Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems, Third Edition

Author: Robert W. Proctor,Trisha Van Zandt

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482229595

Category: Computers

Page: 676

View: 2623

Recently, there have been a number of advances in technology, including in mobile devices, globalization of companies, display technologies and healthcare, all of which require significant input and evaluation from human factors specialists. Accordingly, this textbook has been completely updated, with some chapters folded into other chapters and new chapters added where needed. The text continues to fill the need for a textbook that bridges the gap between the conceptual and empirical foundations of the field.

Skill Acquisition and Training

Achieving Expertise in Simple and Complex Tasks

Author: Addie Johnson,Robert W. Proctor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315531631

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 388

View: 6187

Skill Acquisition and Training describes the building blocks of cognitive, motor, and teamwork skills, and the factors to take into account in training them. The basic processes of perception, cognition and action that provide the foundation for understanding skilled performance are discussed in the context of complex task requirements, individual differences, and extreme environmental demands. The role of attention in perceiving, selecting, and becoming aware of information, in learning new information, and in performance is described in the context of specific skills. A theme throughout this book is that much learning is implicit; the types of knowledge and relations that can profitably be learned implicitly and the conditions under which this learning benefits performance are discussed. The question of whether skill acquisition in cognitive domains shares underlying mechanisms with the acquisition of perceptual and motor skills is also addressed with a view to identifying commonalities that allow for widely applicable, general theories of skill acquisition. Because the complexity of real-world environments puts demands on the individual to adapt to new circumstances, the question of how skills research can be applied to organizational training contexts is an important one. To address this, this book dedicates much content to practical applications, covering such issues as how training needs can be captured with task and job analyses and how to maximize training transfer by taking trainee self-efficacy and goal orientation into account. This comprehensive yet readable textbook is optimized for students of cognitive psychology looking to understand the intricacies of skill acquisition.

Mind, Machine and Morality

Toward a Philosophy of Human-Technology Symbiosis

Author: Peter A. Hancock

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351917455

Category: Computers

Page: 202

View: 6551

Technology is our conduit of power. In our modern world, technology is the gatekeeper deciding who shall have and who shall have not. Either technology works for you or you work for technology. It shapes the human race just as much as we shape it. But where is this symbiosis going? Who provides the directions, the intentions, the goals of this human-machine partnership? Such decisions do not derive from the creators of technology who are enmeshed in their individual innovations. They neither come from our social leaders who possess only sufficient technical understanding to react to innovations, not to anticipate or direct their progress. Neither is there evidence of some omnipotent 'invisible hand,' the simple fact is that no one is directing this enterprise. In Mind, Machine and Morality, Peter Hancock asks questions about this insensate progress and has the temerity to suggest some cognate answers. He argues for the unbreakable symbiosis of purpose and process, and examines the dangerous possibilities that emerge when science and purpose meet. Historically, this work is a modern-day child of Bacon's hope for the 'Great Instauration.' However, unlike its forebear, the focus here is on human-machine systems. The emphasis centers on the conception that the active, extensive face of modern philosophy is technology. Whatever we are to become is bound up not only in our biology but critically in our technology also. And to achieve rational progress we need to articulate manifest purpose. This book is one step along the purposive road. Drawing together his many seminal writings on human-machine interaction and adapting these works specifically for this collection, Peter Hancock provides real food for thought, delighting readers with his unique philosophical perspective and outstanding insights. This is theoretical work of the highest order and will open minds accordingly.

Drift into Failure

From Hunting Broken Components to Understanding Complex Systems

Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351942913

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 234

View: 5680

What does the collapse of sub-prime lending have in common with a broken jackscrew in an airliner’s tailplane? Or the oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico with the burn-up of Space Shuttle Columbia? These were systems that drifted into failure. While pursuing success in a dynamic, complex environment with limited resources and multiple goal conflicts, a succession of small, everyday decisions eventually produced breakdowns on a massive scale. We have trouble grasping the complexity and normality that gives rise to such large events. We hunt for broken parts, fixable properties, people we can hold accountable. Our analyses of complex system breakdowns remain depressingly linear, depressingly componential - imprisoned in the space of ideas once defined by Newton and Descartes. The growth of complexity in society has outpaced our understanding of how complex systems work and fail. Our technologies have gotten ahead of our theories. We are able to build things - deep-sea oil rigs, jackscrews, collateralized debt obligations - whose properties we understand in isolation. But in competitive, regulated societies, their connections proliferate, their interactions and interdependencies multiply, their complexities mushroom. This book explores complexity theory and systems thinking to understand better how complex systems drift into failure. It studies sensitive dependence on initial conditions, unruly technology, tipping points, diversity - and finds that failure emerges opportunistically, non-randomly, from the very webs of relationships that breed success and that are supposed to protect organizations from disaster. It develops a vocabulary that allows us to harness complexity and find new ways of managing drift.

Joint Cognitive Systems

Patterns in Cognitive Systems Engineering

Author: David D. Woods,Erik Hollnagel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420005684

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 232

View: 5566

Our fascination with new technologies is based on the assumption that more powerful automation will overcome human limitations and make our systems 'faster, better, cheaper,' resulting in simple, easy tasks for people. But how does new technology and more powerful automation change our work? Research in Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) looks at the intersection of people, technology, and work. What it has found is not stories of simplification through more automation, but stories of complexity and adaptation. When work changed through new technology, practitioners had to cope with new complexities and tighter constraints. They adapted their strategies and the artifacts to work around difficulties and accomplish their goals as responsible agents. The surprise was that new powers had transformed work, creating new roles, new decisions, and new vulnerabilities. Ironically, more autonomous machines have created the requirement for more sophisticated forms of coordination across people, and across people and machines, to adapt to new demands and pressures. This book synthesizes these emergent Patterns though stories about coordination and mis-coordination, resilience and brittleness, affordance and clumsiness in a variety of settings, from a hospital intensive care unit, to a nuclear power control room, to a space shuttle control center. The stories reveal how new demands make work difficult, how people at work adapt but get trapped by complexity, and how people at a distance from work oversimplify their perceptions of the complexities, squeezing practitioners. The authors explore how CSE observes at the intersection of people, technology, and work, how CSE abstracts patterns behind the surface details and wide variations, and how CSE discovers promising new directions to help people cope with complexities. The stories of CSE show that one key to well-adapted work is the ability to be prepared to be surprised. Are you ready?

Behind Human Error

Author: David D. Woods,Sidney Dekker,Richard Cook,Leila Johannesen,Nadine Sarter

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1317175530

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 3762

Human error is cited over and over as a cause of incidents and accidents. The result is a widespread perception of a 'human error problem', and solutions are thought to lie in changing the people or their role in the system. For example, we should reduce the human role with more automation, or regiment human behavior by stricter monitoring, rules or procedures. But in practice, things have proved not to be this simple. The label 'human error' is prejudicial and hides much more than it reveals about how a system functions or malfunctions. This book takes you behind the human error label. Divided into five parts, it begins by summarising the most significant research results. Part 2 explores how systems thinking has radically changed our understanding of how accidents occur. Part 3 explains the role of cognitive system factors - bringing knowledge to bear, changing mindset as situations and priorities change, and managing goal conflicts - in operating safely at the sharp end of systems. Part 4 studies how the clumsy use of computer technology can increase the potential for erroneous actions and assessments in many different fields of practice. And Part 5 tells how the hindsight bias always enters into attributions of error, so that what we label human error actually is the result of a social and psychological judgment process by stakeholders in the system in question to focus on only a facet of a set of interacting contributors. If you think you have a human error problem, recognize that the label itself is no explanation and no guide to countermeasures. The potential for constructive change, for progress on safety, lies behind the human error label.

Introduction to Complexity and Complex Systems

Author: Robert B. Northrop

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439894981

Category: Medical

Page: 551

View: 668

The boundaries between simple and complicated, and complicated and complex system designations are fuzzy and debatable, even using quantitative measures of complexity. However, if you are a biomedical engineer, a biologist, physiologist, economist, politician, stock market speculator, or politician, you have encountered complex systems. Furthermore, your success depends on your ability to successfully interact with and manage a variety of complex systems. In order not to be blindsided by unexpected results, we need a systematic, comprehensive way of analyzing, modeling, and simulating complex systems to predict non-anticipated outcomes. In its engaging first chapters, the book introduces complex systems, Campbell's Law, and the Law of Unintended Consequences, and mathematics necessary for conversations in complex systems. Subsequent chapters illustrate concepts via commonly studied biological mechanisms. The final chapters focus on higher-level complexity problems, and introduce complexity in economic systems. Designed as a reference for biologists and biological engineers, Introduction to Complexity and Complex Systems lends itself to use in a classroom course to introduce advanced students studying biomedical engineering, biophysics, or physiology to complex systems. Engaging and illustrative, this book aids scientists and decision makers in managing biological complexity and complex systems.

Human Factors in the Chemical and Process Industries

Making it Work in Practice

Author: Janette Edmonds,The Keil Centre

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128038780

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 526

View: 8538

Human Factors in the Chemical and Process Industries: Making it Work in Practice is a comprehensive overview of human factors within this sector, focusing on the practical application. It has been written by acknowledged industry experts from the Keil Centre, which is a leading practice of chartered ergonomics and human factors specialists, chartered safety specialists, registered occupational psychologists, and registered clinical psychologists. The book was inspired by the international human factors training course run by the Keil Centre with the IChemE, which has reached four continents across the world. The book is written for those who want a comprehensive overview of the subject, focusing on the practical application of human factors. It has been written for safety professionals, engineers and operational disciplines within industry, and those aspiring to these disciplines, who either deal with human factors issues or any aspect of the ‘human element’ in their core role. The book explains what ‘human factors’ is about and how human factors issues are best managed from a practical perspective. It will help readers develop a greater understanding of the area and how to establish more effective solutions for human factors related issues. Provides comprehensive coverage of the most relevant human factors within this sector, with succinct overviews of each topic Uses case studies and practical examples to illustrate topics and explains the material in a fully accessible, easy to understand style Written by a single team of eleven industry practitioners, drawing on the combined expertise of different human factors specialisms which are rarely comprehensively combined in a single resource

Set Phasers on Stun

And Other True Tales of Design, Technology, and Human Error

Author: Steven Michael Casey

Publisher: Aegean Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780963617880

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 251

View: 3513

Normal Accidents

Living with High Risk Technologies

Author: Charles Perrow

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400828494

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 464

View: 5570

Normal Accidents analyzes the social side of technological risk. Charles Perrow argues that the conventional engineering approach to ensuring safety--building in more warnings and safeguards--fails because systems complexity makes failures inevitable. He asserts that typical precautions, by adding to complexity, may help create new categories of accidents. (At Chernobyl, tests of a new safety system helped produce the meltdown and subsequent fire.) By recognizing two dimensions of risk--complex versus linear interactions, and tight versus loose coupling--this book provides a powerful framework for analyzing risks and the organizations that insist we run them. The first edition fulfilled one reviewer's prediction that it "may mark the beginning of accident research." In the new afterword to this edition Perrow reviews the extensive work on the major accidents of the last fifteen years, including Bhopal, Chernobyl, and the Challenger disaster. The new postscript probes what the author considers to be the "quintessential 'Normal Accident'" of our time: the Y2K computer problem.

Human Factors in Aviation

Author: Eduardo Salas,Florian Jentsch,Dan Maurino

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080923024

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 744

View: 2041

This edited textbook is a fully updated and expanded version of the highly successful first edition of Human Factors in Aviation. Written for the widespread aviation community - students, engineers, scientists, pilots, managers, government personnel, etc., HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors in aircraft design, and vehicles and systems. The new editors offer essential breath of experience on aviation human factors from multiple perspectives (i.e. scientific research, regulation, funding agencies, technology, and implementation) as well as knowledge about the science. The contributors are experts in their fields. Topics carried over from the first edition are fully updated, several by new authors who are now at the fore of the field. New material - which represents 50% of the volume - focuses on the challenges facing aviation specialists today. One of the most significant developments in this decade has been NextGen, the Federal Aviation Administration's plan to modernize national airspace and to address the impact of air traffic growth by increasing airspace capacity and efficiency while simultaneously improving safety, environmental impacts and user access. NextGen issues are covered in full. Other new topics include: High Reliability Organizational Perspective, Situation Awareness & Workload in Aviation, Human Error Analysis, Human-System Risk Management, LOSA, NOSS and Unmanned Aircraft System. Comprehensive text with up-to-date synthesis of primary source material that does not need to be supplemented New edition thoroughly updated with 50% new material and full coverage of NexGen and other modern issues Instructor website with test bank and image collection makes this the only text offering ancillary support Liberal use of case examples exposes readers to real-world examples of dangers and solutions

Safety Differently

Human Factors for a New Era, Second Edition

Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482242001

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

View: 3858

The second edition of a bestseller, Safety Differently: Human Factors for a New Era is a complete update of Ten Questions About Human Error: A New View of Human Factors and System Safety. Today, the unrelenting pace of technology change and growth of complexity calls for a different kind of safety thinking. Automation and new technologies have resulted in new roles, decisions, and vulnerabilities whilst practitioners are also faced with new levels of complexity, adaptation, and constraints. It is becoming increasingly apparent that conventional approaches to safety and human factors are not equipped to cope with these challenges and that a new era in safety is necessary. In addition to new material covering changes in the field during the past decade, the book takes a new approach to discussing safety. The previous edition looked critically at the answers human factors would typically provide and compared/contrasted them with current research and insights at that time. The edition explains how to turn safety from a bureaucratic accountability back into an ethical responsibility for those who do our dangerous work, and how to embrace the human factor not as a problem to control, but as a solution to harness. See What’s in the New Edition: New approach reflects changes in the field Updated coverage of system safety and technology changes Latest human factors/ergonomics research applicable to safety Organizations, companies, and industries are faced with new demands and pressures resulting from the dynamics and nature of the modern marketplace and from the development and introduction of new technologies. This new era calls for a different kind of safety thinking, a thinking that sees people as the source of diversity, insight, creativity, and wisdom about safety, not as the source of risk that undermines an otherwise safe system. It calls for a kind of thinking that is quicker to trust people and mistrust bureaucracy, and that is more committed to actually preventing harm than to looking good. This book takes a forward-looking and assertively progressive view that prepares you to resolve current safety issues in any field.

The Science of Open Spaces

Theory and Practice for Conserving Large, Complex Systems

Author: Charles G. Curtin

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 159726993X

Category: Nature

Page: 255

View: 9594

Tour the age of dinosaurs with this colorful, authoritative, easy-to-read field guide.

Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems

Author: John L. Campbell

Publisher: Transportation Research Board

ISBN: 0309258162

Category: Human engineering

Page: N.A

View: 8861

"This report completes and updates the first edition of NCHRP Report 600: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems (HFG), which was published previously in three collections. The HFG contains guidelines that provide human factors principles and findings for consideration by, and is a resource document for, highway designers, traffic engineers, and other safety practitioners."--Foreword.

Complexity and Postmodernism

Understanding Complex Systems

Author: Paul Cilliers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134743297

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 3165

In Complexity and Postmodernism, Paul Cilliers explores the idea of complexity in the light of contemporary perspectives from philosophy and science. Cilliers offers us a unique approach to understanding complexity and computational theory by integrating postmodern theory (like that of Derrida and Lyotard) into his discussion. Complexity and Postmodernism is an exciting and an original book that should be read by anyone interested in gaining a fresh understanding of complexity, postmodernism and connectionism.

Aid on the Edge of Chaos

Rethinking International Cooperation in a Complex World

Author: Ben Ramalingam

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199578028

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 440

View: 5386

Aid has become a tangle of donors and recipients, so unwieldy that it is in danger of collapse. This ground-breaking book presents fresh thinking that transcends the 'more' verses 'less' arguments. Drawing on complexity theory it shows how aid could be transformed into a truly dynamic form of global cooperation fit for the twenty-first century.

Usability of Complex Information Systems

Evaluation of User Interaction

Author: Michael Albers,Brian Still

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439828953

Category: Computers

Page: 399

View: 653

Why do enterprise systems have complicated search pages, when Google has a single search box that works better? Why struggle with an expense reimbursement system that is not as easy as home accounting software? Although this seems like comparing apples to oranges, as information and communication technologies increasingly reach into every industry the demand for easy-to-use work tools continues to grow. An exploration of cutting-edge approaches for evaluating the usability of complex user interaction, Usability of Complex Information Systems: Evaluation of User Interaction focuses on improving design and communicating content to the end user. The book continues the conversation about the evolution of usability, asking how we can design and evaluate these complex systems and the complex work they support. It describes and analyzes approaches to teaching, testing, analyzing, or managing usability studies—approaches that involve technical communicators making novel contributions to how we think about and evaluate increasingly complex systems. The book contains case studies on different types of complexity, including: A complex work environment, requiring collaboration among different people or a goal sustained over time, and often in the face of distractions, interruptions, and planned pauses A complex information context, one with no single answer, where the data changes dynamically or where the best answer may rely on other aspects of a fluid environment A complex technology, in which people use many different applications in their work and collaboration A complex topic, requiring advanced technical or domain knowledge Even systems that seem simple are, in fact, complex. The shopping interface for an e-commerce system may not be complex, but the databases, business processes, and logistics behind it certainly are. The examination of different aspects of designing and examining complexity presented in this book brings you a step further in developing a deeper understanding of what it takes to make complex systems work.

Intelligent Adaptive Systems

An Interaction-Centered Design Perspective

Author: Ming Hou,Simon Banbury,Catherine Burns

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466517247

Category: Computers

Page: 331

View: 8047

As ubiquitous as the atmosphere, intelligent adaptive systems (IASs) surround us in our daily lives. When designed well, these systems sense users and their environments so that they can provide support in a manner that is not only responsive to the evolving situation, but unnoticed by the user. A synthesis of recent research and developments on IASs from the human factors (HF) and human–computer interaction (HCI) domains, Intelligent Adaptive Systems: An Interaction-Centered Design Perspective provides integrated design guidance and recommendations for researchers and system developers. The book explores a recognized lack of integration between the HF and HCI research communities, which has led to inconsistencies between the research approaches adopted, and a lack of exploitation of research from one field by the other. The authors integrate theories and methodologies from these domains to provide design recommendations for human–machine developers. They then establish design guidance through the review of conceptual frameworks, analytical methodologies, and design processes for intelligent adaptive systems. The book draws on case studies from the military, medical, and distance learning domains to illustrate intelligent system design to examine lessons learned. Outlining an interaction-centered perspective for designing an IAS, the book details methodologies for understanding human work in complex environments and offers understanding about why and how optimizing human–machine interaction should be central to the design of IASs. The authors present an analytical and design methodology as well as an implementation strategy that helps you choose the proper design framework for your needs.

Human Brain Function

Author: Karl J. Friston,Christopher D. Frith,Raymond J. Dolan,Cathy J. Price,Semir Zeki,John T. Ashburner,William D. Penny

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080472959

Category: Medical

Page: 1144

View: 6028

This updated second edition provides the state of the art perspective of the theory, practice and application of modern non-invasive imaging methods employed in exploring the structural and functional architecture of the normal and diseased human brain. Like the successful first edition, it is written by members of the Functional Imaging Laboratory - the Wellcome Trust funded London lab that has contributed much to the development of brain imaging methods and their application in the last decade. This book should excite and intrigue anyone interested in the new facts about the brain gained from neuroimaging and also those who wish to participate in this area of brain science. * Represents an almost entirely new book from 1st edition, covering the rapid advances in methods and in understanding of how human brains are organized * Reviews major advances in cognition, perception, emotion and action * Introduces novel experimental designs and analytical techniques made possible with fMRI, including event-related designs and non-linear analysis

The Collapse of Complex Societies

Author: Joseph Tainter

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521386739

Category: Social Science

Page: 250

View: 9991

Dr Tainter describes nearly two dozen cases of collapse and reviews more than 2000 years of explanations. He then develops a new and far-reaching theory.