Interaction of Radiation with Matter

Author: Hooshang Nikjoo,Shuzo Uehara,Dimitris Emfietzoglou

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1466509600

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 1572

Interaction of Radiation with Matter focuses on the physics of the interactions of ionizing radiation in living matter and the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation tracks. Clearly progressing from an elementary level to the state of the art, the text explores the classical physics of track description as well as modern aspects based on condensed matter physics. The first section of the book discusses the fundamentals of the radiation field. In the second section, the authors describe the cross sections for electrons and heavy ions—the most important information needed for simulating radiation track at the molecular level. The third section details the inelastic scattering and energy loss of charged particles in condensed media, particularly liquid water. The final section contains a large number of questions and problems to reinforce learning. Designed for radiation interaction courses, this textbook is the ideal platform for teaching students in medical/health physics and nuclear engineering. It gives students a solid grounding in the physical understanding of radiation track structure in living matter, enabling them to pursue further work in radiological physics and radiation dosimetry.

Interaction of Particles and Radiation with Matter

Author: Vsevolod V. Balashov

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642643835

Category: Science

Page: 238

View: 2244

Beginning with a concise introduction on the constituents of matter (elementary particles, atomic nuclei, atoms and molecules), this course on the structure of matter focuses on the interaction of particles and radiation with matter. The course is divided into fourteen lectures with each ranging from physical fundamentals to current topics in subatomic and atomic research, thus making links to modern applications. Currently important topics such as channeling, the interaction between molecular ions and matter, and muon-catalyzed fusion are also discussed. The text is suitable as an introduction for graduate students and as a reference for scientists.

Interaction of Photons and Neutrons with Matter

An Introduction

Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Michael Kotlarchyk

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810220266

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 607

This book is based on lecture notes developed for a one-semester graduate course entitled The Interaction of Radiation with Matter, taught in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The main objective of the course is to teach enough quantum and classical radiation theory to allow students in engineering and the applied sciences to understand and have access to the vast literature on applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in materials research. Besides presenting the fundamental physics of radiation interactions, the book devotes individual chapters to some of the important modern-day experimental tools, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, photon correlation spectroscopy, and the various types of neutron, x-ray and light-scattering techniques.

Interactions of Photons and Neutrons with Matter

Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Michael Kotlarchyk

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981024214X

Category: Science

Page: 441

View: 3779

This invaluable book is based on lecture notes developed for a one-semester graduate course entitled "Interaction of Radiation with Matter", taught in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The main objective of the course is to teach enough quantum and classical radiation theory to allow students in engineering and the applied sciences to understand and have access to the vast literature on applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in materials research. Besides presenting the fundamental physics of radiation interactions, the book devotes individual chapters to some of the important modern-day experimental tools, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, photon correlation spectroscopy, and the various types of neutron, x-ray, and light-scattering techniques. This new edition contains added sections on such subjects as synchrotron radiation, neutron spin echo, and diffusive wave spectroscopy. End-of-chapter problems have also been added.

Atoms, Nuclei, and Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter

Author: C-K Chris Wang

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781516552719

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 7245

Intended for graduate-level introductory courses in nuclear physics and radiation interaction, Atoms, Nuclei, and Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter gives students the foundation needed to study specialized subjects such as nuclear reactor physics, radiation transport methods, radiation detection, and radiation dosimetry. The text discusses the modern physics relevant to radiation interaction beginning with a condensed examination of nuclear physics and radioactive decay. There is an examination of nuclear reaction kinematics and how the different types of radiation engage in various types of nuclear or atomic interactions with matter. The interaction probability is discussed in term of "cross section." Both classical mechanics and wave mechanics are used to derive the cross section formulas. Specific examples are given when classical mechanics breaks down and quantum mechanics prevails. Extensively class-tested, the material in Atoms, Nuclei, and Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter successfully links three closely-related subjects so that they can be taught in a succinct, one-semester course. The book is intended to serve as the primary text for entry-level radiation physics courses for students majoring in nuclear engineering, health physics, or medical physics. C-K Chris Wang, who earned his Ph.D. at Ohio State University, is a professor of nuclear engineering and medical physics at Georgia Tech in Atlanta. Dr. Wang has published extensively in neutron dosimetry, detection, spectrometry, and radiobiological modeling. His other areas of expertise include nuclear physics, radiation interaction, Monte Carlo methods in radiation transport, radiation protection and shielding, nuclear criticality safety, micro/nanodosimetry, and high-LET radiotherapy.

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

Author: James E. Turner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527616985

Category: Science

Page: 606

View: 3865

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of radiation are thoroughly described. Basic principles are illustrated with an abundance of worked examples that exemplify practical applications. Chapters include problem sets (with partial answers) and extensive tables and graphs for continued use as a reference work. This completely revised and enlarged third edition includes thorough updates of the material, including the latest recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP.

Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter

Chemical, Physicochemical, and Biological Consequences with Applications

Author: A. Mozumder,Yoshihiko Hatano

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203913284

Category: Science

Page: 860

View: 8108

Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter offers in-depth perspectives on phenomena of ionization and excitation induced by charged particle and photon interactions with matter in vivo and in vitro. This reference probes concepts not only in radiation and photochemistry, but also in radiation physics, radiation biochemistry, and radiation biology as well as recent applications in medicine and material, environmental, space, and biological science and engineering. It studies reports on the interactions of high-energy photons, specifically in the vacuum ultraviolet-soft X-ray region to offer fundamental information on the primary processes of the interactions of charged particles with matter.

Principles of Radiation Interaction in Matter and Detection

Author: Claude Leroy,Pier-Giorgio Rancoita

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814603201

Category: Science

Page: 1344

View: 3820

The fourth edition of this book has been widely revised. It includes additional chapters and some sections are complemented with either new ones or an extension of their content. In this latest edition a complete treatment of the physics and properties of semiconductors is presented, covering transport phenomena in semiconductors, scattering mechanisms, radiation effects and displacement damages. Furthermore, this edition presents a comprehensive treatment of the Coulomb scattering on screened nuclear potentials resulting from electrons, protons, light- and heavy-ions — ranging from (very) low up to ultra-relativistic kinetic energies — and allowing one to derive the corresponding NIEL (non-ionizing energy-loss) doses deposited in any material. The contents are organized into two parts: Chapters 1 to 7 cover Particle Interactions and Displacement Damage while the remaining chapters focus on Radiation Environments and Particle Detection. This book can serve as reference for graduate students and final-year undergraduates and also as supplement for courses in particle, astroparticle, space physics and instrumentation. A section of the book is directed toward courses in medical physics. Researchers in experimental particle physics at low, medium, and high energy who are dealing with instrumentation will also find the book useful. Contents:Particle Interactions and Displacement Damage:IntroductionElectromagnetic Interaction of Charged Particles in MatterPhoton Interaction and Electromagnetic Cascades in MatterNuclear Interactions in MatterPhysics and Properties of Silicon SemiconductorTransport Phenomena in SemiconductorsRadiation Effects and Displacement Damage in SemiconductorsRadiation Environments and Particle Detection:Radiation Environments and Damage in SemiconductorsScintillating Media and Scintillator DetectorsSolid State DetectorsDisplacement Damages and Interactions in Semiconductor DevicesGas Filled ChambersPrinciples of Particle Energy DeterminationSuperheated Droplet (Bubble) Detectors and CDM SearchMedical Physics ApplicationsAppendices:General Properties and ConstantsMathematics and Statistics Readership: Researchers, academics, graduate students and professionals in accelerator, particle, astroparticle, space, applied and medical physics. Key Features:Exceptional large coverage of the different types of detectors used in particle and nuclear physics and their principles of detectionKeywords:Radiation Interaction in Matter;Solid State Detectors;Scintillator Detectors;Gas Filled Chamber Detectors;Energy Determination;Dark Matter;Double Beta Decay;Processes of Energy Deposition;Radiation Damages;Medical Physics Applications "The fourth edition has been extensively revised and offers additional chapters. It presents a comprehensive treatment of the Coulomb scattering on screened nuclear potentials resulting from electrons, positrons, protons, light- and heavy-ions and allowing one to derive the corresponding NIEL doses deposited in any material and compound, because of atomic displacements caused by the interaction." Professor Karel Kudela Institute of Experimental Physics

Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter

Recent Advances, Applications, and Interfaces

Author: Yoshihiko Hatano,Yosuke Katsumura,A. Mozumder

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439811801

Category: Science

Page: 1064

View: 4099

Building on Mozumder’s and Hatano’s Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter: Chemical, Physicochemical, and Biological Consequences with Applications (CRC Press, 2004), Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter: Recent Advances, Applications, and Interfaces expands upon the scientific contents of the previous volume by covering state-of-the-art advances, novel applications, and future perspectives. It focuses on relatively direct applications used mainly in radiation research fields as well as the interface between radiation research and other fields. The book first explores the latest studies on primary processes (the physical stage), particularly on the energy deposition spectra and oscillator strength distributions of molecules interacting with charged particles and photons. Other studies discussed include the use of synchrotron radiation in W-value studies and the progress achieved with positrons and muons interacting with matter. It then introduces new theoretical studies on the physicochemical and chemical stages that describe the behavior of electrons in liquid hydrocarbons and the high-LET radiolysis of liquid water. The book also presents new experimental research on the physicochemical and chemical stages with specific characteristics of matter or specific experimental conditions, before covering new experimental studies on the biological stage. The last set of chapters focuses on applications in health physics and cancer therapy, applications to polymers, the applications and interface formation in space science and technology, and applications for the research and development of radiation detectors, environmental conservation, plant breeding, and nuclear engineering. Edited by preeminent scientists and with contributions from an esteemed group of international experts, this volume advances the field by offering greater insight into how charged particles and photons interact with matter. Bringing together topics across a spectrum of scientific and technological areas, it provides clear explanations of the dynamic processes involved in and applications of interface formation.

Physics and Engineering of Radiation Detection

Author: Syed Naeem Ahmed

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128016442

Category: Science

Page: 784

View: 3495

Physics and Engineering of Radiation Detection presents an overview of the physics of radiation detection and its applications. It covers the origins and properties of different kinds of ionizing radiation, their detection and measurement, and the procedures used to protect people and the environment from their potentially harmful effects. The second edition is fully revised and provides the latest developments in detector technology and analyses software. Also, more material related to measurements in particle physics and a complete solutions manual have been added. Discusses the experimental techniques and instrumentation used in different detection systems in a very practical way without sacrificing the physics content Provides useful formulae and explains methodologies to solve problems related to radiation measurements Contains many worked-out examples and end-of-chapter problems Detailed discussions on different detection media, such as gases, liquids, liquefied gases, semiconductors, and scintillators Chapters on statistics, data analysis techniques, software for data analysis, and data acquisition systems

Collective Effects in Quantum Statistics of Radiation and Matter

Author: V.N. Popov,V.S. Yarunin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027727350

Category: Science

Page: 215

View: 9905

Material particles, electrons, atoms, molecules, interact with one another by means of electromagnetic forces. That is, these forces are the cause of their being combined into condensed (liquid or solid) states. In these condensed states, the motion of the particles relative to one another proceeds in orderly fashion; their individual properties as well as the electric and magnetic dipole moments and the radiation and absorption spectra, ordinarily vary little by comparison with their properties in the free state. Exceptiotls are the special so-called collective states of condensed media that are formed under phase transitions of the second kind. The collective states of matter are characterized to a high degree by the micro-ordering that arises as a result of the interaction between the particles and which is broken down by chaotic thermal motion under heating. Examples of such pheonomena are the superfluidity of liquid helium, and the superconductivity and ferromagnetism of metals, which exist only at temperatures below the critical temperature. At low temperature states the particles do not exhibit their individual characteristics and conduct themselves as a single whole in many respects. They flow along capillaries in ordered fashion and create an undamped current in a conductor or a macroscopic magnetic moment. In this regard the material acquires special properties that are not usually inherent to it.

Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds

Author: Boris Ildusovich Kharisov,Oxana Vasilievna Kharissova,Ubaldo Ortiz Mendez

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466505230

Category: Science

Page: 586

View: 9267

Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders in the areas of radiation synthesis of materials and radiation damage, providing thorough and expert information for a wide range of readers, including advanced students, researchers, industrial practitioners, and university educators.

Physics and Radiobiology of Nuclear Medicine

Author: Gopal B. Saha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461440122

Category: Medical

Page: 356

View: 8106

The Fourth Edition of Dr. Gopal B. Saha’s Physics and Radiobiology of Nuclear Medicine was prompted by the need to provide up-to-date information to keep pace with the perpetual growth and improvement in the instrumentation and techniques employed in nuclear medicine since the last edition published in 2006. Like previous editions, the book is intended for radiology and nuclear medicine residents to prepare for the American Board of Nuclear Medicine, American Board of Radiology, and American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine examinations, all of which require a strong physics background. Additionally, the book will serve as a textbook on nuclear medicine physics for nuclear medicine technologists taking the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board examination. The Fourth Edition includes new or expanded sections and information for: * PET/MR, including the attenuation correction method and its quality control tests; * accreditation of nuclear medicine and PET facilities; * solid state digital cameras; * time of flight and scatter correction techniques; * CT scanners and attenuation correction in SPECT/CT; * partial volume effects; * quality control of CT scanners; * ion chamber survey meters, proportional counters, and G-M counters.

Molecular Imaging

Radiopharmaceuticals for PET and SPECT

Author: Shankar Vallabhajosula

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540767355

Category: Medical

Page: 372

View: 7785

Radioisotope-based molecular imaging probes provide unprecedented insight into biochemistry and function involved in both normal and disease states of living systems, with unbiased in vivo measurement of regional radiotracer activities offering very high specificity and sensitivity. No other molecular imaging technology including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide such high sensitivity and specificity at a tracer level. The applications of this technology can be very broad ranging from drug development, pharmacokinetics, clinical investigations, and finally to routine diagnostics in radiology. The design and the development of radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging studies using PET/MicroPET or SPECT/MicroSPECT are a unique challenge. This book is intended for a broad audience and written with the main purpose of educating the reader on various aspects including potential clinical utility, limitations of drug development, and regulatory compliance and approvals.

Fundamentals of Nuclear Science - Application in Agriculture

Author: H. Chandrasekharan,Navindu Gupta

Publisher: Northern Book Centre

ISBN: 9788172112004

Category: Nuclear energy

Page: 260

View: 8348

This book is based on the compilation of lecture notes on nuclear techniques in agriculture and biology, prepared and updated for students of PG School, IARI, New Delhi during the past 16 years. The book contains three parts, namely, Fundamentals of Nuclear Science (covering the basic features), Applications (comprising essential application with focus on agriculture) and Appendices (consisting of bibliography, nuclear terms, radioactive decay charts, select constants and abbreviations used). Salient Features • Language is lucid and informal. • Unique in terms of its contents and 88 illustrations and 11 photographs that simplify and encourage the readers in understanding the approach and theory. • Recent developments in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance have been discussed. • Provides a comprehensive view of the potentialities of nuclear science and its application. • Contains clarity and high level of precision in presenting the subject matter. • A detailed bibliography for further reading. • Detail contents at the begining facilitate quick revision. • Can be used either as a textbook or for supplementary reading in colleges, universities and research institutions dealing with applications of nuclear techniques. • Would be of immense help to the academic community at large. In short, the flawless presentation on various aspects of nuclear applications is expected to enrich biologists and agricultural scientists to easily understand not only the basic concepts but also essentials on the application of the nuclear energy in a variety of ways for research and in agriculture.

Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis, Sixth Edition

Author: James W. Robinson,Eileen M. Skelly Frame,George M. Frame II

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849306501

Category: Science

Page: 1079

View: 1011

Completely rewritten, revised, and updated, this Sixth Edition reflects the latest technologies and applications in spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chromatography. It illustrates practices and methods specific to each major chemical analytical technique while showcasing innovations and trends currently impacting the field. Many of the chapters have been individually reviewed by teaching professors and include descriptions of the fundamental principles underlying each technique, demonstrations of the instrumentation, and new problem sets and suggested experiments appropriate to the topic. About the authors... JAMES W. ROBINSON is Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. A Fellow of the Royal Chemical Society, he is the author of over 200 professional papers and book chapters and several books including Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Atomic Spectroscopy. He was Executive Editor of Spectroscopy Letters and the Journal of Environmental Science and Health (both titles, Marcel Dekker, Inc.) and the Handbook of Spectroscopy and the Practical Handbook of Spectroscopy (both titles, CRC Press). He received the B.Sc. (1949), Ph.D. (1952), and D.Sc. (1978) degrees from the University of Birmingham, England. EILEEN M. SKELLY FRAME recently was Clinical Assistant Professor and Visiting Research Professor, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. Dr. Skelly Frame has extensive practical experience in the use of instrumental analysis to characterize a wide variety of substances, from biological samples and cosmetics to high temperature superconductors, polymers, metals, and alloys. Her industrial career includes supervisory roles at GE Corporate Research and Development, Stauffer Chemical Corporate R&D, and the Research Triangle Institute. She is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Society for Applied Spectroscopy, and the American Society for Testing and Materials. Dr. Skelly Frame received the B.S. degree in chemistry from Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. GEORGE M. FRAME II is Scientific Director, Chemical Biomonitoring Section of the Wadsworth Laboratory, New York State Department of Health, Albany. He has a wide range of experience in the field and has worked at the GE Corporate R&D Center, Pfizer Central Research, the U.S. Coast Guard R&D Center, the Maine Medical Center, and the USAF Biomedical Sciences Corps. He is an American Chemical Society member. Dr. Frame received the B.A. degree in chemistry from Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the Ph.D. degree in analytical chemistry from Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.