Hybrid

The History and Science of Plant Breeding

Author: Noel Kingsbury

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226437051

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 2290

Disheartened by the shrink-wrapped, Styrofoam-packed state of contemporary supermarket fruits and vegetables, many shoppers hark back to a more innocent time, to visions of succulent red tomatoes plucked straight from the vine, gleaming orange carrots pulled from loamy brown soil, swirling heads of green lettuce basking in the sun. With Hybrid, Noel Kingsbury reveals that even those imaginary perfect foods are themselves far from anything that could properly be called natural; rather, they represent the end of a millennia-long history of selective breeding and hybridization. Starting his story at the birth of agriculture, Kingsbury traces the history of human attempts to make plants more reliable, productive, and nutritious—a story that owes as much to accident and error as to innovation and experiment. Drawing on historical and scientific accounts, as well as a rich trove of anecdotes, Kingsbury shows how scientists, amateur breeders, and countless anonymous farmers and gardeners slowly caused the evolutionary pressures of nature to be supplanted by those of human needs—and thus led us from sparse wild grasses to succulent corn cobs, and from mealy, white wild carrots to the juicy vegetables we enjoy today. At the same time, Kingsbury reminds us that contemporary controversies over the Green Revolution and genetically modified crops are not new; plant breeding has always had a political dimension. A powerful reminder of the complicated and ever-evolving relationship between humans and the natural world, Hybrid will give readers a thoughtful new perspective on—and a renewed appreciation of—the cereal crops, vegetables, fruits, and flowers that are central to our way of life.

Triumph und Tragödie

Stalin und die Wissenschaftler

Author: Simon Ings

Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe

ISBN: 3455003028

Category: Social Science

Page: 544

View: 3062

»Sozialismus ist Wissenschaft«, proklamierte Joseph Stalin, der sich selbst zum ersten Wissenschaftler des Landes stilisierte. Unter seiner Herrschaft entstand der weltweit am besten finanzierte Forschungsapparat, gleichzeitig mussten Wissenschaftler um ihr Leben fürchten. Gestützt auf zahlreiche Dokumente zeichnet Simon Ings die Vereinnahmung der Wissenschaft durch den Sowjetstaat nach. Er erzählt von brillanten Forschern und ruchlosen Scharlatanen, von Visionären und Karrieristen, von großem Mut und ebenso großer Feigheit.

The Pecan

A History of America's Native Nut

Author: James McWilliams

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292749163

Category: Nature

Page: 178

View: 3813

Traces the historical and cultural paths of the pecan, while weaving American history, agricultural history, and science into the story.

Plant Breeding and Biotechnology

Societal Context and the Future of Agriculture

Author: Denis Murphy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139465570

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9829

This comprehensive 2007 survey of modern plant breeding traces its history from the earliest experiments at the dawn of the scientific revolution in the seventeenth century to the present day and the existence of high tech agribusiness. Murphy tells the story from the perspective of a scientist working in this field, offering a rationale and evidence-based insight into its development. Crop improvement is examined from both a scientific and socio-economic perspective and the ways in which these factors interact and impact on agricultural development are discussed, including debates on genetically-modified food. Murphy highlights concerns over the future of plant breeding, as well as potential options to enable us to meet the challenges of feeding the world in the 21st century. This thoroughly interdisciplinary and balanced account serves as an essential resource for everyone involved with plant breeding research, policy and funding, as well as those wishing to engage with current debates.

The Third Plate

Field Notes on the Future of Food

Author: Dan Barber

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1408706490

Category: Cooking

Page: 496

View: 1572

Based on ten years of surveying farming communities around the world, top New York chef Dan Barber's The Third Plate offers a radical new way of thinking about food that will heal the land and taste incredible. The 'first plate' was a classic meal centred on a large cut of meat with few vegetables. On the 'second plate', championed by the farm-to-table movement, meat is free-range and vegetables are locally sourced. It's better-tasting, and better for the planet, but the second plate's architecture is identical to that of the first. It, too, disrupts ecological balances, causing soil depletion and nutrient loss - it just isn't a sustainable way to farm or eat. The 'third plate' offers a solution: an integrated system of vegetable, cereal and livestock production that is fully supported - in fact, dictated - by what we choose to cook for dinner. The Third Plate is where good farming and good food intersect.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Genetik

Author: Rolf Knippers

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662535556

Category: Science

Page: 405

View: 1731

Genforschung, DNA, Gene und Genome, Genetik in Landwirtschaft und Medizin, in Erziehung und Psychologie - diese Begriffe sind nicht nur in der Fachwelt, sondern auch in den Feuilletons der Zeitungen, in Funk, Fernsehen und öffentlichen Debatten des 21. Jahrhunderts allgegenwärtig. Dabei ist durchaus nicht jedem bekannt oder bewusst, dass die Genetik eine relativ junge Wissenschaft ist und erst Anfang des vorigen Jahrhunderts Gestalt annahm. Der zentrale Begriff des Gens erhielt dabei im Laufe der Jahrzehnte bis heute ständig neue und andere Bedeutungen, oft befrachtet mit allerlei Unklarheiten und Ungenauigkeiten, ja, mit Abstrusitäten, wenn man an die Irrwege der Eugenik und an die Diskussionen um die Vererbbarkeit von Intelligenz denkt. Die Gentechnik hat weltweit zahlreiche Debatten ausgelöst, die bis heute anhalten; neue Kämpfe werden ausgefochten über Gene in Nahrungsmitteln, Gene als Rohstoffe von Wachstumsindustrien und die Möglichkeiten der immer gezielteren Eingriffe in das Erbgut bis hin zur synthetischen Biologie. Die Gene und die Genetik stehen heute genauso wie in den Jahrzehnten zuvor im Blickpunkt der Öffentlichkeit. Der Rückblick auf gut hundert Jahre Genetik enthüllt eine faszinierende Geschichte. Diese Geschichte wird im vorliegenden Buch leicht, lebhaft und gut verständlich erzählt und in der 2. Auflage bis in die jüngste Vergangenheit fortgeschrieben. Das Werk richtet sich an Leser, die an der Entwicklung von Ideen interessiert sind, aber besonders an solche, die wissen wollen, wie und warum Gene und Genetik zu Schlüsselworten des Jahrhunderts wurden.

Corn

Origin, History, Technology, and Production

Author: C. Wayne Smith,Javier Betrán

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471411840

Category: Science

Page: 949

View: 3725

Your all-in-one guide to corn. This book provides practical advice on planting techniques and rates, seed production, treating plant diseases, insect infestation and weeds, harvesting, processing, and worldwide utilization. This is the fourth, and final, volume in the series of comprehensive references on the major crops of the world. Covers new biotechnology techniques for plant breeding and pest management Provides practical advice on planting techniques and rates, seed production, treating plant diseases, insect infestation and weeds, harvesting, processing and worldwide utilization.

Principles and Procedures of Plant Breeding

Biotechnological and Conventional Approaches

Author: G. S. Chahal,S. S. Gosal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849313219

Category: Science

Page: 604

View: 8711

Covering traditional and emerging breeding procedures, this book explores the scientific bases and details of breeding plants. It puts a special emphasis on the further refinements possible in the light of the latest developments in molecular biology. Specific breeding methods in self and cross-pollinated crops, their genetic basis and scope of further refinements, concepts and techniques of tissue culture, molecular biology and production of transgenic plants, commonly used experimental designs in plant breeding, seed production, and implications of plant breeder's rights are other highlights.

Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding

Author: George Acquaah

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118313690

Category: Science

Page: 760

View: 3502

To respond to the increasing need to feed the world's population as well as an ever greater demand for a balanced and healthy diet there is a continuing need to produce improved new cultivars or varieties of plants, particularly crop plants. The strategies used to produce these are increasingly based on our knowledge of relevant science, particularly genetics, but involves a multidisciplinary understanding that optimizes the approaches taken. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, 2nd Edition introduces both classical and molecular tools for plant breeding. Topics such as biotechnology in plant breeding, intellectual property, risks, emerging concepts (decentralized breeding, organic breeding), and more are addressed in the new, updated edition of this text. Industry highlight boxes are included throughout the text to contextualize the information given through the professional experiences of plant breeders. The final chapters provide a useful reference on breeding the largest and most common crops. Up-to-date edition of this bestselling book incorporating the most recent technologies in the field Combines both theory and practice in modern plant breeding Updated industry highlights help to illustrate the concepts outlined in the text Self assessment questions at the end of each chapter aid student learning Accompanying website with artwork from the book available to instructors

History of Plant Breeding

Author: Rolf H. J. Schlegel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351588958

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 3465

While there has been great progress in the development of plant breeding over the last decade, the selection of suitable plants for human consumption began over 13,000 years ago. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the development of crop improvement methods over centuries. It features an extensive historical treatment of development, including influential individuals in the field, plant cultivation in various regions, techniques used in the Old World, and cropping in ancient America. It covers modern advances in the twentieth century including hybrid breeding, biotechnological improvement, and genetic manipulation.

Die Entwicklung der biologischen Gedankenwelt

Vielfalt, Evolution und Vererbung

Author: Ernst Mayr

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540432135

Category: Science

Page: 766

View: 9254

"Ein einzigartiges Buch, das nur von einem Mann wie Ernst Mayr geschrieben werden konnte, der nicht nur einer der bedeutendsten Evolutionsbiologen dieses Jahrhunderts, sondern auch ein großer Philosoph, Biologiehistoriker und außergewöhnlicher Schriftsteller ist. Kein anderes Buch erzählt so klar und kritisch die Evolution der Ideen, die zur modernen Biologie führten." (Nobelpreisträger François Jacob)

Zehn Milliarden

Author: Stephen Emmott

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518734105

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 7270

Für die Herstellung eines Burgers braucht man 3000 Liter Wasser. Wir produzieren in zwölf Monaten mehr Ruß als im gesamten Mittelalter und fliegen allein in diesem Jahr sechs Billionen Kilometer. Unsere Enkel werden sich die Erde mit zehn Milliarden Menschen teilen müssen. Haben wir noch eine Zukunft? Stephen Emmott, Leiter eines von Microsoft aufgebauten Forschungslabors und Professor in Oxford, schafft mit »Zehn Milliarden« etwas Einzigartiges: Zum ersten Mal zeichnet ein Experte ein zusammenhängendes, aktuelles und für jeden verständliches Bild unserer Lage. Kein theoretischer Überbau, kein moralischer Zeigefinger, nur die Fakten. Und die unmissverständliche Botschaft: »Wir sind nicht zu retten.« Emmott greift auf neueste Erkenntnisse zurück und zeigt, dass wir uns längst den Boden unter den Füßen weggezogen haben. »Zehn Milliarden« ist der letzte Weckruf. Wir dürfen ihn nicht überhören.

PLANT BREEDING METHODS

Author: MAHABAL RAM

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 8120348508

Category: Science

Page: 724

View: 7429

This comprehensive book provides a detailed account of the plant breeding methodology, covering particularly pre- and post-Green Revolution era. It elaborates on plant breeding and gene manipulation, utilization of self-incompatibility in developing hybrids, different plant breeding methods for development of crop varieties and hybrids in self- and cross-pollinated crops, nature of gene action and genotype–environment interaction. The text discusses gene manipulation in the crop plant and transfer of genes from wild species to cultivated crops, application of biotechnology in plant breeding, and genetic engineering and transgenic molecular markers as breeding tools and their limitations. It concludes with a discussion on physiologic breeding approach and new plant ideotype concepts which are new and emerging areas of interest in plant breeding research. The book will be of immense use to undergraduate and postgraduate students of Agricultural Sciences and Botany for their course study. Besides, research scholars and professionals will also find the book as an excellent source of reference.

Quantitative and Ecological Aspects of Plant Breeding

Author: J. Hill,Heiko C. Becker,P.M. Tigerstedt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412753909

Category: Science

Page: 275

View: 6355

Latest figures suggest that approximately 20% of the world's population of six billion is malnourished because of food shortages and inadequate distrib ution systems. To make matters worse, it is estimated that some 75 billion metric tons of soil are removed annually from the land by wind and soil ero sion, much of it from agricultural land, which is thereby rendered unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Moreover, out of a total land area under cultivation 9 6 of approximately 1. 5 x 10 ha, some 12 x 10 ha of arable land are destroyed and abandoned worldwide each year because of unsustainable agricultural practices. Add to this the fact that the world population is increasing at the rate of a quarter of a million per day, and the enormity of the task ahead becomes apparent. To quote the eminent wheat breeder E. R. Sears, It seems clear that plant geneticists can look forward to an expanded role in the 21st century, particularly in relation to plant improvement. The suc cess of these efforts may go a long way towards determining whether the world's increasing billions of humans will be adequately fed. Food for an ever-increasing population will have to be produced not only from an ever-diminishing, but from what will become an ever-deteriorating land resource unless justifiable environmental concerns are taken into account.

Plant Breeding Reviews

Author: Jules Janick

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471217026

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 2016

Plant Breeding Reviews is an ongoing series presenting state-of-the art review articles on research in plant genetics, especially the breeding of commercially important crops. Articles perform the valuable function of collecting, comparing, and contrasting the primary journal literature in order to form an overview of the topic. This detailed analysis bridges the gap between the specialized researcher and the broader community of plant scientists.

Plant Breeding Reviews

Author: J. Janick

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468488961

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 6931

Plant breeding, the domestication and systematic improvement of crop species, is the basis of past and present agriculture. Our so called primitive progenitors selected practically all our present-day crop plants, and the improvement wrought through millenia of selection has so changed some of them that in many cases their links to the past have been obliterated. There is no doubt that this ranks among the greatest of human achievements. Although plant breeding has been a continuous empirical activity for as long as humans have forsaken the vagaries and thrill of hunting for the security and toil of agriculture, genetic crop improvement is now very much of a twentieth-century discipline. Its scientific underpinnings date to the beginning of this century with the discovery of Gregor Mendel's classic 1865 paper on the inheritance of seven characters in the garden pea. If any science can be traced to single event, the best example is surely found in the conception of modern genetics that appears in this single creative work. The relationship of plant breeding progress to advances in genetics has become closely entwined. Mendel himself was concerned with crop improvement and worked on schemes for apple and pear breeding. Plant breeding also has claims on other scientific and agricultural disci plines-botany, plant pathology, biochemistry, statistics, taxonomy, entomology, and cytology, to name a few-and has also impinged on our social, ethical, economic, and political consciousness.

Maize breeding and genetics

Author: David B. Walden

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 794

View: 9121

History; Evolution; Breeding; Diseases and insects; Endosperm; Tissue; Gene action; Cytogenetics.