Improving Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries

From Evidence to Action

Author: David H. Peters

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821379437

Category: Medical

Page: 338

View: 4896

Reliable information on how health service strategies affect the poor is in short supply. In an attempt to redress the imbalance, 'Improving Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries' presents evidence on strategies for strengthening health service delivery, based on systematic reviews of the literature, quantitative and qualitative analyses of existing data, and seven country case studies. The authors also explore how changes in coverage of different health services affect each other on the national level. Finally, the authors explain why setting international targets for health services has been not been successful and offer an alternative approach based on a specific country's experience.The book's findings are clear and hopeful: There are many ways to improve health services. Measuring change and using information to guide decisions and inform stakeholders are critically important for successful implementation. Asking difficult questions, using information intelligently, and involving key stakeholders and institutions are central to the "learning and doing" practices that underlie successful health service delivery.

Performance-based Contracting for Health Services in Developing Countries

A Toolkit

Author: Benjamin Loevinsohn

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821375377

Category: Medical

Page: 202

View: 5396

Despite the existence of effective interventions, there are many developing countries which are not on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for health. In many countries the delivery of health services is inadequate and one way of improving the situation is to contract with non-state providers. Contracting is a mechanism for a financing entity to procure a defined set of services from a non-state provider. Performance-based contracting is a type of contracting with: (a) a clear set of objectives and indicators; (b) systematic efforts to collect data to judge contractor performance; and (c) some consequences for the contractor, either rewards or sanctions, based on performance. Effective contracting for health services can be facilitated by using a systematic approach, described in this toolkit, that addresses key issues, including how to: 1. have a constructive dialogue with all stakeholders; 2. define the health services in terms of what services are to be delivered, where, the quantity of beneficiaries to be served, equity, and quality of care; 3. design the monitoring and evaluation to judge the performance of contractors; 4. select the contractors in a fair and transparent way; 5. arrange for effective contract management; 6. draft the contract and bidding documents; and 7. carry out the bidding process and successfully manage the contracts. The toolkit also includes a review of 14 evaluated examples of contracting in developing countries which concludes that the current weight of evidence indicates that contracting improves the coverage and quality of services rapidly. The six cases with controlled, before and after evaluations demonstrated large impact with themedian double difference (follow-up minus baseline in the experimental group minus follow-up minus baseline in the control) ranging from 9 to 26 percentage points.

Scaling Up Health Service Delivery

From Pilot Innovations to Policies and Programmes

Author: Ruth Simmons,Peter Fajans,Laura Ghiron

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241563516

Category: Medical

Page: 183

View: 8224

"The focus here is on ways to increase impact of health service innovations that have been tested in pilot or experimental projects so as to benefit more people and to foster policy and programme development on a lasting, sustainable basis." -- p.i Preface.

Achieving Better Service Delivery Through Decentralization in Ethiopia

Author: Marito Garcia,Andrew Sunil Rajkumar

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821373835

Category: Political Science

Page: 132

View: 3704

Achieving Better Service Delivery Through Decentralization in Ethiopia examines the role decentralization has played in the improvement of human development indicators in Ethiopia. Ethiopia has made major strides in improving its human development indicators in the past 15 years, achieving significant increases in the coverage of basic education and health services in a short period of time. Improvements took place during a period of massive decentralization of fiscal resources, to the regions in 1994 and to woredas in 2002-03. The devolution of power and resources from the federal and regional governments to woredas appears to have improved the delivery of basic services. Surveys of beneficiaries reveal that they perceive that service coverage and quality have improved. Beneficiary satisfaction has increased markedly in education, and less conspicuously in water and health services. In the south, the decentralization to woredas in 2002-03 tended to narrow differences in per capita expenditures on education and health across woredas. Decentralization disproportionately favored woredas that are remote (more than 50 kilometers from a zonal capital), food-insecure, and pastoral, suggesting that decentralization has been pro-poor. Decentralization also narrowed the gap in educational outcomes between disadvantage and better-off woredas, especially in the south. Pastoral, food-insecure, and remote woredas gained in terms of the educational outcomes examined (gross enrollment rates, grade 8 examination pass rates, repetition rates, pupil-teacher ratios, and teacher-section ratios).

Empowering Resilience

Improving Health Care Delivery in War-impacted African Countries : a Case Study of Liberia

Author: Aaron G. Buseh

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 9780761838968

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 279

View: 1032

Empowering Resilience addresses a critical area of concern for all individuals, governments, and non-government organizations involved in international peace building and economic development: the rebuilding of health care systems in countries emerging from civil conflict. Professor Aaron G. Buseh sets a broad context for improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries by presenting a clear and concise historical overview of Liberia, including it's political, economic, and cultural factors that led to social upheaval. Through understanding the organization, financing, and delivery of health care in Liberia, readers will be able to appreciate the analysis of the pre-war root causes of the civil conflict and a poorly functional pre-war health care system that Buseh effectively investigates. With a convincing argument, Buseh offers a strategic vision for reforming and reorganizing Liberia's health care system. A book that breaches many concerns steadily rising in today's society, Empowering Resilience is devoted to contributing to political stability by capitalizing on the resilience of the Liberian people who endured the civil conflict.

Improving Newborn Infant Health in Developing Countries

Author: Anthony Costello,Dharma Manandhar

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1783262397

Category: Medical

Page: 608

View: 5626

Until recently policy makers and health professionals in developing countries have neglected newborn care, even though 70% of infant deaths occur during the first month of life. The principles of essential newborn care are simple: resuscitation, warmth to avoid hypothermia, early breast-feeding, hygiene, support for the mother-infant relationship, and early treatment for low birth weight or sick infants. Putting these principles into practice does not require expensive high technology equipment. This important book has been written by experts in newborn care, mostly from developing countries in south Asia. It contains a review of the current health status of mothers and newborn infants in the developing world, the evidence base for cost-effective essential and preventive neonatal interventions in poor communities, ideas for improving service delivery, and the priorities for future action and research. Contents:Current Status of Newborn Infants and Perinatal Health in South AsiaSocial, Economic and Cultural Aspects of Motherhood in South AsiaCost-Effective Essential Newborn Care in Poor Communities: The Evidence-BaseImproving Health Service DeliveryChallenges for Future Policy Implementation and Research Readership: Paediatricians, obstetricians, development workers, and tropical medicine and public health specialists. Keywords:Developing Countries;Asphyxia;Low Birth Weight;Neonates;Neurodevelopmental Morbidity and Outcome;High Risk Follow Up;Growth and Cognitive Outcome;Achievements-Social and School;Perinatal Health Indicators;Causes of Mortality;Nutritional Care of the Newborns;Breastfeedng Practices;Maternal Care Indicators;Contraceptive Use;Health Care Services and Utilization of Health Care Services;Pakistan;Newborn Health;Safe Motherhood;Lowcost Newborn Care;Newborn Problems;Perinatal mortality;Infection and Perinatal Period;Neonatal Sepsis;KMCReviews:“It makes enjoyable and interesting reading and is an excellent educational source, a must for anyone intending to be involved with newborn health in South Asia.”Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Health Financing and Delivery in Vietnam

Looking Forward

Author: Samuel S. Lieberman,Adam Wagstaff

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821377833

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 171

View: 5840

Vietnam's successes in the health sector are legendary. Its rates of infant and under-five mortality are comparable to those of countries with substantially higher per capita incomes. However, challenges remain in how to further expand coverage, increase quality of care, and contain the rapidly increasing health care costs.

Capitalizing on the Demographic Transition

Tackling Noncommunicable Diseases in South Asia

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821387243

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 184

View: 6214

Increasing life expectancy in South Asia is resulting in a demographic transition that can, under the right circumstances, yield dividends through more favorable dependency ratios for a time. With aging, the disease burden shifts toward noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) which can threaten healthy aging. However, securing the gains expected from the demographic dividend—where developing countries’ working and nondependent population increases and per capita income thus rises— is both achievable and affordable through efficiently tacking NCDs with prevention and control efforts. This book looks primarily at cardiovascular disease (CVD) and tobacco use since they account for a disproportionate amount of the NCD burden—the focus is strategic, rather than comprehensive. The goal of this book is to encourage countries to develop, adopt, and implement effective and timely country and, where appropriate, regional responses that reduce both population-level risk factors and the NCD burden. The work develops (i) an NCD burden and risk factor profile for all countries and the region as a whole; (ii) a rationale for public policy and action for NCDs; (iii) a framework to guide the formulation of public policies and strategies for NCDs; (iv) a country profile, including capacity and ongoing NCD activities, as well as policy options and actions for NCDs that will help stimulate policy dialogue within and among countries; and (v) a regional strategy for NCD prevention and control where regional collaboration offers added value. The achievements of this book are (i) developing a framework for policy options to identify key areas for strategic country- and regional-level policy and actions; (ii) bringing together demographic and aging trends, disease and risk factor burden data, alongside analyses of capacities and accomplishments to tackle NCDs; and (iii) using these inputs to develop policy options for country and regional strategies.

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 9)

Improving Health and Reducing Poverty

Author: Dean T. Jamison,Hellen Gelband,Susan Horton,Prabhat Jha,Charles N. Mock,Rachel Nugent

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464805288

Category: Medical

Page: 426

View: 8283

As the culminating volume in the DCP3 series, volume 9 will provide an overview of DCP3 findings and methods, a summary of messages and substantive lessons to be taken from DCP3, and a further discussion of cross-cutting and synthesizing topics across the first eight volumes. The introductory chapters (1-3) in this volume take as their starting point the elements of the Essential Packages presented in the overview chapters of each volume. First, the chapter on intersectoral policy priorities for health includes fiscal and intersectoral policies and assembles a subset of the population policies and applies strict criteria for a low-income setting in order to propose a "highest-priority" essential package. Second, the chapter on packages of care and delivery platforms for universal health coverage (UHC) includes health sector interventions, primarily clinical and public health services, and uses the same approach to propose a highest priority package of interventions and policies that meet similar criteria, provides cost estimates, and describes a pathway to UHC.

Innovations in Health Service Delivery

The Corporatization of Public Hospitals

Author: Alexander S. Preker,April Harding

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821344941

Category: Medical

Page: 618

View: 4001

As the largest expenditure category of the health systems in both industrialised and developing countries, hospital care provision has been the focus of reforms over recent decades. This publication reviews recent trends in hospital policy reforms and options around the world; and includes case studies which offer insights into lessons learned. Issues considered include: differences in income levels, cultural settings and market environments; organisational changes such as increased management autonomy and privatisation; the need for parallel reforms and effective evaluation mechanisms.

Creating Evidence for Better Health Financing Decisions

A Strategic Guide for the Institutionalization of National Health Accounts

Author: Akiko Maeda,Margareta Norris Harrit,Shunsuke Mabuchi,Banafsheh Siadat,Somil Nagpal

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821394703

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 3564

This report summarize the experience since 2008 of the global efforts coordinated by the World Bank to use National Health Accounts (NHA) to better assess sources and allocation of public, donor and private health expenditures and inform countries' health financing policies.

Managing the Quality of Health Care in Developing Countries

Author: Willy De Geyndt

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821330920

Category: Social Science

Page: 80

View: 2246

World Bank Technical Paper No. 258. Quality of health care is a complex concept interwoven with value judgments about what constitutes good quality. This lack of linearity partly explains the large number of definitions of the concept of quality an

The Impact of Health Insurance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Author: Maria-Luisa Escobar,Charles C. Griffin,R. Paul Shaw

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815705611

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 8954

Over the past twenty years, many low- and middle-income countries have experimented with health insurance options. While their plans have varied widely in scale and ambition, their goals are the same: to make health services more affordable through the use of public subsidies while also moving care providers partially or fully into competitive markets. Colombia embarked in 1993 on a fifteen-year effort to cover its entire population with insurance, in combination with greater freedom to choose among providers. A decade later Mexico followed suit with a program tailored to its federal system. Several African nations have introduced new programs in the past decade, and many are testing options for reform. For the past twenty years, Eastern Europe has been shifting from government-run care to insurance-based competitive systems, and both China and India have experimental programs to expand coverage. These nations are betting that insurance-based health care financing can increase the accessibility of services, increase providers' productivity, and change the population's health care use patterns, mirroring the development of health systems in most OECD countries. Until now, however, we have known little about the actual effects of these dramatic policy changes. Understanding the impact of health insurance–based care is key to the public policy debate of whether to extend insurance to low-income populations—and if so, how to do it—or to serve them through other means. Using recent household data, this book presents evidence of the impact of insurance programs in China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ghana, Indonesia, Namibia, and Peru. The contributors also discuss potential design improvements that could increase impact. They provide innovative insights on improving the evaluation of health insurance reforms and on building a robust knowledge base to guide policy as other countries tackle the health insurance challenge.

Social Health Insurance for Developing Nations

Author: R. Paul Shaw

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821369504

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 172

View: 7039

Specialist groups have often advised health ministers and other decision makers in developing countries on the use of social health insurance (SHI) as a way of mobilizing revenue for health, reforming health sector performance, and providing universal coverage. This book reviews the specific design and implementation challenges facing SHI in low- and middle-income countries and presents case studies on Ghana, Kenya, Philippines, Colombia, and Thailand.

Going Universal

How 24 Developing Countries are Implementing Universal Health Coverage from the Bottom Up

Author: Daniel Cotlear,Somil Nagpal,Owen Smith,Ajay Tandon,Rafael Cortez

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480611X

Category: Medical

Page: 286

View: 2019

This book is about 24 developing countries that have embarked on the journey towards universal health coverage (UHC) following a bottom-up approach, with a special focus on the poor and vulnerable, through a systematic data collection that provides practical insights to policymakers and practitioners. Each of the UHC programs analyzed in this book is seeking to overcome the legacy of inequality by tackling both a “financing gap†? and a “provision gap†?: the financing gap (or lower per capita spending on the poor) by spending additional resources in a pro-poor way; the provision gap (or underperformance of service delivery for the poor) by expanding supply and changing incentives in a variety of ways. The prevailing view seems to indicate that UHC require not just more money, but also a focus on changing the rules of the game for spending health system resources. The book does not attempt to identify best practices, but rather aims to help policy makers understand the options they face, and help develop a new operational research agenda. The main chapters are focused on providing a granular understanding of policy design, while the appendixes offer a systematic review of the literature attempting to evaluate UHC program impact on access to services, on financial protection, and on health outcomes.

Natural Resources and Violent Conflict

Options and Actions

Author: Ian Bannon,Paul Collier

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821355039

Category: Nature

Page: 409

View: 3842

Research carried out by the World Bank on the root causes of conflict and civil war finds that a developing country's economic dependence on natural resources or other primary commodities is strongly associated with the risk level for violent conflict. This book brings together a collection of reports and case studies that explore what the international community in particular can do to reduce this risk.; The text explains the links between natural resources and conflict and examines the impact of resource dependence on economic performance, governance, secessionist movements and revel financing. It then explores avenues for international action - from financial and resource reporting procedures and policy recommendations to commodity tracking systems and enforcement instruments, including sanctions, certification requirements, aid conditionality, legislative and judicial instruments.

Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development

A Synthesis of 11 Country Case Studies

Author: Akiko Maeda,Edson Araujo,Cheryl Cashin,Joseph Harris,Naoki Ikegami,Michael R. Reich

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480298X

Category: Medical

Page: 72

View: 7588

The goals of universal health coverage (UHC) are to ensure that all people can access quality health services, to safeguard all people from public health risks, and to protect all people from impoverishment due to illness, whether from out-of-pocket payments for health care or loss of income when a household member falls sick. Countries as diverse as Brazil, France, Japan, Thailand, and Turkey have shown how UHC can serve as vital mechanisms for improving the health and welfare of their citizens, and lay the foundation for economic growth and competitiveness grounded in the principles of equity and sustainability. Ensuring universal access to affordable, quality health services will be an important contribution to ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where most of the world's poor live. The book synthesizes the experiences from 11 countries – Bangladesh, Brazil, France, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam – in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The study examined the UHC policies for each country around three common themes: (i) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (ii) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (iii) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The findings from these country studies are intended to provide lessons that can be used by countries aspiring to adopt, achieve, and sustain UHC. Although the path to UHC is specific to each country, countries can benefit from the experiences of others in learning about different approaches and avoiding potential risks.

Organisational Capacity Building in Health Systems

Author: Niyi Awofeso

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415521793

Category: Medical

Page: 286

View: 5633

Capacity building – which focuses on understanding the obstacles that prevent organisations from realising their goals, while promoting those features that help them to achieve measurable and sustainable results – is vital to improve the delivery of health care in both developed and developing countries. Organisations are important structural building blocks of health systems because they provide platforms for delivery of curative and preventive health services, and facilitate health workforce financing and functions. Organisational capacity building involves more than training and equipment and this book discusses management capacity to restructure systems, structures and roles strategically to optimise organisational performance in healthcare. Examining the topic in a practical and comprehensive way, Organisational Capacity Building in Health Systems is divided into five parts, looking at: What health organisations are and do Management and leadership in health organisations How to build capacity in health systems Building capacity in a range of health system contexts Dealing with challenges in building capacity and evaluating work Looking at how to effectively design, implement and evaluate organisational capacity building initiatives, this book is ideal for public health, health promotion and health management researchers, students and practitioners.

Health and Health Care in Developing Countries

Sociological Perspectives

Author: Peter Conrad

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 9781439901403

Category: Medical

Page: 337

View: 6594

The volume covers a range of areas, central Africa, Nigeria, Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia, Nepal, China, United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Mexico, and a broad scope of topics, from emergency care, the AIDS epidemic, and women's health care, to public health programs and national health care policies. Contributors address the central question of whether health systems in developing areas should emphasize the role of clinical medicine and individual physicians or community and preventive medical resources. The major health problems faced by these societies, inadequate sanitation, infectious disease, high infant-child mortality, and a lack of family planning, indicate the greater need for health educators and public health workers despite many poor nations' desire for Western doctors. Other topics that are examined include the process of seeking medical aid; the relationship between traditional and modern medicines; medical education, hospital care, and communication between doctors and patients in developing countries; and the relevance and application of sociology in Third World settings. This volume seeks to draw attention to the significance of medical sociology for understanding Third World health problems and to show how examining developing societies may necessitate reframing or modifying some Western sociological notions.