Governance Of Science

Ideology and the Future of the Open Society

Author: Fuller, Steve

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335202349

Category: Social Science

Page: 167

View: 6279

This ground-breaking text offers a fresh perspective on the governance of science from the standpoint of social and political theory. Science has often been seen as the only institution that embodies the elusive democratic ideal of the 'open society'. Yet, science remains an elite activity that commands much more public trust than understanding, even though science has become increasingly entangled with larger political and economic issues.

The Changing Governance of the Sciences

The Advent of Research Evaluation Systems

Author: Richard Whitley,Jochen Gläser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402067464

Category: Science

Page: 166

View: 303

The establishment of national systems of retrospective research evaluations is one of the most significant of recent changes in the governance of science. This volume discusses the birth and development of research evaluation systems as well as the reasons for their absence in the United States. The book combines the latest research and an overview of trends in the changing governance of research. The focus is on institutionalisation processes and impacts on knowledge production.

Science and Technology Governance and Ethics

A Global Perspective from Europe, India and China

Author: Miltos Ladikas,Sachin Chaturvedi,Yandong Zhao,Dirk Stemerding

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319146939

Category: Science

Page: 173

View: 1656

This book analyzes the possibilities for effective global governance of science in Europe, India and China. Authors from the three regions join forces to explore how ethical concerns over new technologies can be incorporated into global science and technology policies. The first chapter introduces the topic, offering a global perspective on embedding ethics in science and technology policy. Chapter Two compares the institutionalization of ethical debates in science, technology and innovation policy in three important regions: Europe, India and China. The third chapter explores public perceptions of science and technology in these same three regions. Chapter Four discusses public engagement in the governance of science and technology, and Chapter Five reviews science and technology governance and European values. The sixth chapter describes and analyzes values demonstrated in the constitution of the People’s Republic of China. Chapter Seven describes emerging evidence from India on the uses of science and technology for socio-economic development, and the quest for inclusive growth. In Chapter Eight, the authors propose a comparative framework for studying global ethics in science and technology. The following three chapters offer case studies and analysis of three emerging industries in India, China and Europe: new food technologies, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. Chapter 12 gathers all these threads for a comprehensive discussion on incorporating ethics into science and technology policy. The analysis is undertaken against the backdrop of different value systems and varying levels of public perception of risks and benefits. The book introduces a common analytical framework for the comparative discussion of ethics at the international level. The authors offer policy recommendations for effective collaboration among the three regions, to promote responsible governance in science and technology and a common analytical perspective in ethics.

The Cosmopolitanization of Science

Stem Cell Governance in China

Author: Joy Yueyue Zhang

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230302599

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 7524

Based on site visits to 22 key research teams in China, as well as interviews with ethicists and Ministry of Health officials, this book investigates how, over the last decade, Chinese stakeholders have developed a cosmopolitan sensibility in comprehending and responding to ethical and regulatory concerns with influence from both within and without their national boundaries. It elucidates the structural and administrative particularities stem cell scientists are confronted with and charts the transformation of Chinese science from an image of the 'Wild East' to a responsible player in the international stem cell community. This book demonstrates the feasibility, and implications, of a less advantaged country in influencing global research trends and provides a powerful corrective to existing cosmopolitan frameworks which are established mainly on Western data sources. It contributes both to the empirical social study of science and to current theoretical debates on cosmopolitanization.

The Oxford Handbook of Governance

Author: David Levi-Faur

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199560536

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 803

View: 4797

This Oxford Handbook will be the definitive study of governance for years to come. 'Governance' has become one of the most popular terms in contemporary political science; this Handbook explores the full range of meaning and application of the concept and its use in a number of research fields.

Public Participation, Science and Society

Tools for Dynamic and Responsible Governance of Research and Innovation

Author: Mikko Rask,Saul? Ma?iukait?-Žvinien?,Loreta Tauginien?,Vytautas Dik?ius,Kaisa Matschoss,Timo Aarrevaara,Luciano d’Andrea

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351272942

Category: Political Science

Page: 152

View: 856

The field of public participation is developing fast, with phenomena such as citizen science and crowdsourcing extending the resource base of research, stimulating innovation and making science more accessible to the general population. Promoting public participation means giving more weight to citizens and civil society actors in the definition of research needs and in the implementation of research and innovation. As yet, there is limited understanding of the implications of widespread use of public participation and as a result, there is a risk that it will become a burden for research and an obstacle to bridging the gap between research and society. This volume presents the findings of a three-year international study on innovative public participation. The resulting work studies the characteristics and trends of innovative public participation through a global sample of 38 case studies. It provides theoretical generalisations on the dynamics of public participation, suggestions for an evaluation framework and clear empirical examples of how public participation works in practice. Illustrated by best practice cases, the authors identify characteristics which contribute to successful public participation. The book is aimed primarily at scholars and practitioners of public participation, as well as research managers, policy makers and business actors interested in related issues. There is also a secondary market for students and scholars of European governance studies, sociology and political sciences.

Governance of Earth Systems

Science and Its Uses

Author: R. Boardman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230281958

Category: Political Science

Page: 243

View: 2279

Science and politics are closely connected in today's global environmental issues. This book focuses on these links in relation to climate change, the threats to wildlife species, and natural hazards and disasters. Study of these reveals the need for more effective international cooperation and the limits of global governance.

Scientific Governance in Britain, 1914-79

Author: Don Leggett,Charlotte Sleigh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1526100428

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9683

Scientific governance in Britain, 1914-79 examines the connected histories of how science was governed, and used in governance, in twentieth-century Britain. During the middle portion of that century, British science grew dramatically in scale, reach and value. These changes were due in no small part to the two world wars and their associated effects, notably post-war reconstruction and the on-going Cold War. As the century went on, there were more scientists - requiring more money to fund their research - occupying ever more niches in industry, academia, military and civil institutions. Combining the latest research on twentieth-century British science with insightful discussion of what it meant to govern - and govern with - science, this volume provides both an invaluable introduction to science in twentieth-century Britain for students and a fresh thematic focus on science and government for researchers interested in the histories of science and governance. This volume features a foreword from Sir John Beddington, UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser 2008-13.

Towards European Science

Dynamics and Policy of an Evolving European Research Space

Author: Linda Wedlin,Maria Nedeva

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1782545514

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 232

View: 5299

Since the European Research Area was launched at the beginning of the century, significant efforts have been made to realise the vision of a coherent space for science and research in Europe. But how does one define such a space and measure its development? This timely book analyses the dynamics of change in the policy and governance of science and research within Europe over the past decade. It widens the scope of traditional policy analysis by focusing attention on the interaction between policy rationales, new governance mechanisms, and the organisational dynamics of the scientific field. The contributors build a novel analytical framework to understand the European research space as one shifting from a fragmented space of “Science in Europe” to one that is labeled “European Science”. The chapters explore the dynamics of this shift through the lenses of political science, organisation theory, science policy and related analytical traditions. Towards European Science is an interdisciplinary book which will attract a wide set of scholars and professionals interested in science policy, governance and scientific practice. It will also be of use to university leaders and managers, as well as policy-makers and practitioners working on issues of internationalisation and the Europeanisation of science.

The Technocratic Antarctic

An Ethnography of Scientific Expertise and Environmental Governance

Author: Jessica O'Reilly

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 150170835X

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 382

The Technocratic Antarctic is an ethnographic account of the scientists and policymakers who work on Antarctica. In a place with no indigenous people, Antarctic scientists and policymakers use expertise as their primary model of governance. Scientific research and policymaking are practices that inform each other, and the Antarctic environment—with its striking beauty, dramatic human and animal lives, and specter of global climate change—not only informs science and policy but also lends Antarctic environmentalism a particularly technocratic patina. Jessica O'Reilly conducted most of her research for this book in New Zealand, home of the "Antarctic Gateway" city of Christchurch, and on an expedition to Windless Bight, Antarctica, with the New Zealand Antarctic Program. O’Reilly also follows the journeys Antarctic scientists and policymakers take to temporarily “Antarctic” places such as science conferences, policy workshops, and the international Antarctic Treaty meetings in Scotland, Australia, and India. Competing claims of nationalism, scientific disciplines, field experiences, and personal relationships among Antarctic environmental managers disrupt the idea of a utopian epistemic community. O’Reilly focuses on what emerges in Antarctica among the complicated and hybrid forms of science, sociality, politics, and national membership found there. The Technocratic Antarctic unfolds the historical, political, and moral contexts that shape experiences of and decisions about the Antarctic environment.

The Handbook of Global Science, Technology, and Innovation

Author: Daniele Archibugi,Andrea Filippetti

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111873906X

Category: Political Science

Page: 624

View: 6058

"Provides a state-of-the-art overview of science, technology, and innovation in the context of globalization and global policy"--

The New Global Politics of Science

Author: Mats Benner

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1784717177

Category: Education

Page: 232

View: 2325

Science has become a central political concern with massive increases in public investments and expectations, but resources are embedded in a complex web of societal expectations, which vary between countries and regions. This book outlines an insightful understanding of science policy as both concerning the governance of science itself (priority-setting, funding, organization and articulation with polity, society, and economy) and its extra-organizational connections, in terms of higher education, innovation and national policy concerns.

Reflexive Governance for Global Public Goods

Author: Eric Brousseau,Tom Dedeurwaerdere

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262017245

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 366

View: 6873

Global public goods (GPGs)--the economic term for a broad range of goods and servicesthat benefit everyone, including stable climate, public health, and economic security--pose notablegovernance challenges. At the national level, public goods are often provided by government, but atthe global level there is no established state-like entity to take charge of their provision. Thecomplex nature of many GPGs poses additional problems of coordination, knowledge generation and theformation of citizen preferences. This book considers traditional public economy theory of publicgoods provision as oversimplified, because it is state centered and fiscally focused. It develops amultidisciplinary look at the challenges of understanding and designing appropriate governanceregimes for different types of goods in such areas as the environment, food security, anddevelopment assistance. The chapter authors, all leading scholars in the field, explore themisalignment between existing GPG policies and actors' incentives and understandings. They analyzethe complex impact of incentives, the involvement of stakeholders in collective decision making, andthe specific coordination needed for the generation of knowledge. The book shows that governance ofGPGs must be democratic, reflexive--emphasizing collective learning processes--and knowledge basedin order to be effective. The hardcover edition does not include a dustjacket.

The Limits to Governance

The Challenge of Policy-Making for the New Life Sciences

Author: Theo Papaioannou

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317025296

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 2386

Does the state still frame debates about new technology? Can policy-makers ensure the benefits of health developments through genomics while still satisfying the expectations of society and the economic imperatives? In this critique of the new governance agenda for research and innovation in life sciences, the authors discuss the world-wide policy decisions needed, with particular reference to genomics. They suggest the many facets of policy and could be treated as a government-governance continuum, where different aspects of genomics may sit at different points, and co-exist. Their findings offer valuable insights for the future and will help promote a global solution to this problem.

Research Handbook on Innovation Governance for Emerging Economies

Towards Better Models

Author: Stefan Kuhlmann,Gonzalo Ordóñez-Matamoros

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1783471913

Category:

Page: 560

View: 9801

Although in recent years some emerging economies have improved their performance in terms of R&D investment, outputs and innovative capacity, these countries are still blighted by extreme poverty, inequality and social exclusion. Hence, emerging countries are exposed to conditions which differ quite substantially from the dominant OECD model of innovation policy for development and welfare. This Research Handbook contributes to the debate by looking at how innovation theory, policy and practice interact, and explains different types of configurations in countries that are characterized by two contrasting but mutually reinforcing features: systemic failure and resourcefulness. Focusing on innovation governance and public policies, it aims to understand related governance failures and to explore options for alternative, more efficient approaches.

Human Genome Editing

Science, Ethics, and Governance

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,National Academy of Medicine,National Academy of Sciences,Committee on Human Gene Editing: Scientific, Medical, and Ethical Considerations

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309452880

Category: Medical

Page: 328

View: 5031

Genome editing is a powerful new tool for making precise alterations to an organism’s genetic material. Recent scientific advances have made genome editing more efficient, precise, and flexible than ever before. These advances have spurred an explosion of interest from around the globe in the possible ways in which genome editing can improve human health. The speed at which these technologies are being developed and applied has led many policymakers and stakeholders to express concern about whether appropriate systems are in place to govern these technologies and how and when the public should be engaged in these decisions. Human Genome Editing considers important questions about the human application of genome editing including: balancing potential benefits with unintended risks, governing the use of genome editing, incorporating societal values into clinical applications and policy decisions, and respecting the inevitable differences across nations and cultures that will shape how and whether to use these new technologies. This report proposes criteria for heritable germline editing, provides conclusions on the crucial need for public education and engagement, and presents 7 general principles for the governance of human genome editing.

The Governance of Energy in China

Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy

Author: P. Andrews-Speed

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113728403X

Category: Social Science

Page: 259

View: 3853

The way in which energy is governed in China is driving its rising level of carbon dioxide emissions. This book analyses the nature of energy governance in China by combining ideas relating to transition management with institutionalist theories, which helps to identify factors which assist or constrain the country's path to a low-carbon economy.

Bioscience, Governance and Politics

Author: J. Gillott

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137374993

Category: Social Science

Page: 203

View: 5060

Through case studies, theoretical research and interviews with leading players in science and governance, this book introduces a new understanding of change in governance of bioscience research. In particular it examines change as it is shaped by approaches developed by Science and Technology Studies and Sociology of Scientific Knowledge theorists.

The Global Administrative Law of Science

Author: Matthias Ruffert,Sebastian Steinecke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642213595

Category: Law

Page: 146

View: 8736

We live in a world of science. Yet this is impossible without a legally guaranteed freedom to practise it. Findings with regard to the elements of such freedom can be deduced from an analysis of international and domestic provisions and principles. There are a plethora of international institutions, legal rules and global norms for the purpose of the international governance of science. The institutions and rules are to be interpreted in light of this freedom to guarantee the continuous existence of the knowledge-based society by means of a global administrative law of science. These aspects were analysed in a research project funded by the German Research Foundation. The book’s purpose is to present the jurisprudential results. In addition, empirical results are collected in a freely available database. The study is composed of 5 parts: The Concept of Science/Global Administrative Law/Constitutional Basis: The Freedom of Science/Institutional Design/Governance Mechanisms.