Governance of Science

Author: Fuller

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335231586

Category: Social Science

Page: 167

View: 6157

This ground-breaking text offers a fresh perspective on the governance of science from the standpoint of social and political theory. Science has often been seen as the only institution that embodies the elusive democratic ideal of the 'open society'. Yet, science remains an elite activity that commands much more public trust than understanding, even though science has become increasingly entangled with larger political and economic issues.

Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences

Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309478022

Category: Medical

Page: 210

View: 7290

Continuing advances in science and technology offer the promise of providing tools to meet global challenges in health, agriculture, the environment, and economic development; some of the benefits are already being realized. However, such advances have the potential to challenge the oversight systems for responsible conduct of life sciences research with dual use potential â€" research that may have beneficial applications but that also could be misused to cause harm. Between June 10 and 13, 2018, more than 70 participants from 30 different countries and 5 international organizations took part in an international workshop, The Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight, to promote global dialogue and increased common understandings of the essential elements of governance for such research. Hosted by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb, Croatia, the workshop was a collaboration among the InterAcademy Partnership, the Croatian Academy, the Croatian Society for Biosafety and Biosecurity, and the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

The Changing Governance of the Sciences

The Advent of Research Evaluation Systems

Author: Richard Whitley,Jochen Gläser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402067464

Category: Social Science

Page: 166

View: 8573

The establishment of national systems of retrospective research evaluations is one of the most significant of recent changes in the governance of science. This volume discusses the birth and development of research evaluation systems as well as the reasons for their absence in the United States. The book combines the latest research and an overview of trends in the changing governance of research. The focus is on institutionalisation processes and impacts on knowledge production.

Scientific Governance in Britain, 1914-79

Author: Don Leggett,Charlotte Sleigh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1526100428

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 3599

Scientific governance in Britain, 1914-79 examines the connected histories of how science was governed, and used in governance, in twentieth-century Britain. During the middle portion of that century, British science grew dramatically in scale, reach and value. These changes were due in no small part to the two world wars and their associated effects, notably post-war reconstruction and the on-going Cold War. As the century went on, there were more scientists - requiring more money to fund their research - occupying ever more niches in industry, academia, military and civil institutions. Combining the latest research on twentieth-century British science with insightful discussion of what it meant to govern - and govern with - science, this volume provides both an invaluable introduction to science in twentieth-century Britain for students and a fresh thematic focus on science and government for researchers interested in the histories of science and governance. This volume features a foreword from Sir John Beddington, UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser 2008-13.

Science and Technology Governance and Ethics

A Global Perspective from Europe, India and China

Author: Miltos Ladikas,Sachin Chaturvedi,Yandong Zhao,Dirk Stemerding

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319146939

Category: Science

Page: 173

View: 5323

This book analyzes the possibilities for effective global governance of science in Europe, India and China. Authors from the three regions join forces to explore how ethical concerns over new technologies can be incorporated into global science and technology policies. The first chapter introduces the topic, offering a global perspective on embedding ethics in science and technology policy. Chapter Two compares the institutionalization of ethical debates in science, technology and innovation policy in three important regions: Europe, India and China. The third chapter explores public perceptions of science and technology in these same three regions. Chapter Four discusses public engagement in the governance of science and technology, and Chapter Five reviews science and technology governance and European values. The sixth chapter describes and analyzes values demonstrated in the constitution of the People’s Republic of China. Chapter Seven describes emerging evidence from India on the uses of science and technology for socio-economic development, and the quest for inclusive growth. In Chapter Eight, the authors propose a comparative framework for studying global ethics in science and technology. The following three chapters offer case studies and analysis of three emerging industries in India, China and Europe: new food technologies, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. Chapter 12 gathers all these threads for a comprehensive discussion on incorporating ethics into science and technology policy. The analysis is undertaken against the backdrop of different value systems and varying levels of public perception of risks and benefits. The book introduces a common analytical framework for the comparative discussion of ethics at the international level. The authors offer policy recommendations for effective collaboration among the three regions, to promote responsible governance in science and technology and a common analytical perspective in ethics.

Governance of Public Research Toward Better Practices

Toward Better Practices

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264103767


Page: 164

View: 2670

This report provides a comprehensive review of the challenges that call for changes in the governance of OECD countries’ science systems, highlighting emerging policy responses and drawing lessons to inspire the reform process.

The Governance of Energy in China

Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy

Author: P. Andrews-Speed

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113728403X

Category: Social Science

Page: 259

View: 9091

The way in which energy is governed in China is driving its rising level of carbon dioxide emissions. This book analyses the nature of energy governance in China by combining ideas relating to transition management with institutionalist theories, which helps to identify factors which assist or constrain the country's path to a low-carbon economy.

Reflexive Governance for Sustainable Development

Author: Jan-Peter Voß,Dierk Bauknecht,René Kemp

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1847200265

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 480

View: 3859

This book deals with the issue of sustainable development in a novel and innovative way. It examines the governance implications of reflexive modernisation - the condition that societal development is endangered by its own side-effects. With conceptualising reflexive governance the book leads a way out of endless quarrels about the definition of sustainability and into a new mode of collective action.

The Cosmopolitanization of Science

Stem Cell Governance in China

Author: Joy Yueyue Zhang

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230302599

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 4248

Based on site visits to 22 key research teams in China, as well as interviews with ethicists and Ministry of Health officials, this book investigates how, over the last decade, Chinese stakeholders have developed a cosmopolitan sensibility in comprehending and responding to ethical and regulatory concerns with influence from both within and without their national boundaries. It elucidates the structural and administrative particularities stem cell scientists are confronted with and charts the transformation of Chinese science from an image of the 'Wild East' to a responsible player in the international stem cell community. This book demonstrates the feasibility, and implications, of a less advantaged country in influencing global research trends and provides a powerful corrective to existing cosmopolitan frameworks which are established mainly on Western data sources. It contributes both to the empirical social study of science and to current theoretical debates on cosmopolitanization.

The Governance of Socio-Technical Systems

Explaining Change

Author: Susana Borrás,Jakob Edler

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1784710199

Category: Electronic books

Page: 232

View: 5464

Why are so few electric cars in our streets today? Why is it difficult to introduce electronic patient records in our hospitals? To answer these questions we need to understand how state and non-state actors interact with the purpose of transforming so

The Global Administrative Law of Science

Author: Matthias Ruffert,Sebastian Steinecke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642213595

Category: Law

Page: 146

View: 9779

We live in a world of science. Yet this is impossible without a legally guaranteed freedom to practise it. Findings with regard to the elements of such freedom can be deduced from an analysis of international and domestic provisions and principles. There are a plethora of international institutions, legal rules and global norms for the purpose of the international governance of science. The institutions and rules are to be interpreted in light of this freedom to guarantee the continuous existence of the knowledge-based society by means of a global administrative law of science. These aspects were analysed in a research project funded by the German Research Foundation. The book’s purpose is to present the jurisprudential results. In addition, empirical results are collected in a freely available database. The study is composed of 5 parts: The Concept of Science/Global Administrative Law/Constitutional Basis: The Freedom of Science/Institutional Design/Governance Mechanisms.

The Convergence of Science and Governance

Research, Health Policy, and American States

Author: Daniel M. Fox

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 052094612X

Category: Medical

Page: 184

View: 6794

Daniel M. Fox gives an incisive assessment of the critical collaboration between researchers and public officials that has recently emerged to evaluate the effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of health services. Drawing on research as well as his first-hand experience in policymaking, Fox's broad-ranging analysis describes how politics, public finance and management, and advances in research methods made this convergence of science and governance possible. The book then widens into a sweeping history of central issues in research on health services and health governance during the past century. Returning to the past decade, Fox looks closely at how policy informed by research has been made and implemented in public programs that cover pharmaceutical drugs in most American states. This case study illuminates how politics has informed the questions, methods, and reception of research on health services, and also sheds new light on how research has informed politics and public management. Looking toward the future, Fox describes the promise, as well as the fragility, of the convergence of science and governance, making his book essential reading for those struggling to revise health care in the United States over the next several years.

A Web of Prevention

Biological Weapons, Life Sciences and the Governance of Research

Author: Brian Rappert,Caitriona McLeish

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136572619

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 8947

Web of Prevention provides a timely contribution to the current debate about life science research and its implications for security. It is an informative guide for both experts and the public. It is a forward-looking contribution covering both ends of the equation and creates momentum for the current discussion on effective preventive measures and effective control measures. While there are no guarantees for preventing misuse, there are nonetheless crucial steps the world community can take towards the overarching goal of a global network for the life sciences. This book sheds light on concrete steps toward the achievement of this worthy goal. "This book with its collection of essays provides an in-depth analysis of the various mutually reinforcing elements that together create and strengthen a web of prevention - or of assurance - that is vital to ensure that the advances in the life sciences are not misused to cause harm. All those engaged in the life sciences and in policy making in governments around the world should read this book so they can take steps to strengthen the web preventing biological weapons". From the Foreword by Dr Gabriele Kraatz-Wadsack, Chief, Weapons of Mass Destruction Branch, Office for Disarmament Affairs, United Nations. "Since September 11, 2001 in many countries renewed attention has been given to how research in the life sciences might inadvertently or intentionally facilitate the development of biological or chemical weapons. This state-of-the-art volume examines the full extent of the issues and debates. Coverage includes an overview of recent scientific achievements in virology, microbiology, immunology and genetic engineering with a view to asking how they might facilitate the production of weapons of mass destruction by state, sub-state or terrorist organizations. Consideration is given to what we have and haven't learned from the past. Employing both academic analysis and reflections by practitioners, the book examines the security-inspired governance regimes for the life sciences that are under development. Ultimately the authors examine what is required to form a comprehensive and workable web of prevention and highlight the importance of encouraging discussions between scientists, policy makers and others regarding the governance of vital but potentially dangerous research". Dr Graham S. Pearson, Visiting Professor of International Security, University of Bradford, UK and previously Director-General, Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, UK

Scientific Statesmanship, Governance and the History of Political Philosophy

Author: Kyriakos N. Demetriou,Antis Loizides

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317817311

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 4550

Over the centuries, the question of "good" or "effective" governance has undergone several transformations and ramifications to fit within certain social, cultural and historical contexts. What defines political knowledge? What is the measure of expert political leadership? Various interpretations, perspectives, and re-conceptualizations emerge as one moves from Plato to the present. This edited book explores the relationship between political expertise, which is defined as "scientific statesmanship or governance," and political leadership throughout the history of ideas. An outstanding group of experts study and analyze the ideas of significant philosophers, such as Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Kant, Burke, Comte, and Weber, among others. The contributors aim to interpret these thinkers’ approaches to "scientific statesmanship," deepening our understanding of the idea itself and decoding its theoretical complexities. In the face of the ongoing crisis of the traditional party system and the eroding structures within the new cultural-financial and political environment in the era of globalization, tracing the connection between Plato’s idealist statesmanship to twentieth-century modernist politics is an important and ever-challenging enterprise; one that promises to interest scholars of the history of western political thought, philosophy, classics and the classical tradition, political science, and sociology.

Governance for Justice and Environmental Sustainability

Lessons across Natural Resource Sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: Merle Sowman,Rachel Wynberg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136324135

Category: Nature

Page: 384

View: 8149

Understanding the governance of complex social-ecological systems is vital in a world faced with rapid environmental change, conflicts over dwindling natural resources, stark disparities between rich and poor and the crises of sustainability. Improved understanding is also essential to promote governance approaches that are underpinned by justice and equity principles and that aim to reduce inequality and benefit the most marginalised sectors of society. This book is concerned with enhancing the understanding of governance in relation to social justice and environmental sustainability across a range of natural resource sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa. By examining governance across various sectors, it reveals the main drivers that influence the nature of governance, the principles and norms that shape it, as well as the factors that constrain or enable achievement of justice and sustainability outcomes. The book also illuminates the complex relationships that exist between various governance actors at different scales, and the reality and challenge of plural legal systems in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. The book comprises 16 chapters, 12 of them case studies recounting experiences in the forest, wildlife, fisheries, conservation, mining and water sectors of diverse countries: Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Cameroon.Through insights from these studies, the book seeks to draw lessons from the praxis of natural resource governance in Sub-Saharan Africa and to contribute to debates on how governance can be strengthened and best configured to meet the needs of the poor, in a way that is both socially just and ecologically sustainable.

Three Bio-realms

Biotechnology and the Governance of Food, Health, and Life in Canada

Author: G. Bruce Doern,Michael J. Prince

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442611545

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 265

View: 5339

Biotechnology has become one of the most important issues in public policy and governance, altering the boundaries between the public and the private, the economic and the social, and further complicating the divide between what is scientifically possible and ethically preferred. Given the importance of biotechnology in shaping relations between the state, science, the economy, and the citizenry, a book that explores the Canadian biotechnology regime and its place in our democracy is timelier than ever. Three Bio-Realms provides the first integrated examination of the thirty-year story of the democratic governance of biotechnology in Canada. G. Bruce Doern and Michael J. Prince, two recognized specialists in governance innovation and social policy, look at particular 'network-based' factors that seek to promote and to regulate biotechnology inside the state as well as at broader levels. Unmatched by any other book in its historical scope and range, Three Bio-Realms is sure to be read for years to come.

Changing Governance of Research and Technology Policy

The European Research Area

Author: Jakob Edler,Stefan Kuhlmann,Maria Behrens

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781781957790

Category: Political Science

Page: 343

View: 3203

This collection analyses and comments on the development of the ERA, which seeks to co-ordinate national research and advance European wide projects. The contributors include leading scholars of European integration and technology policy and high-level administrators. They discuss the potential impacts, benefits and limits to research and innovation policy within Europe both in the short and long term. Moreover, the debate about ERA is placed firmly in the context of the overall changes at the European level.