Hybrid

The History and Science of Plant Breeding

Author: Noel Kingsbury

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226437051

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 1947

Disheartened by the shrink-wrapped, Styrofoam-packed state of contemporary supermarket fruits and vegetables, many shoppers hark back to a more innocent time, to visions of succulent red tomatoes plucked straight from the vine, gleaming orange carrots pulled from loamy brown soil, swirling heads of green lettuce basking in the sun. With Hybrid, Noel Kingsbury reveals that even those imaginary perfect foods are themselves far from anything that could properly be called natural; rather, they represent the end of a millennia-long history of selective breeding and hybridization. Starting his story at the birth of agriculture, Kingsbury traces the history of human attempts to make plants more reliable, productive, and nutritious—a story that owes as much to accident and error as to innovation and experiment. Drawing on historical and scientific accounts, as well as a rich trove of anecdotes, Kingsbury shows how scientists, amateur breeders, and countless anonymous farmers and gardeners slowly caused the evolutionary pressures of nature to be supplanted by those of human needs—and thus led us from sparse wild grasses to succulent corn cobs, and from mealy, white wild carrots to the juicy vegetables we enjoy today. At the same time, Kingsbury reminds us that contemporary controversies over the Green Revolution and genetically modified crops are not new; plant breeding has always had a political dimension. A powerful reminder of the complicated and ever-evolving relationship between humans and the natural world, Hybrid will give readers a thoughtful new perspective on—and a renewed appreciation of—the cereal crops, vegetables, fruits, and flowers that are central to our way of life.

Hybrid

The History and Science of Plant Breeding

Author: Noel Kingsbury

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226437132

Category: Science

Page: 509

View: 6359

Disheartened by the shrink-wrapped, Styrofoam-packed state of contemporary supermarket fruits and vegetables, many shoppers hark back to a more innocent time, to visions of succulent red tomatoes plucked straight from the vine, gleaming orange carrots pulled from loamy brown soil, swirling heads of green lettuce basking in the sun. With Hybrid, Noel Kingsbury reveals that even those imaginary perfect foods are themselves far from anything that could properly be called natural; rather, they represent the end of a millennia-long history of selective breeding and hybridization. Starting his story at the birth of agriculture, Kingsbury traces the history of human attempts to make plants more reliable, productive, and nutritious—a story that owes as much to accident and error as to innovation and experiment. Drawing on historical and scientific accounts, as well as a rich trove of anecdotes, Kingsbury shows how scientists, amateur breeders, and countless anonymous farmers and gardeners slowly caused the evolutionary pressures of nature to be supplanted by those of human needs—and thus led us from sparse wild grasses to succulent corn cobs, and from mealy, white wild carrots to the juicy vegetables we enjoy today. At the same time, Kingsbury reminds us that contemporary controversies over the Green Revolution and genetically modified crops are not new; plant breeding has always had a political dimension. A powerful reminder of the complicated and ever-evolving relationship between humans and the natural world, Hybrid will give readers a thoughtful new perspective on—and a renewed appreciation of—the cereal crops, vegetables, fruits, and flowers that are central to our way of life.

History of Plant Breeding

Author: Rolf H. J. Schlegel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351588958

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 8799

While there has been great progress in the development of plant breeding over the last decade, the selection of suitable plants for human consumption began over 13,000 years ago. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the development of crop improvement methods over centuries. It features an extensive historical treatment of development, including influential individuals in the field, plant cultivation in various regions, techniques used in the Old World, and cropping in ancient America. It covers modern advances in the twentieth century including hybrid breeding, biotechnological improvement, and genetic manipulation.

Plant Breeding for the Home Gardener

How to Create Unique Vegetables and Flowers

Author: Joseph Tychonievich

Publisher: Timber Press

ISBN: 1604695374

Category: Gardening

Page: 216

View: 5594

Brighter zinnias, fragrant carnations, snappier green beans Plant Breeding for the Home Gardener makes it easier than ever to breed and grow your own varieties of vegetables and flowers. This comprehensive and accessible guide explains how to decide what to breed, provides simple explanations on how to cross plants, and features a basic primer on genetics and advanced techniques. Case studies provide breeding examples for favorite plants like daffodils, hollyhocks, roses, sweet corn, and tomatoes.

The Garden of Invention

Luther Burbank and the Business of Breeding Plants

Author: Jane S. Smith

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101046227

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 8987

The wide-ranging and delightful history of celebrated plant breeder Luther Burbank and the business of farm and garden in early twentieth- century America At no other time in history has there been more curiosity or concern about the food we eat-and genetically modified foods, in particular, have become both pervasive and suspect. A century ago, however, Luther Burbank's blight-resistant potatoes, white blackberries, and plumcots-a plum-apricot hybrid-were celebrated as triumphs in the best tradition of American ingenuity and perseverance. In his experimental grounds in Santa Rosa, California, Burbank bred and cross-bred edible and ornamental plants-for both home gardens and commercial farms-until they were bigger, hardier, more beautiful, and more productive than ever before. A fascinating portrait of an American original, The Garden of Invention is also a colorful and engrossing tale of the intersection of gardening, science and business in the years between the Civil War and the Great Depression.

Experiments in Plant Hybridisation

Author: Gregor Mendel

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 1605202576

Category: Science

Page: 52

View: 9938

Experiments which in previous years were made with ornamental plants have already afforded evidence that the hybrids, as a rule, are not exactly intermediate between the parental species. With some of the more striking characters, those, for instance, which relate to the form and size of the leaves, the pubescence of the several parts, etc., the intermediate, indeed, is nearly always to be seen; in other cases, however, one of the two parental characters is so preponderant that it is difficult, or quite impossible, to detect the other in the hybrid. from 4. The Forms of the Hybrid One of the most influential and important scientific works ever written, the 1865 paper Experiments in Plant Hybridisation was all but ignored in its day, and its author, Austrian priest and scientist GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL (18221884), died before seeing the dramatic long-term impact of his work, which was rediscovered at the turn of the 20th century and is now considered foundational to modern genetics. A simple, eloquent description of his 18561863 study of the inheritance of traits in pea plantsMendel analyzed 29,000 of themthis is essential reading for biology students and readers of science history. Cosimo presents this compact edition from the 1909 translation by British geneticist WILLIAM BATESON (18611926).

The Life of a Leaf

Author: Steven Vogel

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226859398

Category: Nature

Page: 303

View: 6983

In its essence, science is a way of looking at and thinking about the world. In The Life of a Leaf, Steven Vogel illuminates this approach, using the humble leaf as a model. Whether plant or person, every organism must contend with its immediate physical environment, a world that both limits what organisms can do and offers innumerable opportunities for evolving fascinating ways of challenging those limits. Here, Vogel explains these interactions, examining through the example of the leaf the extraordinary designs that enable life to adapt to its physical world. In Vogel’s account, the leaf serves as a biological everyman, an ordinary and ubiquitous living thing that nonetheless speaks volumes about our environment as well as its own. Thus in exploring the leaf’s world, Vogel simultaneously explores our own. A companion website with demonstrations and teaching tools can be found here: http://www.press.uchicago.edu/sites/vogel/index.html

The Triumph of Seeds

How Grains, Nuts, Kernels, Pulses, and Pips Conquered the Plant Kingdom and Shaped Human History

Author: Thor Hanson

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465048722

Category: Nature

Page: 288

View: 7422

"The genius of Hanson's fascinating, inspiring, and entertaining book stems from the fact that it is not about how all kinds of things grow from seeds; it is about the seeds themselves." --Mark Kurlansky, New York Times Book Review We live in a world of seeds. From our morning toast to the cotton in our clothes, they are quite literally the stuff and staff of life: supporting diets, economies, and civilizations around the globe. Just as the search for nutmeg and pepper drove the Age of Discovery, coffee beans fueled the Enlightenment and cottonseed sparked the Industrial Revolution. Seeds are fundamental objects of beauty, evolutionary wonders, and simple fascinations. Yet, despite their importance, seeds are often seen as commonplace, their extraordinary natural and human histories overlooked. Thanks to this stunning new book, they can be overlooked no more. This is a book of knowledge, adventure, and wonder, spun by an award-winning writer with both the charm of a fireside story-teller and the hard-won expertise of a field biologist. A fascinating scientific adventure, it is essential reading for anyone who loves to see a plant grow.

Plant Breeding: Past, Present and Future

Author: John E. Bradshaw

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319232851

Category: Science

Page: 693

View: 6646

This book aims to help plant breeders by reviewing past achievements, currently successful practices, and emerging methods and techniques. Theoretical considerations are also presented to strike the right balance between being as simple as possible but as complex as necessary. The United Nations predicts that the global human population will continue rising to 9.0 billion by 2050. World food production will need to increase between 70-100 per cent in just 40 years. First generation bio-fuels are also using crops and cropland to produce energy rather than food. In addition, land area used for agriculture may remain static or even decrease as a result of degradation and climate change, despite more land being theoretically available, unless crops can be bred which tolerate associated abiotic stresses. Lastly, it is unlikely that steps can be taken to mitigate all of the climate change predicted to occur by 2050, and beyond, and hence adaptation of farming systems and crop production will be required to reduce predicted negative effects on yields that will occur without crop adaptation. Substantial progress will therefore be required in bridging the yield gap between what is currently achieved per unit of land and what should be possible in future, with the best farming methods and best storage and transportation of food, given the availability of suitably adapted cultivars, including adaptation to climate change. My book is divided into four parts: Part I is an historical introduction; Part II deals with the origin of genetic variation by mutation and recombination of DNA; Part III explains how the mating system of a crop species determines the genetic structure of its landraces; Part IV considers the three complementary options for future progress: use of sexual reproduction in further conventional breeding, base broadening and introgression; mutation breeding; and genetically modified crops.

A History of Weed Science in the United States

Author: Robert L Zimdahl

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0123815029

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 7086

It is important that scientists think about and know their history - where they came from, what they have accomplished, and how these may affect the future. Weed scientists, similar to scientists in many technological disciplines, have not sought historical reflection. The technological world asks for results and for progress. Achievement is important not, in general, the road that leads to achievement. What was new yesterday is routine today, and what is described as revolutionary today may be considered antiquated tomorrow. Weed science has been strongly influenced by technology developed by supporting industries, subsequently employed in research and, ultimately, used by farmers and crop growers. The science has focused on results and progress. Scientists have been--and the majority remain--problem solvers whose solutions have evolved as rapidly as have the new weed problems needing solutions. In a more formal sense, weed scientists have been adherents of the instrumental ideology of modern science. That is an analysis of their work, and their orientation reveals the strong emphasis on practical, useful knowledge; on know how. The opposite, and frequently complementary orientation, that has been missing from weed science is an emphasis on contemplative knowledge; that is, knowing why. This book expands on and analyzes how these orientations have affected weed science’s development. The first analytical history of weed science to be written Compares the development of weed science, entomology and plant pathology Identifies the primary founders of weed science and describes their role

Hidden Natural Histories: Trees

Author: Noel Kingsbury

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780226282213

Category: Nature

Page: 224

View: 5531

Civilization has long been rooted in trees. They have warmed hearths, framed boats for ocean voyaging and poles for fishing those waters, hardwoods have provided shelters, and the strength of weapons in warfare. Oaks were worshipped by Druids, redwoods were a critical part of Native American ritual, as baobabs are to African tribal life and the ginkgo is to Chinese myth. And yet in spite of, or because of, the strength and fortitude of trees, virgin forests the world over have been cleared for human consumption. In the wake of such change, in the spirited growth of heritage tree appreciation the world over,Hidden Natural Histories: Trees explains the traditional significance of 100 trees and describes their natural, culinary, medicinal, cosmetic, magical, and other properties. A combination of archival and original illustrations show tree forms and characters, and make for an easy navigation. One can either enjoy the whole forest with the trees, or tour the book one sentinel redwood at a time.

Maize and Grace

Africa's Encounter with a New World Crop, 1500-2000

Author: James MCCANN,James McCann

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674040740

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 2735

Sometime around 1500 A.D., an African farmer planted a maize seed imported from the New World. That act set in motion the remarkable saga of one of the world's most influential crops--one that would transform the future of Africa and of the Atlantic world. The recent spread of maize has been alarmingly fast, with implications largely overlooked by the media and policymakers. McCann's compelling history offers insight into the profound influence of a single crop on African culture, health, technological innovation, and the future of the world's food supply.

Genetic Improvement of Vegetable Crops

Author: G. Kalloo,B.O. Bergh

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0080984665

Category: Gardening

Page: 846

View: 1188

Genetic improvement has played a vital role in enhancing the yield potential of vegetable crops. There are numerous vegetable crops grown worldwide and variable degrees of research on genetics, breeding and biotechnology have been conducted on these crops. This book brings together the results of such research on crops grouped as alliums, crucifers, cucurbits, leaf crops, tropical underground and miscellaneous. Written by eminent specialists, each chapter concentrates on one crop and covers cytology, genetics, breeding objectives, germplasm resources, reproductive biology, selection breeding methods, heterosis and hybrid seed production, quality and processing attributes and technology. This unique collection will be of great value to students, scientists and vegetable breeders as it provides a reference guide on genetics, breeding and biotechnology of a wide range of vegetable crops.

Palma Africana

Author: Michael Taussig

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022651627X

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 3559

“It is the contemporary elixir from which all manner of being emerges, the metamorphic sublime, an alchemist’s dream.” So begins Palma Africana, the latest attempt by anthropologist Michael Taussig to make sense of the contemporary moment. But to what elixir does he refer? Palm oil. Saturating everything from potato chips to nail polish, palm oil has made its way into half of the packaged goods in our supermarkets. By 2020, world production will be double what it was in 2000. In Colombia, palm oil plantations are covering over one-time cornucopias of animal, bird, and plant life. Over time, they threaten indigenous livelihoods and give rise to abusive labor conditions and major human rights violations. The list of entwined horrors—climatic, biological, social—is long. But Taussig takes no comfort in our usual labels: “habitat loss,” “human rights abuses,” “climate change.” The shock of these words has passed; nowadays it is all a blur. Hence, Taussig’s keen attention to words and writing throughout this work. He takes cues from precursors’ ruminations: Roland Barthes’s suggestion that trees form an alphabet in which the palm tree is the loveliest; William Burroughs’s retort to critics that for him words are alive like animals and don’t like to be kept in pages—cut them and the words are let free. Steeped in a lifetime of philosophical and ethnographic exploration, Palma Africana undercuts the banality of the destruction taking place all around us and offers a penetrating vision of the global condition. Richly illustrated and written with experimental verve, this book is Taussig’s Tristes Tropiques for the twenty-first century.

Field Testing Genetically Modified Organisms

Framework for Decisions

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on Scientific Evaluation of the Introduction of Genetically Modified Microorganisms and Plants into the Environment

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309040761

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 3613

Potential benefits from the use of genetically modified organisms--such as bacteria that biodegrade environmental pollutants--are enormous. To minimize the risks of releasing such organisms into the environment, regulators are working to develop rational safeguards. This volume provides a comprehensive examination of the issues surrounding testing these organisms in the laboratory or the field and a practical framework for making decisions about organism release. Beginning with a discussion of classical versus molecular techniques for genetic alteration, the volume is divided into major sections for plants and microorganisms and covers the characteristics of altered organisms, past experience with releases, and such specific issues as whether plant introductions could promote weediness. The executive summary presents major conclusions and outlines the recommended decision-making framework.

Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Oilseed Brassicas

Author: Dave Edwards,Jacqueline Batley,Isobel Parkin,Chittaranjan Kole

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439883351

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 6672

The book describes the history of Brassica oilseed crops, introduces the Brassica genome, its evolution, diversity, classical genetic studies, and breeding. It also delves into molecular genetic linkage and physical maps, progress with genome sequencing initiatives, mutagenesis approaches for trait improvement, proteomics, metabolomics, and bioinformatics. The concluding portion provides detailed methods for whole genome marker assisted breeding and the genetics and genomics of important traits including disease resistance, herbivory, insect and abiotic stress resistance, and discusses the future prospects for Brassica improvement through genomics. This volume provides a state-of-the-moment view of current Brassica genetics, genomics, and breeding research, which is the foundation for the continued understanding of oilseed Brassica species, their genomes, evolution, and further potential as important food and biofuel crops.

Temperate Crop Science and Breeding

Ecological and Genetic Studies

Author: Sarra Abramovna Bekuzarova,Nina Anatolievna Bome,Anatoly Ivanovich Opalko,Larissa I. Weisfeld

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1771882298

Category: Science

Page: 610

View: 1593

This new collection covers a wide variety of research on the ecological aspects of crops growing under stress conditions due to atmospheric changes and pollution and the impact on both plant and human health. The book provides research that will help to find ways to overcome adverse abiotic environmental factors and unfavorable anthropogenic pressures on crop plants, which also eventually impact human health. Divided into six parts, leading authors from many institutes provide and share new knowledge gained from studies on ecological and genetic controls of plant resistance to various adverse environmental factors. Geneticists and breeders are creating new cultivars and hybrids of crops, which greatly expand the range of source material. The book includes a range of material on the biology, genetics, and breeding of crops, taking into account ecological and climatic conditions, with emphasis on the impact to humans. The main agricultural crops are studied: cereals, fodder crops, and horticultural plants. The chapters include the interaction of plant–soil–environment, ways of using plants as anticancer drugs, and other important problems and trends in agricultural and nature management. The role of different genetic and agronomical approaches to improving plant productivity and seasonal and profile dynamics of elements of soil acidity are considered. With the increasing demand and consumption of vegetables and fruits (by themselves or as additions to other foods), new agricultural methods are needed to overcome the deficit, and these new methods pose new concerns. The book includes: Plant breeding under adverse conditions of acid soils New studies in horticultural crop science Ecological peculiarities of particular regions and cytogenetic anomalies of the local human population Phenogenetic studies of cultivated plants and biological properties of the seeds Anthropogenic pressure on environmental and plant diversity Methods of evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative characters of selection samples The research found here will be valuable to agricultural engineers and others and is applicable at both regional and international levels.

Sunflower

Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization

Author: Enrique Martínez-Force,Nurhan T. Dunford,Joaquín J. Salas

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1630670626

Category: Science

Page: 728

View: 2253

This comprehensive reference delivers key information on all aspects of sunflower. With over 20 chapters, this book provides an extensive review of the latest developments in sunflower genetics, breeding, processing, quality, and utilization; including food, energy and industrial bioproduct applications. World-renowned experts in this field review U.S. and international practices, production, and processing aspects of sunflower. Presents seven chapters on improving sunflower production with insights on breeding and genetics; physiology and agronomy; common insect and bird pests; mutagenesis; and identifying and preventing diseases. Summarizes current knowledge of sunflower oil uses in food, oxididative stability, minor constituents, and lipids biosynthesis. Ideal reference for scientists, researchers, and students from across industry, academia, and government.

Plant Breeding, EPZ

Author: Kendall R. Lamkey

Publisher: LibreDigital

ISBN: 9780470752692

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 392

View: 1756

This volume reviews the status of the major challenges, approaches, and accomplishments of plant breeding programs from around the world. This volume originated from the Arnel R. Hallauer International Symposium held in Mexico City in 2003, and represents contributions from an international field of leading plant breeding researchers. The coverage is broad and comprehensive and provides the latest developments affecting grains, trees, fruits, nuts, and forage crops. Plant Breeding: The Arnel R. Hallauer International Symposium is an essential resource for agronomists, horticulturists, and plan.