How Wars End

Author: Dan Reiter

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 069114060X

Category: History

Page: 301

View: 4467

"Dan Reiter explains how information about combat outcomes and other factors may persuade a warring nation to demand more or less in peace negotiations, and why a country might refuse to negotiate limited terms and instead tenaciously pursue absolute victory if it fears that its enemy might renege on a peace deal. He fully lays out the theory and then tests it on more than twenty cases of war-termination behavior, including decisions during the American Civil War, the two world wars, and the Korean War. Reiter helps solve some of the most enduring puzzles in military history, such as why Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, why Germany in 1918 renewed its attack in the West after securing peace with Russia in the East, and why Britain refused to seek peace terms with Germany after France fell in 1940.".

How Wars End

Why We Always Fight the Last Battle

Author: Gideon Rose

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1416590552

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 2874

Argues that the failure of the United States to create successful peace settlements when ending the major wars of the twentieth century has only led to subsequent conflicts and new wars which attempt to resolve the issues of the previous war.

How Wars End

Eye-Witness Accounts of the Fall of Berlin

Author: V. Sevruk

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781410218834

Category: History

Page: 380

View: 620

This book was written by men and women who as participants in the Battle of Berlin gained a unique and poignant view of the last days and hours of the Second World War. Its authors include the late Marshal Konev, one of the war's outstanding generals, who also contributed the preface, the writer Vsevolod Vishnevsky, who was present at the surrender negotiations, the poet Vassily Subbotin, who took part in the assault on the Reichstag, and the journalist Yelena Rzhevskaya, who as an army interpreter found herself in Hitter's bunker within a few hours of its capture. Many of the documents quoted appear in English for the first time.

How Wars End

Author: Alan John Percivale Taylor

Publisher: H. Hamilton

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 126

View: 8303

Ethics Beyond War's End

Author: Eric Patterson

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1589018974

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 2350

The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have focused new attention on a perennial problem: how to end wars well. What ethical considerations should guide war’s settlement and its aftermath? In cases of protracted conflicts, recurring war, failed or failing states, or genocide and war crimes, is there a framework for establishing an enduring peace that is pragmatic and moral? Ethics Beyond War’s End provides answers to these questions from the just war tradition. Just war thinking engages the difficult decisions of going to war and how war is fought. But from this point forward just war theory must also take into account what happens after war ends, and the critical issues that follow: establishing an enduring order, employing political forms of justice, and cultivating collective forms of conciliation. Top thinkers in the field—including Michael Walzer, Jean Bethke Elshtain, James Turner Johnson, and Brian Orend—offer powerful contributions to our understanding of the vital issues associated with late- and post conflict in tough, real-world scenarios that range from the US Civil War to contemporary quagmires in Afghanistan, the Middle East, and the Congo.

How wars end

Author: William Thornton Rickert Fox

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Peace

Page: 262

View: 1193

Elusive Victories

The American Presidency at War

Author: Andrew J. Polsky

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199942811

Category: Political Science

Page: 456

View: 1357

On April 4, 1864, Abraham Lincoln made a shocking admission about his presidency during the Civil War. "I claim not to have controlled events," he wrote in a letter, "but confess plainly that events have controlled me." Lincoln's words carry an invaluable lesson for wartime presidents, writes Andrew J. Polsky in this seminal book. As Polsky shows, when commanders-in-chief do try to control wartime events, more often than not they fail utterly. In Elusive Victories, Polsky provides a fascinating study of six wartime presidents, drawing larger lessons about the limits of the power of the White House during armed conflict. He examines, in turn, Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama, showing how each gravely overestimated his power as commander-in-chief. In each case, these presidents' resources did not match the key challenges that recur from war to war. Both Lincoln and Johnson intervened in military operations, giving orders to specific units; yet both struggled with the rising unpopularity of their conflicts. Both Wilson and Bush entered hostilities with idealistic agendas for the aftermath, yet found themselves helpless to enact them. With insight and clarity, Polsky identifies overarching issues that will inform current and future policymakers. The single most important dynamic, he writes, is the erosion of a president's freedom of action. Each decision propels him down a path from which he cannot turn back. When George W. Bush rejected the idea of invading Iraq with 400,000 troops, he could not send such a force two years later as the insurgency spread. In the final chapter, Polsky examines Barack Obama's options in light of these conclusions, and considers how the experiences of the past might inform the world we face now. Elusive Victories is the first book to provide a comprehensive account of presidential leadership during wartime, highlighting the key dangers that presidents have ignored at their peril.

Drogen

Die Geschichte eines langen Krieges

Author: Johann Hari

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104035687

Category: Fiction

Page: 448

View: 3635

»Hari vereint präzise Recherche mit einer zutiefst menschlichen Erzählung. Dieses Buch wird eine dringend notwendige Debatte auslösen.« Glenn Greenwald Der Krieg gegen die Drogen gilt inzwischen als gescheitert, der Handel mit Drogen ist ein blühendes Geschäft, alle Maßnahmen gegen den Konsum sind weitgehend erfolglos. Woran liegt das? Der britische Journalist Johann Hari begibt sich auf eine einzigartige Reise – von Brooklyn über Mexiko bis nach Deutschland – und erzählt die Geschichten derjenigen, deren Leben vom immerwährenden Kampf gegen Drogen geprägt ist: von Dealern, Süchtigen, Kartellmitgliedern, den Verlierern und Profiteuren. Mit seiner grandiosen literarischen Reportage schreibt Hari sowohl eine Geschichte des Krieges gegen Drogen als auch ein mitreißendes und streitbares Plädoyer zum Umdenken. »Hervorragender Journalismus, packend erzählt.« Naomi Klein »Phantastisch!« Noam Chomsky

Der Aufstieg der Anderen

das postamerikanische Zeitalter

Author: Fareed Zakaria

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783886809172

Category: East and West

Page: 303

View: 6174

Der Verfasser erklärt in seinem Buch, warum wir am Beginn eines neuen, postamerikanischen Zeitalters stehen und dennoch auf eine starke Rolle der USA unter ihrem neuen Präsidenten Barack Obama angewiesen sind.

How Mass Atrocities End

Studies from Guatemala, Burundi, Indonesia, the Sudans, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Iraq

Author: Bridget Conley-Zilkic

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107124379

Category: Law

Page: 224

View: 7172

How do mass atrocities end? Six case studies reveal the decisions and factors that help decrease mass violence against civilians.

Vom kriege

Author: Carl von Clausewitz

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Military art and science

Page: N.A

View: 1103

War and Human Nature

Author: Stephen Peter Rosen

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400826365

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 3724

Why did President John F. Kennedy choose a strategy of confrontation during the Cuban missile crisis even though his secretary of defense stated that the presence of missiles in Cuba made no difference? Why did large numbers of Iraqi troops surrender during the Gulf War even though they had been ordered to fight and were capable of doing so? Why did Hitler declare war on the United States knowing full well the power of that country? War and Human Nature argues that new findings about the way humans are shaped by their inherited biology may help provide answers to such questions. This seminal work by former Defense Department official Stephen Peter Rosen contends that human evolutionary history has affected the way we process the information we use to make decisions. The result is that human choices and calculations may be very different from those predicted by standard models of rational behavior. This notion is particularly true in the area of war and peace, Rosen contends. Human emotional arousal affects how people learn the lessons of history. For example, stress and distress influence people's views of the future, and testosterone levels play a role in human social conflict. This thought-provoking and timely work explores the mind that has emerged from the biological sciences over the last generation. In doing so, it helps shed new light on many persistent puzzles in the study of war.

Just Peace

How Wars Should End

Author: M. Fixdal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137092866

Category: Political Science

Page: 257

View: 8028

Drawing on many of the wars and peaces of recent decades, this book offers a persuasive new perspective on postwar justice. In her analysis wars of succession, wars for territory, and the political institutions that precede and follow wars, Fixdal explores the outer limits of the idea that it is worth paying almost any price for peace.

Ending Wars

Author: Feargal Cochrane

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745645178

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 1070

Many books have been written about war, but few have focused on how wars can be brought to an end. Wars are rarely inevitable however and this book is aimed at understanding how violent conflicts can be brought to a close through intervention, mediation and political negotiation. The simple premise underlying the book is that wars between states and wars within states are generally fought by rational people for particular political goals or perceived interests. War is better understood as a methodology rather than an ideology. When the context, issues and actors in these armed conflicts change then it is often possible to control, or even transform such violence. By bringing together a number of existing debates from peace and conflict research as well as scholars of international relations, the book examines the dynamic forces that lie behind the ending of wars and how these have changed over time. Examples are drawn from a wide range of armed conflicts to analyse the efforts that have been made to move from War-War to Jaw-Jaw, or more typically Jaw-War. Efforts at third-party intervention, mediation and political negotiation across a range of conflict zones from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa are discussed in full. Neither idealistic nor fatalistic, this book is a must-read for all students of international politics and security studies.

Stopping the Killing

How Civil Wars End

Author: Roy Licklider

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814750974

Category: History

Page: 366

View: 1520

Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Liberia, Somalia, Azerbaijan, El Salvador, Northern Ireland, Lebanon, Cambodia -- all provide bloody evidence that civil wars continue to have a powerful impact on the international scene. Because they tear at the very fabric of a society and pit countryman against countryman, civil wars are often the most brutal and difficult to extinguish -- witness the American Revolution. And yet, civil wars do inevitably end. England is no longer criss-crossed by warring armies representing York and Lancaster or King and Parliament. The French no longer kill one another over the divine right of kings. Argentines seem reconciled to living in a single state, rather than several. The ideologies of the Spanish Civil War now seem largely irrelevant. And the possibility of Southern secession is an issue long-buried in the American past. The question then begs itself: how do people who have been killing one another with considerable enthusiasm and success come together to form a common government? How can individuals and factions work together, politically and economically, with others who have killed their friends, parents, children and lovers? How are armed societies disarmed? What effect does a total military victory have on a lasting peace? In sum, how are civil societies constructed from civil violence and chaos? This is the central concern of Stopping the Killing. In this highly original and much needed volume, a distinguished group of experts on civil wars discuss both specific conflicts and broader theoretical issues. Individual chapters examine civil wars in Colombia, the Sudan, Yemen, America, Greece, and Nigeria, and analyze the causes of peace, the relationship between the battlefield and the negotiating table, and issues of settlement. An introduction and conclusion by the editor unify the volume. Contributors include: Jonathan Hartlyn (Univ. of North Carolina), Caroline Hartzell (Univ. of California, Davis), Jane E. Holl (U.S. Military Academy), John Iatrides (Southern Connecticut State University), James O'Connell (University of Bradford), Donald Rothchild (Univ. of California, Davis), Stephen John Stedman (Johns Hopkins Univ.), Robert Harrison Wagner (Univ. of Texas, Austin), Harvey Waterman (Rutgers Univ.), Manfred Wenner (Northern Illinois Univ.), and I. William Zartman (Johns Hopkins Univ.).

Sterblich sein

Was am Ende wirklich zählt. Über Würde, Autonomie und eine angemessene medizinische Versorgung

Author: Atul Gawande

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104035849

Category: Self-Help

Page: 336

View: 8307

Ein Buch über das Sterben, das das Leben lehrt Die Medizin scheint über Krankheit und Tod zu triumphieren, doch sterben wir so trostlos wie nie zuvor. Der Bestsellerautor und renommierte Arzt Atul Gawande schreibt in seinem beeindruckenden Buch über das, was am Ende unseres Lebens wirklich zählt. Ungewöhnlich offen spricht er darüber, was es bedeutet, alt zu werden, wie man mit Gebrechen und Krankheiten umgehen kann und was wir an unserem System ändern müssen, um unser Leben würdevoll zu Ende zu bringen. Ein mutiges und weises Buch eines großartigen Autors, voller Geschichten und eigener Erfahrungen, das uns hilft, die Geschichte unseres Lebens gut zu Ende zu erzählen. »Dieses Buch ist nicht nur weise und sehr bewegend, sondern gerade in unserer Zeit unbedingt notwendig und sehr aufschlussreich.« Oliver Sacks »Die medizinische Betreuung ist mehr auf Heilung ausgelegt als auf das Sterben. Dies ist Atuls Gawandes stärkstes und bewegendstes Buch.« Malcolm Gladwell

Exit West

Roman

Author: Mohsin Hamid

Publisher: Dumont Buchverlag

ISBN: 3832189645

Category: Fiction

Page: 224

View: 8570

In einer Welt, die aus den Fugen geraten ist, in einem muslimisch geprägten Land, das am Rande eines Bürgerkriegs steht, in einer Stadt, die namenlos bleibt, lernen sie sich kennen: Nadia und Saeed. Sie hat mit ihrer Familie gebrochen, fährt Motorrad, lebt säkular und trägt ihr dunkles Gewand nur als Schutz vor den Zudringlichkeiten fremder Männer. Er wohnt noch bei seinen Eltern, ist eher schüchtern und nimmt die Ausübung seiner Religion sehr ernst. Doch während die Stadt um sie herum in Flammen aufgeht, sich Anschläge häufen und die Sicherheitslage immer prekärer wird, finden die beiden zusammen. Sie wollen eine gemeinsame Zukunft, in Freiheit. Und da sind diese Gerüchte über Türen, die diejenigen, die sie passieren, an ferne Orte bringen können. Doch den Weg durch diese Türen muss man sich mit viel Geld erkaufen. Als die Gewalt weiter eskaliert, entscheiden sich Nadia und Saeed, diesen Schritt zu gehen. Sie lassen ihr Land und ihr altes Leben zurück ... ›Exit West‹ ist ein überaus berührender Roman, der sich mit den zentralen Themen unserer Zeit beschäftigt: Flucht und Migration. Mohsin Hamid beweist, dass Literatur poetisch und zugleich politisch sein kann. Mit diesem »fesselnden Roman« (New York Times) steht Mohsin Hamid auf der Longlist des diesjährigen Man Booker Preises.

Glaube - Freiheit - Diktatur in Europa und den USA

Festschrift für Gerhard Besier zum 60. Geburtstag

Author: Katarzyna Stokłosa,Gerhard Besier,Andrea Strübund

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783525350898

Category: History

Page: 894

View: 7963

Das Werk des (Kirchen)Historikers, Theologen und Psychologen Gerhard Besier ist von geradezu enzyklopädischer Breite und belegt seine wissenschaftliche Intensität und intellektuelle Leidenschaft. Die hier versammelten Beiträge seiner zahlreichen Weggefährten und Schüler widmen sich den drei Schwerpunkten seiner akademischen Arbeit: der historischen Theologie in praktischer, systematischer und ökumenischer Perspektive, den religiösen Minderheiten und der rechtsstaatlichen Ordnung sowie der europäischen und nordamerikanischen Zeitgeschichte.