A Practical Guide
Author: David H. Peters,Nhan T. Tran,Taghreed Adam
Publisher: World Health Organization
Interest in implementation research is growing, largely in recognition of the contribution it can make to maximizing the beneficial impact of health interventions. As a relatively new and, until recently, rather neglected field within the health sector, implementation research is something of an unknown quantity for many. There is therefore a need for greater clarity about what exactly implementation research is, and what it can offer. This Guide is designed to provide that clarity. Intended to support those conducting implementation research, those with responsibility for implementing programs, and those who have an interest in both, the Guide provides an introduction to basic implementation research concepts and language, briefly outlines what it involves, and describes the many opportunities that it presents. The main aim of the Guide is to boost implementation research capacity as well as demand for implementation research that is aligned with need, and that is of particular relevance to health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Research on implementation requires the engagement of diverse stakeholders and multiple disciplines in order to address the complex implementation challenges they face. For this reason, the Guide is intended for a variety of actors who contribute to and/or are impacted by implementation research. This includes the decision-makers responsible for designing policies and managing programs whose decisions shape implementation and scale-up processes, as well as the practitioners and front-line workers who ultimately implement these decisions along with researchers from different disciplines who bring expertise in systematically collecting and analyzing information to inform implementation questions. The opening chapters (1-4) make the case for why implementation research is important to decision-making. They offer a workable definition of implementation research and illustrate the relevance of research to problems that are often considered to be simply administrative and provide examples of how such problems can be framed as implementation research questions. The early chapters also deal with the conduct of implementation research, emphasizing the importance of collaboration and discussing the role of implementers in the planning and designing of studies, the collection and analysis of data, as well as in the dissemination and use of results. The second half of the Guide (5-7) detail the various methods and study designs that can be used to carry out implementation research, and, using examples, illustrates the application of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method designs to answer complex questions related to implementation and scale-up. It offers guidance on conceptualizing an implementation research study from the identification of the problem, development of research questions, identification of implementation outcomes and variables, as well as the selection of the study design and methods while also addressing important questions of rigor.
Translating Science to Practice
Author: Ross C. Brownson,Graham A. Colditz,Enola K. Proctor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The definitive work in D&I research -- now completely updated and expanded The application of scientific research to the creation of evidence-based policies is a science unto itself -- and one that is never easy. Dissemination and implementation research (D&I) is the study of how scientific advances can be implemented into everyday life, and understanding how it works has never been more important for students and professionals across the scientific, academic, and governmental communities. Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health is a practical guide to making research more consequential, a collection assembled and written by today's leading D&I researchers. Readers of this book are taught to: � Evaluate the evidence base in an effective intervention � Choose a strategy that produces the greatest impact � Design an appropriate and effectual study � Track essential outcomes � Account for the barriers to uptake in communities, social service agencies, and health care facilities The challenges to moving research into practice are universal, and they're complicated by the current landscape's reliance on partnerships and multi-center research. In this light, Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health is nothing less than a roadmap to effecting change in the sciences. It will have broad utility to researchers and practitioners in epidemiology, biostatistics, behavioral science, economics, medicine, social work, psychology, and anthropology -- both today and in our slightly better future.
An overview of research methods
Author: David A. Richards,Ingalill Rahm Hallberg
Health and human services currently face a series of challenges – such as aging populations, chronic diseases and new endemics – that require highly complex responses, and take place in multiple care environments including acute medicine, chronic care facilities and the community. Accordingly, most modern health care interventions are now seen as ‘complex interventions’ – activities that contain a number of component parts with the potential for interactions between them which, when applied to the intended target population, produce a range of possible and variable outcomes. This in turn requires methodological developments that also take into account changing values and attitudes related to the situation of patients’ receiving health care. The first book to place complex interventions within a coherent system of research enquiry, this work is designed to help researchers understand the research processes involved at each stage of developing, testing, evaluating and implementing complex interventions, and assist them to integrate methodological activities to produce secure, evidence-based health care interventions. It begins with conceptual chapters which set out the complex interventions framework, discuss the interrelation between knowledge development and evidence, and explore how mixed methods research contributes to improved health. Structured around the influential UK Medical Research Council guidance for use of complex interventions, four sections, each comprised of bite-sized chapters written by multidisciplinary experts in the area, focus on: - Developing complex interventions - Assessing the feasibility of complex interventions and piloting them - Evaluating complex interventions - Implementing complex interventions. Accessible to students and researchers grappling with complex interventions, each substantive chapter includes an introduction, bulleted learning objectives, clinical examples, a summary and further reading. The perspectives of various stakeholders, including patients, families and professionals, are discussed throughout as are the economic and ethical implications of methods. A vital companion for health research, this book is suitable for readers from multidisciplinary disciplines such as medical, nursing, public health, health services research, human services and allied healthcare backgrounds.
Author: John Ovretveit
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
Category: Political Science
This book examines different approaches to evaluating treatment, health service delivery, public health programmes and policy implementation.
A Facilitation Guide
Author: Gill Harvey,Alison Kitson
The successful implementation of evidence into practice is dependent on aligning the available evidence to the particular context through the active ingredient of facilitation. Designed to support the widely recognised PARIHS framework, which works as a guide to plan, action and evaluate the implementation of evidence into practice, this book provides a very practical ‘how-to’ guide for facilitating the whole process. This text discusses: undertaking an initial diagnosis of the context and reaching a consensus on the evidence to be implemented; how to link the research evidence with clinical and patients’ experience and local information in the form of audit data or patient and staff feedback; the range of diagnostic, consensus building and stakeholder consultation methods that can be helpful; a description of facilitator roles and facilitation methods, tools and techniques; some of theories that underpin the PARIHS framework and how these have been integrated to inform a revised version of PARIHS Including internationally-sourced case study examples to illustrate how the facilitation role and facilitation skills have been applied in a range of different health care settings, this is the ideal text for those interested in leading or facilitating evidence based implementation projects, from the planning stage through to evaluation.
Author: Lawrence A. Palinkas,Haluk Soydan
Publisher: OUP USA
Category: Social Science
This book is about conducting research on the process and outcomes of the translation and implementation of evidence-based practices in social work. Its aims are to outline a strategy for conducting such research and to identify the infrastructure and resources necessary to support such research within the field of social work.
Author: David A. Chambers,Cynthia A. Vinson,Wynne E. Norton
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
While many effective interventions have been developed with the potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from cancer, they are of no benefit to the health of populations if they cannot be delivered. In response to this challenge, Advancing the Science of Implementation across the Cancer Continuum provides an overview of research that can improve the delivery of evidence-based interventions in cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and survivorship. Chapters explore the field of implementation science and its application to practice, a broad synthesis of relevant research and case studies illustrating each cancer-focused topic area, and emerging issues at the intersection of research and practice in cancer. Both comprehensive and accessible, this book is an ideal resource for researchers, clinical and public health practitioners, medical and public health students, and health policymakers.
Linking Evidence to Action
Author: Jo Rycroft-Malone,Tracey Bucknall
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This title provides a critical analysis of a number of different models and approaches to the implementation of evidence-based practice, culminating in an integrative review, narrative synthesis and likely future directions in the final chapters.
Author: Ross C. Brownson,Elizabeth A. Baker,Terry L. Leet,Kathleen N. Gillespie,William R. True
Publisher: Oxford University Press
There are at least three ways in which a public health program or policy may not reach stated goals for success: 1) Choosing an intervention approach whose effectiveness is not established in the scientific literature; 2) Selecting a potentially effective program or policy yet achieving only weak, incomplete implementation or "reach," thereby failing to attain objectives; 3) Conducting an inadequate or incorrect evaluation that results in a lack of generalizable knowledge on the effectiveness of a program or policy; and 4) Paying inadequate attention to adapting an intervention to the population and context of interest To enhance evidence-based practice, this book addresses all four possibilities and attempts to provide practical guidance on how to choose, carry out, and evaluate evidence-based programs and policies in public health settings. It also begins to address a fifth, overarching need for a highly trained public health workforce. This book deals not only with finding and using scientific evidence, but also with implementation and evaluation of interventions that generate new evidence on effectiveness. Because all these topics are broad and require multi-disciplinary skills and perspectives, each chapter covers the basic issues and provides multiple examples to illustrate important concepts. In addition, each chapter provides links to the diverse literature and selected websites for readers wanting more detailed information. An indispensable volume for professionals, students, and researchers in the public health sciences and preventative medicine, this new and updated edition of Evidence-Based Public Health aims to bridge research and evidence with policies and the practice of public health.
Author: Richard A. Crosby,Ralph J. DiClemente,Laura F. Salazar
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Research Methods in Health Promotion provides students (advanced undergraduate and graduate students) and practitioners with basic knowledge and skills regarding the design, implementation, analysis, and interpretation of research in the field of health promotion. Taking the perspective that research involves a predetermined series of well-defined steps, the book presents these steps in a sequential format.
Author: Rinad S. Beidas,Philip C. Kendall
Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)
Mental health disorders are common in youth, impacting up to 1 in 5 children and adolescents. Typically, mental health difficulties result in impaired functioning and lower quality of life for both youth and their families. Fortunately, there are psychosocial treatments for the mental health needs of youth that have earned the "evidence-based" label. However, these treatments are not widely available, and it is estimated that it can take up to 17 years for them to be transported into community settings. As a result, a new field of dissemination and implementation (DI) science has emerged to address this problem. Dissemination refers to the transfer of information about evidence-based practices to community settings, and implementation refers to active strategies to assist adoption of evidence-based practices in community settings. Dissemination and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in Child and Adolescent Mental Health is the first book to bring together the world's foremost experts in implementation science and evidence-based practices for youth to provide the latest findings around DI for children and adolescents. Chapters provide comprehensive coverage of the science of dissemination and implementation across contexts, disorders, and international perspectives. This volume will be an essential resource to implementation scientists and scholars, instructors in doctoral-level training programs, and graduate students, as well as policymakers, community mental health clinicians and administrators, school administrators, researchers, and other mental health professionals.
The Use of Narrative Research in the Health Sector
Author: Who Regional Office for Europe,Trisha Greenhalgh
Publisher: Health Evidence Network Synthe
Storytelling is an essential tool for reporting and illuminating the cultural contexts of health: the practices and behavior that groups of people share and that are defined by customs, language and geography. This report reviews the literature on narrative research, offers some quality criteria for appraising it and gives three detailed case examples: diet and nutrition, well-being and mental health in refugees and asylum seekers. Storytelling and story interpretation belong to the humanistic disciplines and are not a pure science, although established techniques of social science can be applied to ensure rigor in sampling and data analysis. The case studies illustrate how narrative research can convey the individual experience of illness and well-being, thereby complementing and sometimes challenging epidemiological and public health evidence.
Author: Barbara Kelly,Daniel F. Perkins
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book aims to help policy makers, stakeholders, practitioners, and teachers in psychology and education provide more effective interventions in educational contexts. It responds to disappointment and global concern about the failure to implement psychological and other interventions successfully in real-world contexts. Often interventions, carefully designed and trialed under controlled conditions, prove unpredictable or ineffective in uncontrolled, real-life situations. This book looks at why this is the case and pulls together evidence from a range of sources to create original frameworks and guidelines for effective implementation of interventions.
Expert Views: Workshop Summary
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Care Services,Forum on the Science of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation
Publisher: National Academies Press
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) workshop "The Conduct of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation Research" was held on May 24-25, 2007, in Irvine, CA. The purpose of this workshop was to gain a better understanding of what is known and not known about quality improvement and implementation research. Experts were asked to identify current methods and best practices as well as areas where future efforts should be concentrated to propel the field. As with its previous workshop, the Forum on the Science of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation invited speakers from other disciplines to share their experiences in their respective fields. Although many disciplines are relevant to this topic, not all views could be incorporated because of workshop time constraints, but will be incorporated in the forum's future activities. The State of Quality Improvement and Implementation Research: Expert Views, Workshop Summary describes and summarizes workshop presentations and discussions.
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health
Publisher: National Academies Press
Although it is becoming increasingly more common for clinicians to use genomic data in their practices for disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, the process of integrating genomic data into the practice of medicine has been a slow and challenging one. Some of the major barriers impeding the incorporation of new genomic technology into clinical practice are: the difficulty of changing routine medical practices to account for the use of genetic testing, the limited knowledge of patients and providers about genomic medicine, assessing sufficient evidence to support the use of genetic tests, privacy and data security issues, and uncertainty about reimbursement. The field of implementation science may be able to provide insights concerning efficient ways to incorporate genomic applications into routine clinical practice. The focus of implementation science studies is to identify integration bottlenecks and optimal approaches for a given setting and ultimately to promote the up-take of research findings. To explore the potential of implementation science to improve the integration of genomics into medicine, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop in Washington, DC, in November 2015. Participants explored the challenges and opportunities of integrating genomic advances into the clinic through the lens of implementation science. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
from research to implementation / Kerm Henriksen, James B. Battles, Eric S. Marks, David I. Lewin
Author: Kerm Henriksen,James B. Battles,Eric S. Marks,United States. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality,David I. Lewin
v. 1. Research findings -- v. 2. Concepts and methodology -- v. 3. Implementation issues -- v. 4. Programs, tools and products.
Moving from Evidence to Practice
Author: Sharon Straus,Jacqueline Tetroe,Ian D. Graham
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Knowledge Translation in Health Care is a practical introduction to knowledge translation for everyone working and learning within health policy and funding agencies, and as researchers, clinicians and trainees. Using everyday examples, it explains how to use research findings to improve health care in real life. This new second edition defines the principles and practice of knowledge translation and outlines strategies for successful knowledge translation in practice and policy making. It includes relevant real world examples and cases of knowledge translation in action that are accessible and relevant for all stakeholders including clinicians, health policy makers, administrators, managers, researchers, clinicians and trainees. From an international expert editor and contributor team, and fully revised to reflect current practice and latest developments within the field, Knowledge Translation in Health Care is the practical guide for all health policy makers and researchers, clinicians, trainee clinicians, medical students and other healthcare professionals seeking to improve healthcare practice.
A Practical Primer
Author: Leslie Curry,Marcella Nunez-Smith
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Category: Social Science
Mixed Methods in Health Sciences Research: A Practical Primer, by Leslie Curry and Marcella Nunez-Smith, presents key theories, concepts, and approaches in an accessible way. Packed with illustrations from the health sciences literature, this ready-to-use guidebook shows readers how to design, conduct, review, and use mixed methods research findings. Helpful checklists, figures, tables, templates, and much more give readers examples that will elevate the quality of their research, facilitate communication about their methods, and improve efficiency over the course of their projects. Real-world examples and insights from mixed methods researchers provide unique perspectives on every aspect of mixed methods research. This book successfully pulls together foundational mixed methods principles, synthesizes the knowledge base in the field, and translates it for a health science researcher audience. “The content is highly applicable to real life research teams in the areas of clinical research, health services research, and implementation science, providing sound content and practical advice. The authors have synthesized and pull key concepts from a variety of sources to provide a concise resource.” —Linda M. Herrick, South Dakota State University “Everything from the references, to the topics, checklists, conceptual graphic representations, and organizers, interviews, and resources, all contribute to the content and aid with understanding and/or application. … It addresses specific MM research as it pertains to health sciences in a way that other texts just do not even attempt.” —Denise L. Winsor, University of Memphis “[This text is] a very pragmatic approach to mixed methods research; excellent resources, tables, and figures [are] provided, along with cases and examples of value to researchers and grant reviewers. Its relevance to practice, education, and research, as well as to potential policy implications, is a strong focus that would make this a valued textbook for any researcher!” ? —Karen Devereaux Melillo, University of Massachusetts Lowell “The text is cutting edge. It leads the way with its focus on team dynamics. [The authors] succeed in making the book relevant and practical. They also articulate a number of key insights in the area of mixed methods that rarely get addressed, such as teams and conflict. Great read with a lot of good, practical information for mixed methods researchers at all levels. The practical approach of this text makes it an innovative and valuable resource.” —John G. Schumacher, University of Maryland
The Implementation of Change in Health Care
Author: Richard Grol,Michel Wensing,Martin Eccles,David Davis
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
As innovations are constantly being developed within health care, it can be difficult both to select appropriate new practices and technologies and to successfully adopt them within complex organizations. It is necessary to understand the consequences of introducing change, how to best implement new procedures and techniques, how to evaluate success and to improve the quality of patient care. This comprehensive guide allows you to do just that. Improving Patient Care, 2nd edition provides a structure for professionals and change agents to implement better practices in health care. It helps health professionals, managers, policy makers and researchers to assess new techniques and select and implement change in their organizations. This new edition includes recent evidence and further coverage on patient safety and patient centred strategies for change. Written by an international expert author team, Improving Patient Care is an established standard text for postgraduate students of health policy, health services and health management. The strong author team are global professors involved in managing research and development in the field of quality improvement, evidence-based practice and guidelines, quality assessment and indicators to improve patient outcomes through receiving appropriate healthcare.
Building Safer Systems for Better Care
Author: Committee on Patient Safety and Health Information Technology,Board on Health Care Services,Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
IOM's 1999 landmark study To Err is Human estimated that between 44,000 and 98,000 lives are lost every year due to medical errors. This call to action has led to a number of efforts to reduce errors and provide safe and effective health care. Information technology (IT) has been identified as a way to enhance the safety and effectiveness of care. In an effort to catalyze its implementation, the U.S. government has invested billions of dollars toward the development and meaningful use of effective health IT. Designed and properly applied, health IT can be a positive transformative force for delivering safe health care, particularly with computerized prescribing and medication safety. However, if it is designed and applied inappropriately, health IT can add an additional layer of complexity to the already complex delivery of health care. Poorly designed IT can introduce risks that may lead to unsafe conditions, serious injury, or even death. Poor human-computer interactions could result in wrong dosing decisions and wrong diagnoses. Safe implementation of health IT is a complex, dynamic process that requires a shared responsibility between vendors and health care organizations. Health IT and Patient Safety makes recommendations for developing a framework for patient safety and health IT. This book focuses on finding ways to mitigate the risks of health IT-assisted care and identifies areas of concern so that the nation is in a better position to realize the potential benefits of health IT. Health IT and Patient Safety is both comprehensive and specific in terms of recommended options and opportunities for public and private interventions that may improve the safety of care that incorporates the use of health IT. This book will be of interest to the health IT industry, the federal government, healthcare providers and other users of health IT, and patient advocacy groups.