Health Systems and the Challenge of Communicable Diseases

Experiences from Europe and Latin America

Author: Rifat A. Atun

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335236286

Category: Education

Page: 292

View: 1095

This fascinating book looks at two regions where rapid economic changes means that many health systems must undergo organisational transition and find ways of adapting to an ever changing context.

Public Health Systems and Emerging Infections

Assessing the Capabilities of the Public and Private Sectors: Workshop Summary

Author: Institute of Medicine,Division of Health Sciences Policy,Based on a Workshop of the Forum on Emerging Infections

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309183772

Category: Medical

Page: 128

View: 1732

The Forum on Emerging Infections was created in 1996 in response to a request from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. The goal of the forum is to provide structured opportunities for representatives from academia, industry, professional and interest groups, and government to examine and discuss scientific and policy issues that relate to research, prevention, detection, and management of emerging infectious diseases. A critical part of this mission has been the convening of a series of workshops. Public Health Systems and Emerging Infections summarizes the fourth in a series of five workshops. With a focus on our knowledge and understanding of the role of private and public health sectors in emerging infectious disease surveillance and response, the participants explored the effects of privatization of public health laboratories and the modernization of public health care. The issues discussed included epidemiological investigation, surveillance, communication, coordination, resource allocations, and economic support.

The New Public Health

Author: Theodore H. Tulchinsky,Elena A. Varavikova

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012415767X

Category: Medical

Page: 912

View: 4466

The New Public Health has established itself as a solid textbook throughout the world. Translated into 7 languages, this work distinguishes itself from other public health textbooks, which are either highly locally oriented or, if international, lack the specificity of local issues relevant to students' understanding of applied public health in their own setting. This 3e provides a unified approach to public health appropriate for all masters' level students and practitioners—specifically for courses in MPH programs, community health and preventive medicine programs, community health education programs, and community health nursing programs, as well as programs for other medical professionals such as pharmacy, physiotherapy, and other public health courses. Changes in infectious and chronic disease epidemiology including vaccines, health promotion, human resources for health and health technology Lessons from H1N1, pandemic threats, disease eradication, nutritional health Trends of health systems and reforms and consequences of current economic crisis for health Public health law, ethics, scientific d health technology advances and assessment Global Health environment, Millennium Development Goals and international NGOs

Identifying Future Disease Hot Spots

Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index

Author: Melinda Moore,Bill Gelfeld,Adeyemi Okunogbe,Paul Christopher

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833095749

Category: Medical

Page: 96

View: 3789

The Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index is intended to inform actions for preparedness and response to infectious disease outbreaks and foster greater resiliency of national health systems worldwide.

Public Policy and the Challenge of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases

Author: Olusoji Adeyi,Owen Smith,Sylvia Robles

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821370456

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 188

View: 3968

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are by far the major cause of death in lower-middle, upper-middle, and high-income countries; by 2015, they will also be the leading cause of death in low-income countries. In addition to mortality, NCDs account for nearly half of the disease burden measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in low- and middle-income countries, and large increases in NCD-related DALYs are projected. Addressing this challenge will require policy makers to design and implement economic, health, and social policies to address the links between NCDs and poverty and to minimize the health and economic losses among the population. Public Policy and the Challenge of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases provides a framework that policy makers can use to formulate their strategies. The authors point out that the most effective policy response will be twofold: to develop programs to avoid the looming NCD burden of disease to the extent possible-for example, through public health interventions and improved health care-and simultaneously to prepare to address the health system and economic pressures that will arise from the increase in NCDs due to the aging of populations. This book will be of interest to governments, international organizations, universities, and research institutions focusing on health care, economic policy, public health, and poverty reduction strategies. Book jacket.

Emerging Infectious Diseases from the Global to the Local Perspective:

Workshop Summary

Author: Forum on Emerging Infections,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309071844

Category: Medical

Page: 134

View: 8701

In October 1999, the Forum on Emerging Infections of the Institute of Medicine convened a two-day workshop titled "International Aspects of Emerging Infections." Key representatives from the international community explored the forces that drive emerging infectious diseases to prominence. Representatives from the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Europe made formal presentations and engaged in panel discussions. Emerging Infectious Diseases from the Global to the Local Perspective includes summaries of the formal presentations and suggests an agenda for future action. The topics addressed cover a wide range of issues, including trends in the incidence of infectious diseases around the world, descriptions of the wide variety of factors that contribute to the emergence and reemergence of these diseases, efforts to coordinate surveillance activities and responses within and across borders, and the resource, research, and international needs that remain to be addressed.

Strengthening Heath Governance

Better Policies, Stronger Performance

Author: Greer,Wismar,Figueras

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780335261345


Page: 288

View: 1828

Governance is the systematic, patterned way in which decisions are made and implemented. The governance of a health system therefore shapes its ability to respond to the various well-documented challenges that health systems face today, and its capacity to cope with both everyday challenges and new policies and problems. This book provides a robust framework that identifies five key aspects of governance, distilled from a large body of literature, that are important in explaining the ability of health systems to provide accessible, high-quality, sustainable health. These five aspects are transparency, accountability, participation, organizational integrity and policy capacity. Part 1 of this book explains the significance of this framework, drawing out strategies for health policy success and lessons for more effective governance. Part 2 then turns to explore eight case studies in a number of different European regions applying the framework to a range of themes including communicable diseases, public-private partnerships, governing competitive insurance market reform, the role of governance in the pharmaceutical sector, and many more. The book explores how: - Transparency, accountability, participation, integrity and capacity are key aspects of health governance and shape decision making and implementation - There is no simply "good" governance that can work everywhere; every aspect of governance involves costs and benefits. Context is crucial. - Governance can explain policy success and failure, so it should be analysed and in some cases changed as part of policy formation and preparation. - Some policies simply exceed the governance capacity of their systems and should be avoided. This book is designed for health policy makers and all those working or studying in the areas of public health, health research or health economics.

Promoting Health, Preventing Disease

The Economic Case

Author: David McDaid,F. Sassi,Merkur

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780335262267


Page: 416

View: 4706

This book provides an economic perspective on health promotion and chronic disease prevention, and gives a rationale for assessing the economic case for action. It provides a comprehensive review of the evidence base in support of a broad range of public health interventions, addressing not only their effectiveness in improving population health, but also their implementation costs, impacts on health expenditures and wider economic consequences. An economic perspective is about more than counting the costs associated with poor health. It is about understanding how economic incentives can influence healthy lifestyle choices in the population. The book provides tools for developing effective and efficient policy strategies and addressing trade-offs between the goals of improving population health, while being mindful of the need to tackle inequalities in health outcomes across individuals and populations. The book: practically illustrates methods and measures of cost and outcome used in the evaluation of interventions covers specific risk factor areas including tobacco smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, poor mental health and harmful environmental factors considers cross-cutting themes including key implementation issues, health inequalities, and the merits of early life interventions The book is designed for health policy makers and all those working or studying in the areas of public health, health research, medicine or health economics.

Infectious Disease Surveillance

Author: Nkuchia M. M'ikanatha,Ruth Lynfield,Chris A. Van Beneden,Henriette de Valk

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118543521

Category: Medical

Page: 720

View: 3724

This fully updated edition of Infectious Disease Surveillance is for frontline public health practitioners, epidemiologists, and clinical microbiologists who are engaged in communicable disease control. It is also a foundational text for trainees in public health, applied epidemiology, postgraduate medicine and nursing programs. The second edition portrays both the conceptual framework and practical aspects of infectious disease surveillance. It is a comprehensive resource designed to improve the tracking of infectious diseases and to serve as a starting point in the development of new surveillance systems. Infectious Disease Surveillance includes over 45 chapters from over 100 contributors, and topics organized into six sections based on major themes. Section One highlights the critical role surveillance plays in public health and it provides an overview of the current International Health Regulations (2005) in addition to successes and challenges in infectious disease eradication. Section Two describes surveillance systems based on logical program areas such as foodborne illnesses, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, viral hepatitis healthcare and transplantation associated infections. Attention is devoted to programs for monitoring unexplained deaths, agents of bioterrorism, mass gatherings, and disease associated with international travel. Sections Three and Four explore the uses of the Internet and wireless technologies to advance infectious disease surveillance in various settings with emphasis on best practices based on deployed systems. They also address molecular laboratory methods, and statistical and geospatial analysis, and evaluation of systems for early epidemic detection. Sections Five and Six discuss legal and ethical considerations, communication strategies and applied epidemiology-training programs. The rest of the chapters offer public-private partnerships, as well lessons from the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic and future directions for infectious disease surveillance.

The European Health Report 2009

Health and Health Systems

Author: N.A

Publisher: WHO Regional Office Europe

ISBN: 9289014156

Category: Medical

Page: 178

View: 6782

This report provides member states with essential public health information. It provides a picture of the health status and health determinants in the European Region and identifies areas for public health action for the member states and the European public health community.

African Health Leaders

Making Change and Claiming the Future

Author: Francis Omaswa,Nigel Crisp

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191008419

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 5593

Most accounts of health and healthcare in Africa are written by foreigners. African Health Leaders: Making Change and Claiming the Future redresses the balance. Written by Africans, who have themselves led improvements in their own countries, the book discusses the creativity, innovation and leadership that has been involved tackling everything from HIV/AIDs, to maternal, and child mortality and neglected tropical diseases. It celebrates their achievements and shows how, over three generations, African health leaders are creating a distinctively African vision of health and health systems. The book reveals how African Health Leaders are claiming the future - in Africa, but also by sharing their insights and knowledge globally and contributing fully to improving health throughout the world. It illustrates how African leadership can enable foreign agencies and individuals working in Africa to avoid all those misunderstandings and misinterpretations of culture and context which lead to wasted efforts and frustrated hopes. African Health Leaders challenges Africans to do more for themselves; build on success; tackle weak governance, corrupt systems and low expectations and claim the future. It sets out what Africa needs from the rest of the world in the spirit of global solidarity - not primarily in aid, but through investment, collaboration, partnership and co-development. It concludes with a vision for improvement based on three foundations: an understanding that 'health is made at home'; the determination to offer access to health services for everyone; and an insistence on the pursuit of quality.

Communicable Disease Control in Emergencies

A Field Manual

Author: Máire A. Connolly,World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9789241546164

Category: Medical

Page: 295

View: 3717

This field manual is intended to help health professionals and public health coordinators working in emergency situations prevent, detect and control the major communicable diseases encountered by affected populations. The manual is the result of collaboration among a number of WHO departments and several external partner agencies in reviewing existing guidelines on communicable disease control and adapting them to emergency situations. The manual deals with the fundamental principles of communicable disease control in emergencies, which are: Rapid assessment to identify the communicable disease threats faced by the emergency-affected population, including those with epidemic potential, and define the health status of the population by conducting a rapid assessment; Prevention to prevent communicable disease by maintaining a healthy physical environment and good general living conditions; Surveillance to set up or strengthen disease surveillance system with an early warning mechanism to ensure the early reporting of cases to monitor disease trends, and to facilitate prompt detection and response to outbreaks; outbreak control to ensure outbreaks are rapidly detected and controlled through adequate preparedness (i.e. stockpiles, standard treatment protocols and staff training) and rapid response (i.e.confirmation, investigation and implementation of control measures); and disease management to diagnose and treat cases promptly with trained staff using effective treatment and standard protocols at all health facilities.

China's Healthcare System and Reform

Author: Lawton Robert Burns,Gordon G. Liu

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316738396

Category: Business & Economics

Page: N.A

View: 6173

This volume provides a comprehensive review of China's healthcare system and policy reforms in the context of the global economy. Following a value-chain framework, the 16 chapters cover the payers, the providers, and the producers (manufacturers) in China's system. It also provides a detailed analysis of the historical development of China's healthcare system, the current state of its broad reforms, and the uneasy balance between China's market-driven approach and governmental regulation. Most importantly, it devotes considerable attention to the major problems confronting China, including chronic illness, public health, and long-term care and economic security for the elderly. Burns and Liu have assembled the latest research from leading health economists and political scientists, as well as senior public health officials and corporate executives, making this book an essential read for industry professionals, policymakers, researchers, and students studying comparative health systems across the world.

Sick Societies

Responding to the global challenge of chronic disease

Author: David Stuckler,Karen Siegel

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191621056

Category: Medical

Page: 376

View: 5689

Chronic diseases-heart disease, diabetes, lung disease, and common cancers-claim more than one out of every two lives worldwide. Within the next few decades their toll will rise, most greatly in developing countries. Yet this rapid growth of chronic diseases is not being met with a proportionate global response. Left unaddressed, they pose a major threat to social and economic development. This book is the first to synthesize the growing evidence-base surrounding chronic disease, comprehensively addressing the prevention and control of chronic diseases from epidemiologic, economic, prevention/management, and political economy perspectives. Sick Societies is written in five main parts. The first three chapters explore the causes and consequences of chronic diseases on a global level. Chapter four identifi es different approaches to preventing and managing chronic diseases, while chapters five and six consider the power and politics in global health that have stymied an effective response to chronic disease. In chapter seven, the themes from the first three parts come into focus through a series of invited contributions from leading public health experts. The final chapter sets out a model of pragmatic and imaginative solidarity, wherein the struggles of the rich and poor to survive are united by a common cause and shared goals.

Capitalizing on the Demographic Transition

Tackling Noncommunicable Diseases in South Asia

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821387243

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 184

View: 476

Increasing life expectancy in South Asia is resulting in a demographic transition that can, under the right circumstances, yield dividends through more favorable dependency ratios for a time. With aging, the disease burden shifts toward noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) which can threaten healthy aging. However, securing the gains expected from the demographic dividend—where developing countries’ working and nondependent population increases and per capita income thus rises— is both achievable and affordable through efficiently tacking NCDs with prevention and control efforts. This book looks primarily at cardiovascular disease (CVD) and tobacco use since they account for a disproportionate amount of the NCD burden—the focus is strategic, rather than comprehensive. The goal of this book is to encourage countries to develop, adopt, and implement effective and timely country and, where appropriate, regional responses that reduce both population-level risk factors and the NCD burden. The work develops (i) an NCD burden and risk factor profile for all countries and the region as a whole; (ii) a rationale for public policy and action for NCDs; (iii) a framework to guide the formulation of public policies and strategies for NCDs; (iv) a country profile, including capacity and ongoing NCD activities, as well as policy options and actions for NCDs that will help stimulate policy dialogue within and among countries; and (v) a regional strategy for NCD prevention and control where regional collaboration offers added value. The achievements of this book are (i) developing a framework for policy options to identify key areas for strategic country- and regional-level policy and actions; (ii) bringing together demographic and aging trends, disease and risk factor burden data, alongside analyses of capacities and accomplishments to tackle NCDs; and (iii) using these inputs to develop policy options for country and regional strategies.

The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases

Reconciling U.S.National Security and Public Health Policy

Author: Jennifer Brower,Peter Chalk

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833034154

Category: Political Science

Page: 166

View: 6337

This study offers a more comprehensive analysis of the security implications of the spread of infectious diseases than has been done to date. The study examines the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, highlighting this particular crisis as a graphic example of the devastating effects that infectious disease can have on virtually every aspect of a state's functioning viability. It also makes a detailed analysis of the United States, delineating the threat posed by specific diseases; assessing the effectiveness of the existing public health infrastructure; and offering specific actions that can be taken to improve the country's ability to meet this emerging challenge. ISBN: 0-8330-3293-3 Price: $20.00 Est. page count: last roman--xvii

Climate Change, Public Health, and the Law

Author: Michael Burger,Justin Gundlach

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108417620

Category: Law

Page: 275

View: 1957

Presents comprehensively the currently un-mapped constellation of issues related to climate change, public health, and the law.

Mass Gatherings and Public Health

The Experience of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games

Author: Agis D. Tsouros,Panos A. Efstathiou

Publisher: World Health Organization


Category: Medical

Page: 377

View: 6820

"Large-scale mass gatherings, such as the Olympic Games, represent significant challenges for the entire health sector of host countries. Emerging global public health threats of natural or deliberate nature increase considerably the health and safety vulnerability of mass gatherings. Major areas of public health responsibility include health care capacity and mass-casualty preparedness; disease surveillance and outbreak response; environmental health and food safety; public information and health promotion; public health preparedness and response to incidents potentially involving the deliberate use of explosives, biological and chemical agents or radionuclear material; and leadership, operations and unified command. This book comprehensively and systematically presents the experience of and lessons learned from the public health aspects of the preparations and conduct of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. Documenting this experience can be a source of valuable information and knowledge for governments at all levels and communities in building their capacity for not only large-scale events but also preparing to deal with the avian influenza pandemic threat or other emergencies such as flooding and phenomena often associated with climate change." - t.p. verso.

Health Transitions and the Double Disease Burden in Asia and the Pacific

Histories of Responses to Non-communicable and Communicable Diseases

Author: Milton James Lewis,Kerrie L. Macpherson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415575435

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 317

View: 7324

With in-depth analysis of more than fifteen countries, this volume examines the impact of the double disease burden on health care regimes, resource allocation, strategies for prevention and control on the wealthiest nations in the region, as well as the smallest Pacific islands. Milton Lewis , University of Sydney.