How Wars End

Author: Dan Reiter

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 069114060X

Category: History

Page: 301

View: 6241

"Dan Reiter explains how information about combat outcomes and other factors may persuade a warring nation to demand more or less in peace negotiations, and why a country might refuse to negotiate limited terms and instead tenaciously pursue absolute victory if it fears that its enemy might renege on a peace deal. He fully lays out the theory and then tests it on more than twenty cases of war-termination behavior, including decisions during the American Civil War, the two world wars, and the Korean War. Reiter helps solve some of the most enduring puzzles in military history, such as why Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, why Germany in 1918 renewed its attack in the West after securing peace with Russia in the East, and why Britain refused to seek peace terms with Germany after France fell in 1940.".

How Wars End

Why We Always Fight the Last Battle

Author: Gideon Rose

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1416590552

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 484

Argues that the failure of the United States to create successful peace settlements when ending the major wars of the twentieth century has only led to subsequent conflicts and new wars which attempt to resolve the issues of the previous war.

How Wars End

Eye-Witness Accounts of the Fall of Berlin

Author: V. Sevruk

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781410218834

Category: History

Page: 380

View: 2468

This book was written by men and women who as participants in the Battle of Berlin gained a unique and poignant view of the last days and hours of the Second World War. Its authors include the late Marshal Konev, one of the war's outstanding generals, who also contributed the preface, the writer Vsevolod Vishnevsky, who was present at the surrender negotiations, the poet Vassily Subbotin, who took part in the assault on the Reichstag, and the journalist Yelena Rzhevskaya, who as an army interpreter found herself in Hitter's bunker within a few hours of its capture. Many of the documents quoted appear in English for the first time.

How Wars End

Author: Alan John Percivale Taylor

Publisher: H. Hamilton

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 126

View: 6260

Ethics Beyond War's End

Author: Eric Patterson

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1589018974

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 4449

The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have focused new attention on a perennial problem: how to end wars well. What ethical considerations should guide war’s settlement and its aftermath? In cases of protracted conflicts, recurring war, failed or failing states, or genocide and war crimes, is there a framework for establishing an enduring peace that is pragmatic and moral? Ethics Beyond War’s End provides answers to these questions from the just war tradition. Just war thinking engages the difficult decisions of going to war and how war is fought. But from this point forward just war theory must also take into account what happens after war ends, and the critical issues that follow: establishing an enduring order, employing political forms of justice, and cultivating collective forms of conciliation. Top thinkers in the field—including Michael Walzer, Jean Bethke Elshtain, James Turner Johnson, and Brian Orend—offer powerful contributions to our understanding of the vital issues associated with late- and post conflict in tough, real-world scenarios that range from the US Civil War to contemporary quagmires in Afghanistan, the Middle East, and the Congo.

Elusive Victories

The American Presidency at War

Author: Andrew J. Polsky

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199942811

Category: Political Science

Page: 456

View: 5038

On April 4, 1864, Abraham Lincoln made a shocking admission about his presidency during the Civil War. "I claim not to have controlled events," he wrote in a letter, "but confess plainly that events have controlled me." Lincoln's words carry an invaluable lesson for wartime presidents, writes Andrew J. Polsky in this seminal book. As Polsky shows, when commanders-in-chief do try to control wartime events, more often than not they fail utterly. In Elusive Victories, Polsky provides a fascinating study of six wartime presidents, drawing larger lessons about the limits of the power of the White House during armed conflict. He examines, in turn, Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama, showing how each gravely overestimated his power as commander-in-chief. In each case, these presidents' resources did not match the key challenges that recur from war to war. Both Lincoln and Johnson intervened in military operations, giving orders to specific units; yet both struggled with the rising unpopularity of their conflicts. Both Wilson and Bush entered hostilities with idealistic agendas for the aftermath, yet found themselves helpless to enact them. With insight and clarity, Polsky identifies overarching issues that will inform current and future policymakers. The single most important dynamic, he writes, is the erosion of a president's freedom of action. Each decision propels him down a path from which he cannot turn back. When George W. Bush rejected the idea of invading Iraq with 400,000 troops, he could not send such a force two years later as the insurgency spread. In the final chapter, Polsky examines Barack Obama's options in light of these conclusions, and considers how the experiences of the past might inform the world we face now. Elusive Victories is the first book to provide a comprehensive account of presidential leadership during wartime, highlighting the key dangers that presidents have ignored at their peril.

War and Human Nature

Author: Stephen Peter Rosen

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400826365

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 7527

Why did President John F. Kennedy choose a strategy of confrontation during the Cuban missile crisis even though his secretary of defense stated that the presence of missiles in Cuba made no difference? Why did large numbers of Iraqi troops surrender during the Gulf War even though they had been ordered to fight and were capable of doing so? Why did Hitler declare war on the United States knowing full well the power of that country? War and Human Nature argues that new findings about the way humans are shaped by their inherited biology may help provide answers to such questions. This seminal work by former Defense Department official Stephen Peter Rosen contends that human evolutionary history has affected the way we process the information we use to make decisions. The result is that human choices and calculations may be very different from those predicted by standard models of rational behavior. This notion is particularly true in the area of war and peace, Rosen contends. Human emotional arousal affects how people learn the lessons of history. For example, stress and distress influence people's views of the future, and testosterone levels play a role in human social conflict. This thought-provoking and timely work explores the mind that has emerged from the biological sciences over the last generation. In doing so, it helps shed new light on many persistent puzzles in the study of war.

Just Peace

How Wars Should End

Author: M. Fixdal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137092866

Category: Political Science

Page: 257

View: 8826

Drawing on many of the wars and peaces of recent decades, this book offers a persuasive new perspective on postwar justice. In her analysis wars of succession, wars for territory, and the political institutions that precede and follow wars, Fixdal explores the outer limits of the idea that it is worth paying almost any price for peace.

Ending Wars

Author: Feargal Cochrane

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745645178

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 8973

Many books have been written about war, but few have focused on how wars can be brought to an end. Wars are rarely inevitable however and this book is aimed at understanding how violent conflicts can be brought to a close through intervention, mediation and political negotiation. The simple premise underlying the book is that wars between states and wars within states are generally fought by rational people for particular political goals or perceived interests. War is better understood as a methodology rather than an ideology. When the context, issues and actors in these armed conflicts change then it is often possible to control, or even transform such violence. By bringing together a number of existing debates from peace and conflict research as well as scholars of international relations, the book examines the dynamic forces that lie behind the ending of wars and how these have changed over time. Examples are drawn from a wide range of armed conflicts to analyse the efforts that have been made to move from War-War to Jaw-Jaw, or more typically Jaw-War. Efforts at third-party intervention, mediation and political negotiation across a range of conflict zones from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa are discussed in full. Neither idealistic nor fatalistic, this book is a must-read for all students of international politics and security studies.

Drogen

Die Geschichte eines langen Krieges

Author: Johann Hari

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104035687

Category: Fiction

Page: 448

View: 6323

»Hari vereint präzise Recherche mit einer zutiefst menschlichen Erzählung. Dieses Buch wird eine dringend notwendige Debatte auslösen.« Glenn Greenwald Der Krieg gegen die Drogen gilt inzwischen als gescheitert, der Handel mit Drogen ist ein blühendes Geschäft, alle Maßnahmen gegen den Konsum sind weitgehend erfolglos. Woran liegt das? Der britische Journalist Johann Hari begibt sich auf eine einzigartige Reise – von Brooklyn über Mexiko bis nach Deutschland – und erzählt die Geschichten derjenigen, deren Leben vom immerwährenden Kampf gegen Drogen geprägt ist: von Dealern, Süchtigen, Kartellmitgliedern, den Verlierern und Profiteuren. Mit seiner grandiosen literarischen Reportage schreibt Hari sowohl eine Geschichte des Krieges gegen Drogen als auch ein mitreißendes und streitbares Plädoyer zum Umdenken. »Hervorragender Journalismus, packend erzählt.« Naomi Klein »Phantastisch!« Noam Chomsky

Glaube - Freiheit - Diktatur in Europa und den USA

Festschrift für Gerhard Besier zum 60. Geburtstag

Author: Katarzyna Stokłosa,Gerhard Besier,Andrea Strübund

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783525350898

Category: History

Page: 894

View: 2749

Das Werk des (Kirchen)Historikers, Theologen und Psychologen Gerhard Besier ist von geradezu enzyklopädischer Breite und belegt seine wissenschaftliche Intensität und intellektuelle Leidenschaft. Die hier versammelten Beiträge seiner zahlreichen Weggefährten und Schüler widmen sich den drei Schwerpunkten seiner akademischen Arbeit: der historischen Theologie in praktischer, systematischer und ökumenischer Perspektive, den religiösen Minderheiten und der rechtsstaatlichen Ordnung sowie der europäischen und nordamerikanischen Zeitgeschichte.

The Ordeal of Peace: Demobilization and the Urban Experience in Britain and Germany, 1917–1921

Author: Professor Adam R Seipp

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409480305

Category: History

Page: 306

View: 5204

Historians know a great deal about how wars begin, but far less about how they end. Whilst much has been written about the forces, passions, and institutions that mobilized societies for war and worked to sustain that mobilization through years of struggle, much less is known about the equally complex processes that demobilized societies in the wake of armed conflict. As such, this new book will be welcomed by scholars wishing to understand the effects of the Great War in its fullest context, including the reactions, behaviors, and attitudes of 'ordinary' Europeans during the tumultuous events of the years of demobilization. Taking a transnational perspective on demobilization this study demonstrates that the experience of mass industrial war generated remarkably similar pressures within both the defeated and victorious countries. Using as examples the important provincial centres of Munich and Manchester, this book examines the experiences of European urban-dwellers from the last year of the war until the early 1920s. Utilizing a wide variety of sources from more than twenty archives in Germany, Britain, and the United States, this book recovers voices from the period that are often lost in conventional narratives, capturing the richness and diversity of the ideas, visions, and conflicts engendered by those difficult and tumultuous years. The result is a book that paints a vivid picture of the difficulties that peace could bring to economies and societies that had rapidly and fully adapted to the demands of industrial world war.

Krieg und Frieden

Author: Leo Tolstoi

Publisher: Null Papier Verlag

ISBN: 3954181711

Category: Fiction

Page: 1300

View: 9694

Zwischen 1863 und 1869 schuf Leo Tolstoi dieses Werk, das in seiner erzählerischen Breite auf bis dahin unerreicht kunstfertige Weise einen Historien-, Familien- und Bildungsroman vereinte. Hintergrund ist der Krieg zwischen Russland und Frankreich. Der mit über 200 Figuren überreich bevölkerte Roman schildert die Schicksale dreier Familien über mehrere Generationen hinweg. Tolstoi spring kunstvoll zwischen familiären, privaten Szenen und der Schilderung von Schlachten und kriegerischen Manövergesprächen hin und her und bietet so ein einen einmaligen Einblick in die russisch-aristokratische Seelenlage der damaligen Zeit. Das Buch ist psychologischer Spiegel und kulturphilosophisches Brennglas in einem. Der geschickte Aufbau des Buches und die sprachlich bis ins Letzte ausgefeilte Intensität ließen Tolstois Werk schnell zu einem Klassiker von Weltrang werden. »O Himmel, welch heftiger Überfall!« erwiderte der Fürst, ohne durch diesen Empfang in Aufregung zu geraten. Der Fürst trug die goldgestickte Uniform des Hofes mit Ordenssternen, seidene Strümpfe und Schnallenschuhe. Sein Gesicht zeigte beständig ein liebenswürdiges Lächeln. Er sprach Französisch, jenes gewählte Französisch, in dem unsere Großväter nicht nur sprachen, sondern auch dachten, und in dem gemessenen, herablassenden Ton eines einflußreichen Würdenträgers, der am Hofe alt geworden ist. Er näherte sich Anna Pawlowna, küßte ihr die Hand, indem er sein kahles, parfümiertes Haupt neigte, und ließ sich dann bequem auf einem Sofa nieder. »Vor allem, verehrte Freundin, beruhigen Sie mich über den Zustand Ihrer Gesundheit«, fuhr er in galantem Tone fort, der aber nicht frei von Spott war. Null Papier Verlag www.null-papier.de

Krieg der Welt

Was ging schief im 20. Jahrhundert?

Author: Niall Ferguson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783548607795

Category:

Page: 987

View: 7799

Der Zweite Weltkrieg

Author: Antony Beevor

Publisher: C. Bertelsmann Verlag

ISBN: 3641107903

Category: History

Page: 976

View: 3580

Vor 75 Jahren, am 1. September 1939, begann der Zweite Weltkrieg Der Zweite Weltkrieg war der brutalste und folgenschwerste kriegerische Konflikt der Geschichte – mit einem bis dahin ungekannten Maß an Waffengewalt und millionenfachem Sterben bis hin zum Völkermord. Antony Beevor, angesehener britischer Historiker, entwirft ein globales Panorama, das die großen Zusammenhänge dieses Krieges ebenso transparent macht wie die herrschenden politisch-ideologischen Kräfte, das Ursachen und Folgen umfassend und in bisher einmaliger Prägnanz verdeutlicht. Er folgt von Norden nach Süden und von Osten nach Westen jenen Männern, die die Welt in die größte Schlacht der Menschheitsgeschichte getrieben haben. Und er verliert dabei nie jene aus den Augen, für die dieser monströse Krieg unermessliches Leid bedeutete. Auf der Basis aktueller Forschung, bestens recherchiert, empathisch erzählt, hat Beevor das Buch zum prägendsten Ereignis des 20. Jahrhunderts geschrieben.

Vom Kriege

Author: C. von Clausewitz

Publisher: Рипол Классик

ISBN: 5874182594

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 5996

Der Aufstieg der Anderen

das postamerikanische Zeitalter

Author: Fareed Zakaria

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783886809172

Category: East and West

Page: 303

View: 8053

Der Verfasser erklärt in seinem Buch, warum wir am Beginn eines neuen, postamerikanischen Zeitalters stehen und dennoch auf eine starke Rolle der USA unter ihrem neuen Präsidenten Barack Obama angewiesen sind.