High Resolution EPR

Applications to Metalloenzymes and Metals in Medicine

Author: Graeme Hanson,Lawrence Berliner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387848568

Category: Medical

Page: 666

View: 9819

Metalloproteins comprise approximately 30% of all known proteins, and are involved in a variety of biologically important processes, including oxygen transport, biosynthesis, electron transfer, biodegradation, drug metabolism, proteolysis, and hydrolysis of amides and esters, environmental sulfur and nitrogen cycles, and disease mechanisms. EPR spectroscopy has an important role in not only the geometric structural characterization of the redox cofactors in metalloproteins but also their electronic structure, as this is crucial for their reactivity. The advent of x-ray crystallographic snapshots of the active site redox cofactors in metalloenzymes in conjunction with high-resolution EPR spectroscopy has provided detailed structural insights into their catalytic mechanisms. This volume was conceived in 2005 at the Rocky Mountain Conference on Analytical Chemistry (EPR Symposium) to highlight the importance of high-resolution EPR spectroscopy to the structural (geometric and electronic) characterization of redox active cofactors in metalloproteins. We have been fortunate to have enlisted internationally recognized experts in this joint venture to provide the scientific community with an overview of high-resolution EPR and its application to metals in biology. This volume, High-Resolution EPR: Applications to Metalloenzymes and Metals in Medicine, covers high-resolution EPR methods, iron proteins, nickel and copper enzymes, and metals in medicine. An eloquent synopsis of each chapter is provided by John Pilbrow in the Introduction. A second volume, Metals in Biology: Applications of High-Resolution EPR to Metalloenzymes, will appear later this year covering the complement of other metalloproteins. One of the pioneers in the development of pulsed EPR and its application to metalloproteins was Arthur Schweiger, whose contribution we include in this volume. Unfortunately, he passed away suddenly during the preparation of this volume. The editors and coauthors are extremely honored to dedicate this volume to the memory of Arthur Schweiger in recognition of his technical advances and insights into pulsed EPR and its application to metalloproteins. Arthur was extremely humble and treated everyone with equal respect. He was a gifted educator with an ability to explain complex phenomena in terms of simple intuitive pictures, had a delightful personality, and continues to be sadly missed by the community. It is an honor for the editors to facilitate the dissemination of these excellent contributions to the scientific community. Suggestions for future volumes are always appreciated.

Structure and Function

Author: Peter Comba

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048128884

Category: Science

Page: 260

View: 5004

The art of chemistry is to thoroughly understand the properties of molecular compounds and materials and to be able to prepare novel compounds with p- dicted and desirable properties. The basis for progress is to fully appreciate and fundamentally understand the intimate relation between structure and function. The thermodynamic properties (stability, selectivity, redox potential), reactivities (bond breaking and formation, catalysis, electron transfer) and electronic properties (spectroscopy, magnetism) depend on the structure of a compound. Nevertheless, the discovery of novel molecular compounds and materials with exciting prop- ties is often and to a large extent based on serendipity. For compounds with novel and exciting properties, a thorough analysis of experimental data – state-of-the-art spectroscopy, magnetism, thermodynamic properties and/or detailed mechanistic information – combined with sophisticated electronic structure calculations is p- formed to interpret the results and fully understand the structure, properties and their interrelation. From these analyses, new models and theories may emerge, and this has led to the development of ef cient models for the design and interpre- tion of new materials and important new experiments. The chapters in this book therefore describe various fundamental aspects of structures, dynamics and physics of molecules and materials. The approaches, data and models discussed include new theoretical developments, computational studies and experimental work from molecular chemistry to biology and materials science.

Metals in Biology

Applications of High-Resolution EPR to Metalloenzymes

Author: Graeme Hanson,Lawrence Berliner

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1441911391

Category: Medical

Page: 419

View: 6306

Metal ions in biology is an ever expanding area in science and medicine involving metal ions in proteins and enzymes, their biosynthesis, catalysis, electron transfer, metal ion trafficking, gene regulation and disease. While X-ray crystallography has provided snapshots of the geometric structures of the active site redox cofactors in these proteins, the application of high resolution EPR spectroscopy in conjunction with quantum chemistry calculations has enabled, in many cases, a detailed understanding of a metalloenzymes mechanism through investigations of the geometric and electronic structure of the resting, enzyme-substrate intermediates and product complexes. This volume, Part II of a two-volume set demonstrates the application of high resolution EPR spectroscopy in determining the geometric and electronic structure of active site metal ion centers in iron sulfur cluster containing metalloproteins, mononuclear molybdenum metalloenzymes, manganese-containing enzymes and novel metalloproteins.

Future Directions in Metalloprotein and Metalloenzyme Research

Author: Graeme Hanson,Lawrence Berliner

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319591002

Category: Science

Page: 191

View: 7809

This book covers the latest developments in metalloenzymes, including characterizing metal bridging in proteins and peptides, copper(II) complexes of marine peptides, high-spin Co(II) in model and metalloprotein systems to enzymes such as the molybdenum-containing enzymes, CW and pulse EPR of cytochrome P450 enzymes and the radical S-adenosylmethionine FeS family. In the previous two related volumes in the Biological Magnetic Resonance series, High-Resolution EPR: Applications to Metalloenzymes and Metals in Medicine and Metals in Biology:Applications of High-Resolution EPR to Metalloenzymes, topics covered included high-resolution EPR methods, iron proteins, nickel and copper enzymes, metals in medicine, iron–sulfur cluster-containing proteins, and molybdenum enzymes. In this volume, new developments in these areas are covered in detail and new areas that have emerged are also detailed. This is an ideal book for graduate students and researchers working in the fie lds of high-resolution EPR, metalloenzymes, and metals in biology.

Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry

Author: Derek Horton

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123855187

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 2642

Since its inception in 1945, this serial has provided critical and integrating articles written by research specialists that bring together industrial, analytical and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry and instrumentation methodology in the study of carbohydrates. The articles provide a definitive interpretation of the current status and future trends in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. Features contributions from leading authorities and industry experts Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

EPR of Free Radicals in Solids I

Trends in Methods and Applications

Author: Anders Lund,Masaru Shiotani

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400748930

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 4370

EPR of Free Radicals in Solids: Trends in Methods and Applications, 2nd ed. presents a critical two volume review of the methods and applications of EPR (ESR) for the study of free radical processes in solids. Emphasis is on the progress made in the developments in EPR technology, in the application of sophisticated matrix isolation techniques and in the advancement in quantitative EPR that have occurred since the 1st edition was published. Improvements have been made also at theoretical level, with the development of methods based on first principles and their application to the calculation of magnetic properties as well as in spectral simulations. EPR of Free Radicals in Solids I focuses on the trends in experimental and theoretical methods to extract structural and dynamical properties of radicals and spin probes in solid matrices by continuous wave (CW) and pulsed techniques. It presents simulation techniques and software for CW and pulsed EPR as well as studies of quantum effects at low temperature. The chapters dealing with quantum chemistry methods for the theoretical interpretation of hyperfine coupling tensors and g-tensors have been much extended in this edition and a new chapter on the calculation of zero-field splitting tensors has been added. This new edition is a valuable resource to experimentalists and theoreticians in research involving free radicals, as well as for students of advanced courses in physical chemistry, chemical physics, materials science, biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. This new edition is a valuable resource to experimentalists and theoreticians in research involving free radicals, as well as for students of advanced courses in physical chemistry, chemical physics, materials science, biophysics, biochemistry and related fields.

Biological Magnetic Resonance

Author: Lawrence Berliner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461565340

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 7831

Biological magnetic resonance (NMR and EPR) is a rapidly expanding area of research with much activity in most universities and research institutions. International conferences are held biennially with an increasing number of participants. With the introduction of sophisticated and continuously im proving instrumentation, biological magnetic resonance is approaching the state of a common physical method in biochemical, biomedical, and bio logical research. The lack of monograpbs on the subject had been con spicuous for a long time. This gap started to close only recently. However, because of the rapid expansion and intensive research, many texts are dated by the time of their appearance. Therefore we have undertaken the editing of a series that is intended to provide the practicing chemist, biochemist, or biologist with the advances and progress in selected contemporary topics. In seeking to make the series as authoritative as possible, we have invited authors who have not only made significant contributions but who are also currently active in their fields. We hope that their expertise as well as their first hand experience as reflected in the chapters of this volume will be of benefit to the reader, inter alia, in planning his own experiments and in critically evaluating the current literature.

Spin States in Biochemistry and Inorganic Chemistry

Influence on Structure and Reactivity

Author: Marcel Swart,Miquel Costas

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118898303

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 3038

It has long been recognized that metal spin states play a central role in the reactivity of important biomolecules, in industrial catalysis and in spin crossover compounds. As the fields of inorganic chemistry and catalysis move towards the use of cheap, non-toxic first row transition metals, it is essential to understand the important role of spin states in influencing molecular structure, bonding and reactivity. Spin States in Biochemistry and Inorganic Chemistry provides a complete picture on the importance of spin states for reactivity in biochemistry and inorganic chemistry, presenting both theoretical and experimental perspectives. The successes and pitfalls of theoretical methods such as DFT, ligand-field theory and coupled cluster theory are discussed, and these methods are applied in studies throughout the book. Important spectroscopic techniques to determine spin states in transition metal complexes and proteins are explained, and the use of NMR for the analysis of spin densities is described. Topics covered include: DFT and ab initio wavefunction approaches to spin states Experimental techniques for determining spin states Molecular discovery in spin crossover Multiple spin state scenarios in organometallic reactivity and gas phase reactions Transition-metal complexes involving redox non-innocent ligands Polynuclear iron sulfur clusters Molecular magnetism NMR analysis of spin densities This book is a valuable reference for researchers working in bioinorganic and inorganic chemistry, computational chemistry, organometallic chemistry, catalysis, spin-crossover materials, materials science, biophysics and pharmaceutical chemistry.

EPR: Instrumental Methods

Author: Christopher J. Bender,Lawrence J. Berliner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144198951X

Category: Medical

Page: 437

View: 5741

Electron magnetic resonance spectroscopy is undergoing something akin to a renaissance that is attributable to advances in microwave circuitry and signal processing software. EPR: Instrumental Methods is a textbook that brings the reader up to date on these advances and their role in providing better experimental techniques for biological magnetic resonance. Chapters in this book guide the reader from basic principles of spectrometer design through the advanced methods that are providing new vistas in disciplines such as oximetry, imaging, and structural biology. Key Features: Spectrometer design, particularly at low frequencies (below X-band), Design of spectrometer components unique to ENDOR and ESEEM, Optimization of EMR spectrometer sensitivity spanning many octaves, Algorithmic approach to spectral parameterization, Application of Fourier Methods to polymer conformation, oximetry, and imaging.

Inorganic Chemical Biology

Principles, Techniques and Applications

Author: Gilles Gasser

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111868415X

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 2856

Understanding, identifying and influencing the biological systems are the primary objectives of chemical biology. From this perspective, metal complexes have always been of great assistance to chemical biologists, for example, in structural identification and purification of essential biomolecules, for visualizing cellular organelles or to inhibit specific enzymes. This inorganic side of chemical biology, which continues to receive considerable attention, is referred to as inorganic chemical biology. Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the current and emerging role of metal complexes in chemical biology. Throughout all of the chapters there is a strong emphasis on fundamental theoretical chemistry and experiments that have been carried out in living cells or organisms. Outlooks for the future applications of metal complexes in chemical biology are also discussed. Topics covered include: • Metal complexes as tools for structural biology • IMAC, AAS, XRF and MS as detection techniques for metals in chemical biology • Cell and organism imaging and probing DNA using metal and metal carbonyl complexes • Detection of metal ions, anions and small molecules using metal complexes • Photo-release of metal ions in living cells • Metal complexes as enzyme inhibitors and catalysts in living cells Written by a team of international experts, Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications is a must-have for bioinorganic, bioorganometallic and medicinal chemists as well as chemical biologists working in both academia and industry.

The Nutritional Biochemistry of Chromium(III)

Author: John Vincent

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080475394

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 7103

Chromium nutritional supplements are the second best selling mineral supplements after calcium as chromium is found in pills, sports drinks, chewing gums, smoothies, and numerous other products. Chromium has been promoted to promote weight loss and muscle development and most recently to be available to treat the symptoms of type 2 diabetes and related conditions. The aim of The Nutritional Biochemistry of Chromium(III) is to examine the four most controversial areas of chromium nutrition and biochemistry: - is chromium an essential element for humans and are chromium nutritional supplements of value? - what biochemical role, if any, does chromium play in the body - can large doses of chromium(III) be used to treat symptoms of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and related medical conditions - is the use of chromium(III) supplements a health concern. Scientific experts, who are recognized leaders in the field, weigh in with their opinions on both sides of these issues in this book. A background review of the field from 1955-1995 by Vincent opens the book and concludes with a summary by Dr. Forrest Nielsen, Center Director of the USDA's Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center concludes the book. * Point-counterpoint format, providing both sides of major issues * Complete coverage of current issues, including nutrition, health, biochemical role and toxicology * Authors are recognised experts and leaders in this field

Nitroxides

Applications in Chemistry, Biomedicine, and Materials Science

Author: Gertz I. Likhtenshtein,Jun Yamauchi,Shin'ichi Nakatsuji,Alex I. Smirnov,Rui Tamura

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 352762175X

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 8149

Covering all aspects of this field, this volume also critically discusses recent results obtained with the use of nitroxides, while providing an analysis of future developments. Written by a group of scientists with long-term experience in investigating the chemistry, physicochemistry, biochemistry and biophysics of nitroxides, the book is not intended as an exhaustive survey of each topic, but rather a discussion of their theoretical and experimental background, as well as recent advances. The first four chapters expound the general theoretical and experimental background and the advantages of modern ESR technique. Chapter 5 focuses on fundamentals and recent results in the preparation and basic chemical properties, while the next two chapters briefly outline principles and current results in nitroxides as spin probes, and as redox probes and spin traps. These chapters form the basis for the subsequent more detailed studies of nitroxides in physicochemistry, while the final chapters concentrate on the advantages of magnetic materials on the basis of nitroxides. Finally, the concluding chapter considers the rapidly developing field of biomedical, therapeutic and clinical applications. With more than 1,100 references to essential literature, this volume provides fundamental knowledge of instrumentation, data interpretation, capacity and recent advantages of nitroxide applications, allowing readers to understand how nitroxides can help them in solving their own problems.

In Vivo EPR (ESR)

Theory and Application

Author: Lawrence J. Berliner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461500613

Category: Medical

Page: 656

View: 2905

In Vivo EPR (ESR) is a textbook on this relatively new subject in biomedical electron spin resonance. While a few chapters have appeared in special topics volumes in this series, this book covers the principles and theory, instrumentation as well as the latest applications at the time of its writing. The authors are world-renowned experts and pioneers in their fields. This book is divided into two major sections dealing with theory and instrumentation, and aspects of biochemistry, in vitro and in vivo applications. A significant amount of detail is devoted to clinical applications and the problems and pitfalls encountered in in vivo spectroscopy and imaging. Key Features: -History of In Vivo EPR, -Principles of Imaging-Theory and Instrumentation, -Time-domain Radio Frequency EPR Imaging, -The Measurement of Oxygen In Vivo Using In Vivo EPR Techniques, -Potential Medical (Clinical) Applications of EPR, -Combining NMR and EPR/ESR for In Vivo Experiments.

Biomedical EPR - Part B: Methodology, Instrumentation, and Dynamics

Author: Sandra S. Eaton,Gareth R. Eaton,Lawrence Berliner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306485338

Category: Medical

Page: 470

View: 4734

Biomedical EPR – Part B focuses on applications of EPR techniques and instrumentation, with applications to dynamics. The book celebrates the 70th birthday of Prof. James S. Hyde, Medical College of Wisconsin, and his contributions to this field. Chapters are written to provide introductory material for new-comers to the field that lead into up-to-date reviews that provide perspective on the wide range of questions that can be addressed by EPR. Key Features: EPR Techniques including Saturation Recovery, ENDOR, ELDOR, and Saturation Transfer Instrumentation Innovations including Loop Gap Resonators, Rapid Mixing, and Time Locked Sub-Sampling Motion in Biological Membranes Applications to Structure Determination in Proteins Discussion of Trends in EPR Technology and Prognosis for the Future

Quantitative EPR

Author: Gareth R. Eaton,Sandra S. Eaton,David P. Barr,Ralph T. Weber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783211929483

Category: Science

Page: 185

View: 4329

There is a growing need in both industrial and academic research to obtain accurate quantitative results from continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments. This book describes various sample-related, instrument-related and software-related aspects of obtaining quantitative results from EPR expe- ments. Some speci?c items to be discussed include: selection of a reference standard, resonator considerations (Q, B ,B ), power saturation, sample position- 1 m ing, and ?nally, the blending of all the factors together to provide a calculation model for obtaining an accurate spin concentration of a sample. This book might, at ?rst glance, appear to be a step back from some of the more advanced pulsed methods discussed in recent EPR texts, but actually quantitative “routine CW EPR” is a challenging technique, and requires a thorough understa- ing of the spectrometer and the spin system. Quantitation of CW EPR can be subdivided into two main categories: (1) intensity and (2) magnetic ?eld/mic- wave frequency measurement. Intensity is important for spin counting. Both re- tive intensity quantitation of EPR samples and their absolute spin concentration of samples are often of interest. This information is important for kinetics, mechanism elucidation, and commercial applications where EPR serves as a detection system for free radicals produced in an industrial process. It is also important for the study of magnetic properties. Magnetic ?eld/microwave frequency is important for g and nuclear hyper?ne coupling measurements that re?ect the electronic structure of the radicals or metal ions.

Principles and Applications of ESR Spectroscopy

Author: Anders Lund,Masaru Shiotani,Shigetaka Shimada

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402053443

Category: Science

Page: 461

View: 651

Principles and Applications of ESR Spectroscopy fills the gap between the detailed monographs in ESR spectroscopy and the general textbooks in molecular physics, physical chemistry, biochemistry or spectroscopy. The latter only briefly explain the underlying theory and do not provide details about applications, while the currently available ESR textbooks are primarily focused on the technique as such. This text is based upon the authors’ long experience of teaching the subject to a mixed audience, in the extreme case ranging from physics to biology. The potential of the method is illustrated with applications in fields such as molecular science, catalysis and environmental sciences, polymer and materials sciences, biochemistry and radiation chemistry/physics. Theoretical derivations have in general been omitted, as they have been presented repeatedly in previous works. The necessary theory is instead illustrated by practical examples from the literature.

EMR of Paramagnetic Molecules

Author: Lawrence J. Berliner,Jacques Reuben

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461528925

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 532

Published as a companion to Volume 12, the current volume presents the latest advances in electron paramagnetic resonance of iron proteins, metalloproteins, and free radicals. The book features a diskette containing programs for iron ERP spectral simulation and ENDOR analyses.