers analyses of a diverse range of economic, social, legal (and illegal), old and new actors, such as the Catholic Church, trade unions, diasporas, religious movements, transnational corporations and organised crime.

Warlords Rising

Confronting Violent Non-state Actors

Author: Troy S. Thomas,Stephen D. Kiser,William D. Casebeer

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739111901

Category: Political Science

Page: 254

View: 2758

As non-state armed groups gain greater access to resources and networks through global interconnectivity, they have come to dominate the terrain of illegal trade in drugs, guns, and humans. Warlords Rising arms those confronting the mounting non-state challenge by delivering an innovative, interdisciplinary framework of analysis designed to improve understanding of non-state adversaries in order to affect their development and performance.

The Transnational Governance of Violence and Crime

Non-State Actors in Security

Author: A. Jakobi,K. Wolf

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137334428

Category: Social Science

Page: 279

View: 4615

Building upon a range of case studies that range from civil war to maritime security and cyber crime, the contributors analyse how non-state actors can and should be involved in contributing to state and human security.

Researching Non-state Actors in International Security

Theory and Practice

Author: Andreas Kruck,Andrea Schneiker

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317365305

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 1944

This volume provides researchers and students with a discussion of a broad range of methods and their practical application to the study of non-state actors in international security. All researchers face the same challenge, not only must they identify a suitable method for analysing their research question, they must also apply it. This volume prepares students and scholars for the key challenges they confront when using social-science methods in their own research. To bridge the gap between knowing methods and actually employing them, the book not only introduces a broad range of interpretive and explanatory methods, it also discusses their practical application. Contributors reflect on how they have used methods, or combinations of methods, such as narrative analysis, interviews, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), case studies, experiments or participant observation in their own research on non-state actors in international security. Moreover, experts on the relevant methods discuss these applications as well as the merits and limitations of the various methods in use. Research on non-state actors in international security provides ample challenges and opportunities to probe different methodological approaches. It is thus particularly instructive for students and scholars seeking insights on how to best use particular methods for their research projects in International Relations (IR), security studies and neighbouring disciplines. It also offers an innovative laboratory for developing new research techniques and engaging in unconventional combinations of methods. This book will be of much interest to students of non-state security actors such as private military and security companies, research methods, security studies and International Relations in general.

Non-State Challenges in a Re-Ordered World

The Jackals of Westphalia

Author: Stefano Ruzza,Anja P Jakobi,Charles Geisler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317561554

Category: Political Science

Page: 230

View: 4762

There is a sprawling scholarship on violence, crime, and corrupt state rule; yet few have interpreted these challenges as transformative at the global scale and as a potential source of alternative, non-state, legitimacy. This volume challenges "Westphalian conservativism" in a provocative yet plausible manner, shedding light at the ubiquity and diversity of unfolding non-state agendas and at their effect on the imagined state community. Focusing on civil war parties, warlords, commercial providers of security, multinational companies and criminal organizations, the book directs attention to theoretical questions and policy challenges arising from non-state armed expansion. To accomplish this, the contributors present a range of case studies and comparisons within three thematic sections: the first takes stock of how, when, and in what measure state and state-system legitimacy are challenged by non-state violent or criminal activity; the second addresses the nature, effectiveness, and side-effects of different state-mandated reaction to non-state activities; and third focuses on the recombination of state and non-state actors contributing to processes of socio-political transformation. This volume provides a current analysis of different armed and violent actors encroaching on the state's monopoly of violence. It seeks to spark debate about global political change and will be of interest to students and scholars of global governance, global security, and international relations.

Non-State Violent Actors and Social Movement Organizations - Influence, Adaptation, and Change

Author: Julie Mazzei

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1787141918

Category: Conflict management

Page: 329

View: 6716

Non-state actors play a crucial role in conflict and post-conflict environments, one too often overshadowed in scholarship by attention to the state. This volume focuses specifically on the interests and agency of non-state actors, with particular attention paid to the ways in which they play a part in, or experience themselves, political change. As non-state actors interact with one another and with the state, they respond to and reshape the political context within which opportunities are created or closed, policies fail or succeed, and groups organize or dissolve. Collectively, the contributors demonstrate these dynamics by examining a range of nonviolent social movement organizations and non-state violent actors. -- Back cover.

Rebel Governance in Civil War

Author: Ana Arjona,Nelson Kasfir,Zachariah Mampilly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316432386

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9613

This is the first book to examine and compare how rebels govern civilians during civil wars in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Drawing from a variety of disciplinary traditions, including political science, sociology, and anthropology, the book provides in-depth case studies of specific conflicts as well as comparative studies of multiple conflicts. Among other themes, the book examines why and how some rebels establish both structures and practices of rule, the role of ideology, cultural, and material factors affecting rebel governance strategies, the impact of governance on the rebel/civilian relationship, civilian responses to rebel rule, the comparison between modes of state and non-state governance to rebel attempts to establish political order, the political economy of rebel governance, and the decline and demise of rebel governance attempts.

Power, Interdependence, and Nonstate Actors in World Politics

Author: Helen V. Milner,Andrew Moravcsik

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400830788

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 7996

Since they were pioneered in the 1970s by Robert Keohane and others, the broad range of neoliberal institutionalist theories of international relations have grown in importance. In an increasingly globalized world, the realist and neorealist focus on states, military power, conflict, and anarchy has more and more given way to a recognition of the importance of nonstate actors, nonmilitary forms of power, interdependence, international institutions, and cooperation. Drawing together a group of leading international relations theorists, this book explores the frontiers of new research on the role of such forces in world politics. The topics explored in these chapters include the uneven role of peacekeepers in civil wars, the success of human rights treaties in promoting women's rights, the disproportionate power of developing countries in international environmental policy negotiations, and the prospects for Asian regional cooperation. While all of the chapters demonstrate the empirical and theoretical vitality of liberal and institutionalist theories, they also highlight weaknesses that should drive future research and influence the reform of foreign policy and international organizations. In addition to the editors, the contributors are Vinod Aggarawal, Jonathan Aronson, Elizabeth DeSombre, Page Fortna, Michael Gilligan, Lisa Martin, Timothy McKeown, Ronald Mitchell, Layna Mosley, Beth Simmons, Randall Stone, and Ann Tickner.

War and Change in World Politics

Author: Robert Gilpin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521273763

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 8656

War and Change in World Politics introduces the reader to an important new theory of international political change. Arguing that the fundamental nature of international relations has not changed over the millennia, Professor Gilpin uses history, sociology, and economic theory to identify the forces causing change in the world order. The discussion focuses on the differential growth of power in the international system and the result of this unevenness. A shift in the balance of power - economic or military - weakens the foundations of the existing system, because those gaining power see the increasing benefits and the decreasing cost of changing the system. The result, maintains Gilpin, is that actors seek to alter the system through territorial, political, or economic expansion until the marginal costs of continuing change are greater than the marginal benefits. When states develop the power to change the system according to their interests they will strive to do so- either by increasing economic efficiency and maximizing mutual gain, or by redistributing wealth and power in their own favour.

Violent Non-state Actors and the Syrian Civil War

The ISIS and YPG Cases

Author: Özden Zeynep Oktav,Emel Parlar Dal,Ali Murat Kurşun

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319675281

Category: Political Science

Page: 233

View: 455

This book sheds new light on the security challenges for failed states posed by violent non-state armed actors (VNSAs). By focusing on the Syrian Civil War, it explores the characteristics, ideologies and strategies of the Islamic State (ISIS) and the People’s Protection Units (YPG), as well as the regional and geopolitical impacts of these VNSAs. The contributors also cover topics such as the re-imagination of borders, the YPG’s demands for national sovereignty, and the involvement of regional and global powers in the Syrian crisis. “This timely volume by regional scholars and experts examines various aspects of the emergence and expansion of violent non-state actors in the Syrian/Iraqi conflict. The wealth of detail and approaches enhance our understanding of the transformation and dynamics of contemporary conflicts within and beyond the region.” Keith Krause, The Graduate Institute, Geneva “This book opens fascinating glimpses into contrasting forms of “state-like” governance established by non-state actors, ISIS and the Kurdish PYD. [...] It is an important source for students of the Syrian conflict, civil wars, failed states and hybrid governance.”Raymond Hinnebusch, Director Centre for Syrian Studies, University of St. Andrews “This book is an excellent resource for those looking for an interdisciplinary account of VNSAs during the Syrian civil war. It makes a nice contribution to the study of violent non state actors and poses a set of new and pressing questions.” Max Abrahms, Northeastern University.

Governance Without a State?

Policies and Politics in Areas of Limited Statehood

Author: Thomas Risse

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231151217

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 6422

Governance discourse centers on an “ideal type” of modern statehood that exhibits full internal and external sovereignty and a legitimate monopoly on the use of force. Yet modern statehood is an anomaly, both historically and within the contemporary international system, while the condition of “limited statehood,” wherein countries lack the capacity to implement central decisions and monopolize force, is the norm. Limited statehood, argue the authors in this provocative collection, is in fact a fundamental form of governance, immune to the forces of economic and political modernization. Challenging common assumptions about sovereign states and the evolution of modern statehood, particularly the dominant paradigms supported by international relations theorists, development agencies, and international organizations, this volume explores strategies for effective and legitimate governance within a framework of weak and ineffective state institutions. Approaching the problem from the perspectives of political science, history, and law, contributors explore the factors that contribute to successful governance under conditions of limited statehood. These include the involvement of nonstate actors and nonhierarchical modes of political influence. Empirical chapters analyze security governance by nonstate actors, the contribution of public-private partnerships to promote the United Nations Millennium Goals, the role of business in environmental governance, and the problems of Western state-building efforts, among other issues. Recognizing these forms of governance as legitimate, the contributors clarify the complexities of a system the developed world must negotiate in the coming century.

Introduction to Global Politics

Author: Steve Lamy,John Masker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190299797

Category: Geopolitics

Page: 464

View: 2004

Introduction to Global Politics, Fourth Edition, provides students with a current, engaging, and non-U.S. perspective on global politics. It shows students how to analyze global political events using theoretical approaches-both mainstream and alternative-and emphasizes non-state actors more than any other global politics text. Chapter-by-Chapter Revisions Chapter 1: Introduction to Global Politics -Expanded theoretical coverage introduces students to the three theoretical traditions in international relations theory: Machiavellian, Grotian, and Kantian -New Case Study: "Global Production and the iPhone" Chapter 2: The Evolution of Global Politics -Revised chapter-opening vignette addresses the goals of nation-states for survival and influence in the global system and how critical trends, such as the diffusion of power and increasing demands for vital resources, influence such goals -Expanded coverage of US-Cuba relations addresses the restoration of diplomatic ties -Further examination of the war on terrorism, including the completion of NATO's International Security Assistance Force mission in Afghanistan and its subsequent transition to the ongoing Resolute Support Mission -Updated Global Perspective "Perception, Continuity, and Change After January 20, 2009" addresses the continuing course of the Arab Spring -Updated statistics and graphics include "Estimated Global Nuclear Warheads, as of 2015," and "Number of Wars in Progress Since 1950" Chapter 3: Realism, Liberalism, and Critical Theories -Elimination of overlapping content between Chapter 3 and the first two introductory chapters, effectively streamlining the chapter and bringing its objectives of defining and describing the origins of IR theories, as well as explaining the relation among the levels of analysis and the different variations of the five schools of thought, into clearer focus -The latest on the most pertinent international relations matters including how world leaders should deal with extremist networks like the Islamic State Chapter 4: Making Foreign Policy -Further coverage and analysis of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, including the goals of the 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference -Expanded discussion of fragile states, including updates to the Fragile State Index -Discussion of foreign policy evaluation has been expanded to include criticism of the CIA's detention and treatment of prisoners taken in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan -Additional examples of NGO influence on human rights (i.e. Human Rights Watch pressuring the Chinese government to abolish its re-education through labor detention system) -Updated statistics and graphics include "Top Ten Foreign Aid Donors" and the addition of a new figure "Share of World Military Expenditures of the 15 States with the Highest Expenditure" Chapter 5: Global and Regional Governance -Revised chapter-opening vignette addresses the impact of the Tunisian National Dialogue as a civil society organization and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize -Updated examples of venture philanthropy include Facebook co-founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg's pledge to donate 99 percent of his wealth -Updated Case Study "A Global Campaign: The Baby Milk Advocacy Network" includes recent statistics from the World Health Organization. -Updated statistics and graphics include "INGO Growth Continues" and "Distribution of Think Tanks in the World" Chapter 6: Global Security, Military Power, and Terrorism -Updated information on conflicts including the Syrian civil war, the rise of the Islamic State and their goal to establish an Islamic Caliphate, and the UN peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic to prevent civil wars and sectarian conflicts -Condensed coverage of mainstream and critical approaches to security in order to eliminate overlapping content found in Chapter 3: Realism, Liberalism, and Critical Theories -Added examples of the importance of collective action and reliance on international/regional organization (i.e. in the case of the 2015 Iran nuclear deal) -Expanded discussion of the effects of nuclear weapons and the idea that the international community is experiencing a new nuclear age in which weapons of mass destruction are used to secure strategic advantage -Updated Case Study "US Drone Warfare: A Robotic Revolution in Modern Combat" includes recent statistics on drone strikes -Updated information on the spread of jihadists, Al Qaeda, and ISIS and the geographical extent to which the Obama Administration (and future administrations) will have to go to find them -Updated statistics and graphics include "Arms Deliveries Worldwide," "Arms Transfer Agreements Worldwide"; the addition of two new figures: "Top Locations of Islamic State Twitter Users" and "Thirteen Years of Terror in Western Europe;" the addition of a new map: "Where ISIS Has Directed and Inspired Attacks;" and the addition of a table detailing the inter-actor relationship of those involved in the Syrian civil war Chapter 7: Human Rights and Human Security -Added information on the latest human rights crises (i.e. the refugee crisis, the Syrian civil war, and South Sudan) -New Case Study "A Failed Intervention" on the genocide occurring in Darfur -Updated statistics on current UN peacekeeping operations Chapter 8: Global Trade and Finance -Updated analysis on the current status of global economic interconnection (i.e. the role that governmental intervention has on the economy of their nation-states--including free markets, the impact of the slowdown of China's economy, and the effects of increasing global foreign direct investment) -New discussion of the Trans-Pacific Partnership and its subsequent implications as the largest regional trade agreement in history -Updated Theory in Practice "Contending Views of Capitalism" reflects recent changes in the Chinese economy and cyberwarfare tactics it uses against the US -Updated statistics and graphics include "Main Trading Nations," "Real GDP Growth," and the addition of a new graph "Holdings of US Treasury Securities" Chapter 9: Poverty, Development, and Hunger -Added discussion on the results of the Millennium Development Goals process (including an updated Progress Chart for UN Millennium Development Goals) and the UN's subsequent adoption of the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (illustrated by Sustainable Development Goals). -Updated discussions of world population statistics and estimated population growth projections, including new graphics "Projected World Population" and "Fastest Growing Populations" Chapter 10: Environmental Issues -Discussion of the latest environmental issues including the rising number of carbon emissions emitted on the planet, the effect climate change and environmental degradation are having as causes of major violence in regards to specific ethnic communities that compete for scarce resources, and how 2015 was the hottest year in recorded history -Added discussion of how climate change is the greatest challenge to economic and political stability across the world -Revised discussion of the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report addresses the rise of global surface temperatures, the continued shrinking of sea ice, and how human influence correlates to climate change and increasing levels of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere -Added information and analysis of the 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference, its outcomes, and the importance of adhering to pledges to curb emissions and keeping global temperature rises under 2 degrees Celsius; new concluding thoughts and analysis added as well -A revised table detailing "Recent Global Environmental Actions" focuses on events and actions of the past thirty years -Updated statistics and graphics include "Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Type of Gas," and two new graphics: "Number of Oils Spills between 1970-2015" and "Largest Producers of CO2 Emissions Worldwide."

The Frailty of Authority

Borders, Non-State Actors and Power Vacuums in a Changing Middle East

Author: Lorenzo Kamel

Publisher: Edizioni Nuova Cultura

ISBN: 8868128284

Category: Political Science

Page: 162

View: 1816

Governance failures, combined with 21st-century social, economic, environmental and demographic conditions, have all contributed to paving the way for the rise of highly heterogeneous non-state and quasi-state actors in the Middle East. Has the state, then, been irremediably undermined, or will the current transition lead to the emergence of new state entities? How can the crumbling of states and the redrawing of borders be reconciled with the exacerbation of traditional inter-state competition, including through proxy wars? How can a new potential regional order be framed and imagined? This volume provides a historical background and policy answers to these and a number of other related questions, analysing developments in the region from the standpoint of the interplay between disintegration and polarization.

Non-Governmental Organizations in World Politics

The Construction of Global Governance

Author: Peter Willetts

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136848533

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 1352

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from Amnesty International and Oxfam to Greenpeace and Save the Children are now key players in global politics. This accessible and informative textbook provides a comprehensive overview of the significant role and increasing participation of NGOs in world politics. Peter Willetts examines the variety of different NGOs, their structure, membership and activities, and their complex relationship with social movements and civil society. He makes us aware that there are many more NGOs exercising influence in the United Nations system than the few famous ones. Conventional thinking is challenged in a radical manner on four questions: the extent of the engagement of NGOs in global policy- making; the status of NGOs within international law; the role of NGOs as crucial pioneers in the creation of the Internet; and the need to integrate NGOs within mainstream international relations theory. This is the definitive guide to this crucial area within international politics and should be required reading for students, NGO activists, and policy-makers.

Coercion

The Power to Hurt in International Politics

Author: Kelly M. Greenhill,Peter Krause

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019084633X

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 8182

"A state's power to compel or deter other states to either act or refrain from acting has been a foundational source of world politics since the time of Thucydides. Yet the specific features of deterrence and compellence constantly change in accordance with historical development. In our own lifetimes, for instance, the rising significance of non-state actors and the increasing influence of regional powers have dramatically transformed international politics since the height of the Cold War. Yet much of the existing literature on deterrence and compellence continues to draw, whether implicitly or explicitly, upon assumptions and precepts formulated in a state-centric, bipolar world. Although contemporary coercion frequently features multiple coercers targeting state and non-state adversaries with non-military instruments of persuasion, most literature on coercion still focuses primarily on cases where a single state is trying to coerce another single state via traditional military means. In The Power to Hurt, the leading international relations scholars Kelly M. Greenhill and Peter Krause have gathered together an eminent cast of contributors (e.g., Bob Art, Dan Drezner, Alex Downes, Erik Gartzke, and others) to produce what promises to be a field-shaping work on one of IR's most essential subjects: coercion, whether in the form of compellence, deterrence, or a mix of the two. The volume moves beyond these traditional premises and examines the critical issue of coercion in the 21st century, capturing fresh theoretical and policy relevant developments and drawing upon data and cases from across time and around the globe" --