A Practical Guide
Author: David H. Peters,Nhan T. Tran,Taghreed Adam
Publisher: World Health Organization
Interest in implementation research is growing, largely in recognition of the contribution it can make to maximizing the beneficial impact of health interventions. As a relatively new and, until recently, rather neglected field within the health sector, implementation research is something of an unknown quantity for many. There is therefore a need for greater clarity about what exactly implementation research is, and what it can offer. This Guide is designed to provide that clarity. Intended to support those conducting implementation research, those with responsibility for implementing programs, and those who have an interest in both, the Guide provides an introduction to basic implementation research concepts and language, briefly outlines what it involves, and describes the many opportunities that it presents. The main aim of the Guide is to boost implementation research capacity as well as demand for implementation research that is aligned with need, and that is of particular relevance to health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Research on implementation requires the engagement of diverse stakeholders and multiple disciplines in order to address the complex implementation challenges they face. For this reason, the Guide is intended for a variety of actors who contribute to and/or are impacted by implementation research. This includes the decision-makers responsible for designing policies and managing programs whose decisions shape implementation and scale-up processes, as well as the practitioners and front-line workers who ultimately implement these decisions along with researchers from different disciplines who bring expertise in systematically collecting and analyzing information to inform implementation questions. The opening chapters (1-4) make the case for why implementation research is important to decision-making. They offer a workable definition of implementation research and illustrate the relevance of research to problems that are often considered to be simply administrative and provide examples of how such problems can be framed as implementation research questions. The early chapters also deal with the conduct of implementation research, emphasizing the importance of collaboration and discussing the role of implementers in the planning and designing of studies, the collection and analysis of data, as well as in the dissemination and use of results. The second half of the Guide (5-7) detail the various methods and study designs that can be used to carry out implementation research, and, using examples, illustrates the application of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method designs to answer complex questions related to implementation and scale-up. It offers guidance on conceptualizing an implementation research study from the identification of the problem, development of research questions, identification of implementation outcomes and variables, as well as the selection of the study design and methods while also addressing important questions of rigor.
Translating Science to Practice
Author: Ross C. Brownson,Graham A. Colditz,Enola K. Proctor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The definitive work in D&I research -- now completely updated and expanded The application of scientific research to the creation of evidence-based policies is a science unto itself -- and one that is never easy. Dissemination and implementation research (D&I) is the study of how scientific advances can be implemented into everyday life, and understanding how it works has never been more important for students and professionals across the scientific, academic, and governmental communities. DISSEMINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION RESEARCH IN HEALTH is a practical guide to making research more consequential, a collection assembled and written by today's leading D&I researchers. Readers of this book are taught to: ? Evaluate the evidence base in an effective intervention ? Choose a strategy that produces the greatest impact ? Design an appropriate and effectual study ? Track essential outcomes ? Account for the barriers to uptake in communities, social service agencies, and health care facilities The challenges to moving research into practice are universal, and they're complicated by the current landscape's reliance on partnerships and multi-center research. In this light, DISSEMINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION RESEARCH IN HEALTH is nothing less than a roadmap to effecting change in the sciences. It will have broad utility to researchers and practitioners in epidemiology, biostatistics, behavioral science, economics, medicine, social work, psychology, and anthropology -- both today and in our slightly better future.
An overview of research methods
Author: David A. Richards,Ingalill Rahm Hallberg
Health and human services currently face a series of challenges – such as aging populations, chronic diseases and new endemics – that require highly complex responses, and take place in multiple care environments including acute medicine, chronic care facilities and the community. Accordingly, most modern health care interventions are now seen as ‘complex interventions’ – activities that contain a number of component parts with the potential for interactions between them which, when applied to the intended target population, produce a range of possible and variable outcomes. This in turn requires methodological developments that also take into account changing values and attitudes related to the situation of patients’ receiving health care. The first book to place complex interventions within a coherent system of research enquiry, this work is designed to help researchers understand the research processes involved at each stage of developing, testing, evaluating and implementing complex interventions, and assist them to integrate methodological activities to produce secure, evidence-based health care interventions. It begins with conceptual chapters which set out the complex interventions framework, discuss the interrelation between knowledge development and evidence, and explore how mixed methods research contributes to improved health. Structured around the influential UK Medical Research Council guidance for use of complex interventions, four sections, each comprised of bite-sized chapters written by multidisciplinary experts in the area, focus on: - Developing complex interventions - Assessing the feasibility of complex interventions and piloting them - Evaluating complex interventions - Implementing complex interventions. Accessible to students and researchers grappling with complex interventions, each substantive chapter includes an introduction, bulleted learning objectives, clinical examples, a summary and further reading. The perspectives of various stakeholders, including patients, families and professionals, are discussed throughout as are the economic and ethical implications of methods. A vital companion for health research, this book is suitable for readers from multidisciplinary disciplines such as medical, nursing, public health, health services research, human services and allied healthcare backgrounds.
Author: Laura F. Salazar,Richard A. Crosby,Ralph J. DiClemente
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The bestselling textbook to understanding health research, updated and expanded Research Methods in Health Promotion provides students and practitioners with essential knowledge and skills regarding the design, implementation, analysis, and interpretation of research in the field of health promotion. Now in its second edition, this bestselling textbook has been updated with more recent research methodologies and additional information on sampling, participatory and survey research, and qualitative data analysis. The entire research process is covered, with specific points relating to both qualitative and quantitative research. By breaking the daunting process of research into simple and well-defined steps, this user-friendly text encourages students to think about research as a sequential process and provides explanations that facilitate better understanding of each step in the research process. A separate set of chapters cover the more quantitative methodological areas including designs, measurement, sampling, and data analysis in depth, giving readers the understanding they need to apply in practice. This book also provides applied chapters that illustrate the practical aspects of the research process, along with other critical information including grant writing and scientific writing. Evaluate the ethics, design, analysis, and interpretation of research Identify and understand the key components of research studies Analyze and interpret the results of experimental and survey research designs Understand the process of publishing a research report and constructing a grant proposal Research Methods in Health Promotion is ideal for both undergrad and graduate methods courses in health promotion and public health.
Author: Lawrence A. Palinkas,Haluk Soydan
Publisher: OUP USA
Category: Social Science
This book is about conducting research on the process and outcomes of the translation and implementation of evidence-based practices in social work. Its aims are to outline a strategy for conducting such research and to identify the infrastructure and resources necessary to support such research within the field of social work.
Author: John Ovretveit
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
Category: Political Science
This book examines different approaches to evaluating treatment, health service delivery, public health programmes and policy implementation.
The Use of Narrative Research in the Health Sector
Author: Who Regional Office for Europe,Trisha Greenhalgh
Publisher: Health Evidence Network Synthe
Storytelling is an essential tool for reporting and illuminating the cultural contexts of health: the practices and behavior that groups of people share and that are defined by customs, language and geography. This report reviews the literature on narrative research, offers some quality criteria for appraising it and gives three detailed case examples: diet and nutrition, well-being and mental health in refugees and asylum seekers. Storytelling and story interpretation belong to the humanistic disciplines and are not a pure science, although established techniques of social science can be applied to ensure rigor in sampling and data analysis. The case studies illustrate how narrative research can convey the individual experience of illness and well-being, thereby complementing and sometimes challenging epidemiological and public health evidence.
A Facilitation Guide
Author: Gill Harvey,Alison Kitson
The successful implementation of evidence into practice is dependent on aligning the available evidence to the particular context through the active ingredient of facilitation. Designed to support the widely recognised PARIHS framework, which works as a guide to plan, action and evaluate the implementation of evidence into practice, this book provides a very practical ‘how-to’ guide for facilitating the whole process. This text discusses: undertaking an initial diagnosis of the context and reaching a consensus on the evidence to be implemented; how to link the research evidence with clinical and patients’ experience and local information in the form of audit data or patient and staff feedback; the range of diagnostic, consensus building and stakeholder consultation methods that can be helpful; a description of facilitator roles and facilitation methods, tools and techniques; some of theories that underpin the PARIHS framework and how these have been integrated to inform a revised version of PARIHS Including internationally-sourced case study examples to illustrate how the facilitation role and facilitation skills have been applied in a range of different health care settings, this is the ideal text for those interested in leading or facilitating evidence based implementation projects, from the planning stage through to evaluation.
The Implementation of Change in Health Care
Author: Richard Grol,Michel Wensing,Martin Eccles,David Davis
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
As innovations are constantly being developed within health care, it can be difficult both to select appropriate new practices and technologies and to successfully adopt them within complex organizations. It is necessary to understand the consequences of introducing change, how to best implement new procedures and techniques, how to evaluate success and to improve the quality of patient care. This comprehensive guide allows you to do just that. Improving Patient Care, 2nd edition provides a structure for professionals and change agents to implement better practices in health care. It helps health professionals, managers, policy makers and researchers to assess new techniques and select and implement change in their organizations. This new edition includes recent evidence and further coverage on patient safety and patient centred strategies for change. Written by an international expert author team, Improving Patient Care is an established standard text for postgraduate students of health policy, health services and health management. The strong author team are global professors involved in managing research and development in the field of quality improvement, evidence-based practice and guidelines, quality assessment and indicators to improve patient outcomes through receiving appropriate healthcare.
Author: Rinad S. Beidas,Philip C. Kendall
Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)
Mental health disorders are common in youth, impacting up to 1 in 5 children and adolescents. Typically, mental health difficulties result in impaired functioning and lower quality of life for both youth and their families. Fortunately, there are psychosocial treatments for the mental health needs of youth that have earned the "evidence-based" label. However, these treatments are not widely available, and it is estimated that it can take up to 17 years for them to be transported into community settings. As a result, a new field of dissemination and implementation (DI) science has emerged to address this problem. Dissemination refers to the transfer of information about evidence-based practices to community settings, and implementation refers to active strategies to assist adoption of evidence-based practices in community settings. Dissemination and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in Child and Adolescent Mental Health is the first book to bring together the world's foremost experts in implementation science and evidence-based practices for youth to provide the latest findings around DI for children and adolescents. Chapters provide comprehensive coverage of the science of dissemination and implementation across contexts, disorders, and international perspectives. This volume will be an essential resource to implementation scientists and scholars, instructors in doctoral-level training programs, and graduate students, as well as policymakers, community mental health clinicians and administrators, school administrators, researchers, and other mental health professionals.
Author: Ross C. Brownson,Elizabeth A. Baker,Terry L. Leet,Kathleen N. Gillespie,William R. True
Publisher: Oxford University Press
There are at least three ways in which a public health program or policy may not reach stated goals for success: 1) Choosing an intervention approach whose effectiveness is not established in the scientific literature; 2) Selecting a potentially effective program or policy yet achieving only weak, incomplete implementation or "reach," thereby failing to attain objectives; 3) Conducting an inadequate or incorrect evaluation that results in a lack of generalizable knowledge on the effectiveness of a program or policy; and 4) Paying inadequate attention to adapting an intervention to the population and context of interest To enhance evidence-based practice, this book addresses all four possibilities and attempts to provide practical guidance on how to choose, carry out, and evaluate evidence-based programs and policies in public health settings. It also begins to address a fifth, overarching need for a highly trained public health workforce. This book deals not only with finding and using scientific evidence, but also with implementation and evaluation of interventions that generate new evidence on effectiveness. Because all these topics are broad and require multi-disciplinary skills and perspectives, each chapter covers the basic issues and provides multiple examples to illustrate important concepts. In addition, each chapter provides links to the diverse literature and selected websites for readers wanting more detailed information. An indispensable volume for professionals, students, and researchers in the public health sciences and preventative medicine, this new and updated edition of Evidence-Based Public Health aims to bridge research and evidence with policies and the practice of public health.
Author: Barbara Kelly,Daniel F. Perkins
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book aims to help policy makers, stakeholders, practitioners, and teachers in psychology and education provide more effective interventions in educational contexts. It responds to disappointment and global concern about the failure to implement psychological and other interventions successfully in real-world contexts. Often interventions, carefully designed and trialed under controlled conditions, prove unpredictable or ineffective in uncontrolled, real-life situations. This book looks at why this is the case and pulls together evidence from a range of sources to create original frameworks and guidelines for effective implementation of interventions.
Understanding Research Design and Methods
Author: Souraya Sidani
Category: Social Science
At a time when evidence-based practice is the standard bearer for understanding health behaviour, problems and interventions, ensuring that researchers know the appropriate designs and methods for their research is more paramount than ever. Health Intervention Research will equip those doing research in these communities with the knowledge and tools they need to inform their methodological decisions when planning and conducting studies. This book describes both commonly used (e.g., randomized clinical trials) and advanced (e.g. preference trials, pragmatic trials) designs and methods for health intervention research. It outlines the theoretical reasoning underlying these different approaches, and synthesizes the evidence which supports or disputes different designs and methods. To achieve its aims, the book is divided into three main sections. The first section points to the need to base methodological decisions on evidence and highlights the importance of carefully selecting research designs and methods to maintain validity. The second section focuses on designs to determine the effects of intervention on outcomes, outlining their features and discussing how these can be used to evaluate interventions. The last section covers methods used in conducting intervention evaluation research. For each design and method, the following is covered: what it is, what the logic underlying it is, what the evidence supporting its effectiveness is, and also includes its advantages, its limitations, and how can it be implemented. This will be key reading for postgraduates and novice researchers in health and clinical psychology, health sciences and nursing.
Expert Views: Workshop Summary
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Care Services,Forum on the Science of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation
Publisher: National Academies Press
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) workshop "The Conduct of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation Research" was held on May 24-25, 2007, in Irvine, CA. The purpose of this workshop was to gain a better understanding of what is known and not known about quality improvement and implementation research. Experts were asked to identify current methods and best practices as well as areas where future efforts should be concentrated to propel the field. As with its previous workshop, the Forum on the Science of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation invited speakers from other disciplines to share their experiences in their respective fields. Although many disciplines are relevant to this topic, not all views could be incorporated because of workshop time constraints, but will be incorporated in the forum's future activities. The State of Quality Improvement and Implementation Research: Expert Views, Workshop Summary describes and summarizes workshop presentations and discussions.
Author: J. Braithwaite,P. Hyde,C. Pope
Category: Business & Economics
This book showcases international research on health care organizations. It presents diverse and multidisciplinary approaches to studying differing health care settings, in international context. These approaches range from in depth observation to questionnaire based measures, investigating a spectrum of health care professionals.
Moving from Evidence to Practice
Author: Sharon Straus,Jacqueline Tetroe,Ian D. Graham
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Knowledge Translation in Health Care is a practical introduction to knowledge translation for everyone working and learning within health policy and funding agencies, and as researchers, clinicians and trainees. Using everyday examples, it explains how to use research findings to improve health care in real life. This new second edition defines the principles and practice of knowledge translation and outlines strategies for successful knowledge translation in practice and policy making. It includes relevant real world examples and cases of knowledge translation in action that are accessible and relevant for all stakeholders including clinicians, health policy makers, administrators, managers, researchers, clinicians and trainees. From an international expert editor and contributor team, and fully revised to reflect current practice and latest developments within the field, Knowledge Translation in Health Care is the practical guide for all health policy makers and researchers, clinicians, trainee clinicians, medical students and other healthcare professionals seeking to improve healthcare practice.
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health
Publisher: National Academies Press
Although it is becoming increasingly more common for clinicians to use genomic data in their practices for disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, the process of integrating genomic data into the practice of medicine has been a slow and challenging one. Some of the major barriers impeding the incorporation of new genomic technology into clinical practice are: the difficulty of changing routine medical practices to account for the use of genetic testing, the limited knowledge of patients and providers about genomic medicine, assessing sufficient evidence to support the use of genetic tests, privacy and data security issues, and uncertainty about reimbursement. The field of implementation science may be able to provide insights concerning efficient ways to incorporate genomic applications into routine clinical practice. The focus of implementation science studies is to identify integration bottlenecks and optimal approaches for a given setting and ultimately to promote the up-take of research findings. To explore the potential of implementation science to improve the integration of genomics into medicine, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop in Washington, DC, in November 2015. Participants explored the challenges and opportunities of integrating genomic advances into the clinic through the lens of implementation science. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
From Health Policy to Practice
Author: Ewan Ferlie,Susanne Boch Waldorff,Anne Reff Pedersen,Louise Fitzgerald,Paul G. Lewis
Category: Business & Economics
Managing Change is about implementing health care reforms, policies and programs into everyday practices. The book explores organizational change in health care as influenced by contemporary policy and management concepts, and presents and applies theoretical perspectives.
Author: Alan Werner
Publisher: The Urban Insitute
Category: Political Science
The 1990s' historic welfare reform legislation shifted U.S. social policy institutions from a bureaucratic, centralized mode for income transfer, to a "professional" mode aimed at complex behavioral change. The evaluation community has responded with a shift from traditional impact analyses to implementation studies that get to the heart of this more flexible structure. A Guide to Implementation Research, by Alan Werner, is the first volume to offer comprehensive, practical advice on conducting implementation studies in the context of program evaluation. The first chapter presents an introduction to implementation research and an overview of how to organize and conduct an implementation study. Chapter Two covers the variety of data needs and data collection techniques encountered in Implementation Research. Chapter Three describes how to organize the data to document program implementation and results. Chapter Four covers approaches to assess and explain program! implementation. Each chapter contains multiple examples from the research literature as well as the work of professional evaluators. For students and practitioners of evaluation research, this book is a complete, concise, and essential guide.
New Directions in Research, Theory and Practice
Author: R.A. Logan,E.R. Siegel
Publisher: IOS Press
While health literacy is a relatively new multidisciplinary field, it is vital to the successful engagement with and communication of health with patients, caregivers, and the public. This book ‘New Directions in Health Literacy Research, Theory, and Practice’ provides an introduction to health literacy research and practice and highlights similar scholarship in related disciplines. The book is organized as follows: the first chapter explains the still-evolving definition of health literacy; the next three chapters discuss developments and new directions in health literacy research, then a further two chapters are devoted to developments and new directions in health literacy theory. Two chapters explore health literacy interventions for vulnerable populations; four chapters cover health literacy leadership efforts; six chapters describe developments and new directions in disciplines that are similar to health literacy; and six chapters portray diverse health literacy practices. A preface from Richard Carmona M.D., the former U.S. Surgeon General, is included in the book. Although the book is intended primarily for health literacy researchers, practitioners and students, the diverse topics and approaches covered will be of interest to all healthcare and public health researchers, practitioners, and students, as well as scholars in related fields, such as health communication, science communication, consumer health informatics, library science, health disparities, and mass communication. As Dr. Carmona concludes in his preface: ‘This is essential reading for all health practitioners.’