Interaction of Radiation with Matter

Author: Hooshang Nikjoo,Shuzo Uehara,Dimitris Emfietzoglou

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1466509600

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 2118

Interaction of Radiation with Matter focuses on the physics of the interactions of ionizing radiation in living matter and the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation tracks. Clearly progressing from an elementary level to the state of the art, the text explores the classical physics of track description as well as modern aspects based on condensed matter physics. The first section of the book discusses the fundamentals of the radiation field. In the second section, the authors describe the cross sections for electrons and heavy ions—the most important information needed for simulating radiation track at the molecular level. The third section details the inelastic scattering and energy loss of charged particles in condensed media, particularly liquid water. The final section contains a large number of questions and problems to reinforce learning. Designed for radiation interaction courses, this textbook is the ideal platform for teaching students in medical/health physics and nuclear engineering. It gives students a solid grounding in the physical understanding of radiation track structure in living matter, enabling them to pursue further work in radiological physics and radiation dosimetry.

Principles of Radiation Interaction in Matter and Detection (4th Edition)

Author: Claude Leroy

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814603198

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1344

View: 353

"The fourth edition of this book has been widely revised. It includes additional chapters and some sections are complemented with either new ones or an extension of their content. In this latest edition a complete treatment of the physics and properties of semiconductors is presented, covering transport phenomena in semiconductors, scattering mechanisms, radiation effects and displacement damages. Furthermore, this edition presents a comprehensive treatment of the Coulomb scattering on screened nuclear potentials resulting from electrons, protons, light- and heavy-ions -- ranging from (very) low up to ultra-relativistic kinetic energies -- and allowing one to derive the corresponding NIEL (non-ionizing energy-loss) doses deposited in any material. The contents are organized into two parts: Chapters 1 to 7 cover Particle Interactions and Displacement Damage while the remaining chapters focus on Radiation Environments and Particle Detection. This book can serve as reference for graduate students and final-year undergraduates and also as supplement for courses in particle, astroparticle, space physics and instrumentation. A section of the book is directed toward courses in medical physics. Researchers in experimental particle physics at low, medium, and high energy who are dealing with instrumentation will also find the book useful."--

Interaction of Particles and Radiation with Matter

Author: Vsevolod V. Balashov

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642643835

Category: Science

Page: 238

View: 3234

Beginning with a concise introduction on the constituents of matter (elementary particles, atomic nuclei, atoms and molecules), this course on the structure of matter focuses on the interaction of particles and radiation with matter. The course is divided into fourteen lectures with each ranging from physical fundamentals to current topics in subatomic and atomic research, thus making links to modern applications. Currently important topics such as channeling, the interaction between molecular ions and matter, and muon-catalyzed fusion are also discussed. The text is suitable as an introduction for graduate students and as a reference for scientists.

Interactions of Photons and Neutrons with Matter

Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Michael Kotlarchyk

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981024214X

Category: Science

Page: 441

View: 1514

This invaluable book is based on lecture notes developed for a one-semester graduate course entitled "Interaction of Radiation with Matter", taught in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The main objective of the course is to teach enough quantum and classical radiation theory to allow students in engineering and the applied sciences to understand and have access to the vast literature on applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in materials research. Besides presenting the fundamental physics of radiation interactions, the book devotes individual chapters to some of the important modern-day experimental tools, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, photon correlation spectroscopy, and the various types of neutron, x-ray, and light-scattering techniques. This new edition contains added sections on such subjects as synchrotron radiation, neutron spin echo, and diffusive wave spectroscopy. End-of-chapter problems have also been added.

Interaction of Photons and Neutrons with Matter

An Introduction

Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Michael Kotlarchyk

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810220266

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 3735

This book is based on lecture notes developed for a one-semester graduate course entitled The Interaction of Radiation with Matter, taught in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The main objective of the course is to teach enough quantum and classical radiation theory to allow students in engineering and the applied sciences to understand and have access to the vast literature on applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in materials research. Besides presenting the fundamental physics of radiation interactions, the book devotes individual chapters to some of the important modern-day experimental tools, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, photon correlation spectroscopy, and the various types of neutron, x-ray and light-scattering techniques.

Atoms, Nuclei, and Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter

Author: C-K Chris Wang

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781516552719

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 9839

Intended for graduate-level introductory courses in nuclear physics and radiation interaction, Atoms, Nuclei, and Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter gives students the foundation needed to study specialized subjects such as nuclear reactor physics, radiation transport methods, radiation detection, and radiation dosimetry. The text discusses the modern physics relevant to radiation interaction beginning with a condensed examination of nuclear physics and radioactive decay. There is an examination of nuclear reaction kinematics and how the different types of radiation engage in various types of nuclear or atomic interactions with matter. The interaction probability is discussed in term of "cross section." Both classical mechanics and wave mechanics are used to derive the cross section formulas. Specific examples are given when classical mechanics breaks down and quantum mechanics prevails. Extensively class-tested, the material in Atoms, Nuclei, and Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter successfully links three closely-related subjects so that they can be taught in a succinct, one-semester course. The book is intended to serve as the primary text for entry-level radiation physics courses for students majoring in nuclear engineering, health physics, or medical physics. C-K Chris Wang, who earned his Ph.D. at Ohio State University, is a professor of nuclear engineering and medical physics at Georgia Tech in Atlanta. Dr. Wang has published extensively in neutron dosimetry, detection, spectrometry, and radiobiological modeling. His other areas of expertise include nuclear physics, radiation interaction, Monte Carlo methods in radiation transport, radiation protection and shielding, nuclear criticality safety, micro/nanodosimetry, and high-LET radiotherapy.

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

Author: James E. Turner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527616985

Category: Science

Page: 606

View: 2845

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of radiation are thoroughly described. Basic principles are illustrated with an abundance of worked examples that exemplify practical applications. Chapters include problem sets (with partial answers) and extensive tables and graphs for continued use as a reference work. This completely revised and enlarged third edition includes thorough updates of the material, including the latest recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP.

Hendee's Radiation Therapy Physics

Author: Todd Pawlicki,Daniel J. Scanderbeg,George Starkschall

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470376511

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 7243

This completely updated and revised new edition of Radiation Therapy Physics contains comprehensive, balanced coverage of the fundamental radiation physics principles and its clinical applications. Since publication of the ground-breaking first edition in the 1970s, high-energy x-ray and electron beams have increasingly become the preferred approach to the radiation treatment of many cancers. Obviously, too, the use of computers has become pervasive in radiation therapy. Imaging techniques and computers are now used routinely in treatment planning, and sophisticated methods are available for overlaying anatomical images with computer generated multidimensional treatment plans. Treatment procedures such as conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, high dose-rate brachytherapy, and image-guided and image-guided and adaptive radiation therapy have become standard operating procedures in radiation therapy clinics around the world. Calibration protocols have been extensively revised, and quality assurance in radiation therapy has become a subject in itself. These procedures, and others that represent state-of-the-art radiation therapy including quality engineering, are discussed at length in this new edition. The 4th edition has an increased number of chapters (20 compared to 16) and includes new topics of interest to the practicing radiation oncologist and medical physicist:- The chapter on diagnostic imaging has been expanded to include molecular imaging.- A new chapter has been added on proton radiotherapy.- A new chapter has been added on radiation oncology informatics.- A new chapter has been added on quality and safety engineering. - A new chapter on dynamic delivery techniques, explaining the standard (e.g., IMRT) and new treatment techniques (e.g., VMAT). - The treatment planning and brachytherapy chapters omit a detailed explanation of historical techniques that no one uses clinically any longer, in favor of including a new focus on modern computer-based techniques in wide-spread clinical use. - The Problem sections in each chapter have been expanded to include designated ?easy? question designed to give a broad understanding of a topic, and ?hard? questions that would be designed to help the student understand the details of a topic.

Introduction to Radiation Protection

Practical Knowledge for Handling Radioactive Sources

Author: Claus Grupen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642025860

Category: Science

Page: 417

View: 8398

This account of sources of ionizing radiation and methods of radiation protection describes units of radiation protection, measurement techniques, biological effects, environmental radiation and many applications. Each chapter contains problems with solutions.

Structure Elucidation in Organic Chemistry

The Search for the Right Tools

Author: Maria-Magdalena Cid,Jorge Bravo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527664637

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 4146

Intended for advanced readers, this is a review of all relevant techniques for structure analysis in one handy volume. As such, it provides the latest knowledge on spectroscopic and related techniques for chemical structure analysis, such as NMR, optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography, including the scope and limitation of each method. As a result, readers not only become acquainted with the techniques, but also the advantages of the synergy between them. This enables them to choose the correct analytical method for each problem, saving both time and resources. Special emphasis is placed on NMR and its application to absolute configuration determination and the analysis of molecular interactions. Adopting a practical point of view, the author team from academia and industry guarantees both solid methodology and applications essential for structure determination, equipping experts as well as newcomers with the tools to solve any structural problem.

Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter

Recent Advances, Applications, and Interfaces

Author: Yoshihiko Hatano,Yosuke Katsumura,A. Mozumder

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439811801

Category: Science

Page: 1064

View: 680

Building on Mozumder’s and Hatano’s Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter: Chemical, Physicochemical, and Biological Consequences with Applications (CRC Press, 2004), Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter: Recent Advances, Applications, and Interfaces expands upon the scientific contents of the previous volume by covering state-of-the-art advances, novel applications, and future perspectives. It focuses on relatively direct applications used mainly in radiation research fields as well as the interface between radiation research and other fields. The book first explores the latest studies on primary processes (the physical stage), particularly on the energy deposition spectra and oscillator strength distributions of molecules interacting with charged particles and photons. Other studies discussed include the use of synchrotron radiation in W-value studies and the progress achieved with positrons and muons interacting with matter. It then introduces new theoretical studies on the physicochemical and chemical stages that describe the behavior of electrons in liquid hydrocarbons and the high-LET radiolysis of liquid water. The book also presents new experimental research on the physicochemical and chemical stages with specific characteristics of matter or specific experimental conditions, before covering new experimental studies on the biological stage. The last set of chapters focuses on applications in health physics and cancer therapy, applications to polymers, the applications and interface formation in space science and technology, and applications for the research and development of radiation detectors, environmental conservation, plant breeding, and nuclear engineering. Edited by preeminent scientists and with contributions from an esteemed group of international experts, this volume advances the field by offering greater insight into how charged particles and photons interact with matter. Bringing together topics across a spectrum of scientific and technological areas, it provides clear explanations of the dynamic processes involved in and applications of interface formation.

The Propagation of Gamma Quanta in Matter

International Series of Monographs on Nuclear Energy

Author: O. I. Leipunskii,B. V. Novozhilov,V. N. Sakharov

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483135942

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 6555

The Propagation of Gamma Quanta in Matter deals with various problems of the propagation and absorption of gamma quanta in matter, including the occurrence of multiple scattering of radiation. A general account of theoretical methods of solving problems of multiple scattering of quanta is presented, with emphasis on the results of solving such problems. This book consists of three chapters and begins with a discussion on the interaction of gamma radiation with matter; multiple scattering of gamma quanta; and the distribution function and quantities connected with it. The next chapter focuses on the theory of multiple scattering of gamma quanta and covers subjects such as the transport equation and its analytical solution; method of moments; method of random sampling; and method of successive collisions. The last chapter examines the propagation of radiation for various geometrical configurations of the sources and absorbing media, paying particular attention to a point source in a homogeneous medium and on the boundary of two media; unidirectional radiation in a homogeneous medium; reflexion of gamma radiation from the surface of a scattering medium; a plane isotropic source; and a thick radiating layer of an absorbing medium. This monograph will appeal to students as well as physicists and engineers engaged in shield design problems.

Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter

Chemical, Physicochemical, and Biological Consequences with Applications

Author: A. Mozumder,Yoshihiko Hatano

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203913284

Category: Science

Page: 860

View: 4101

Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter offers in-depth perspectives on phenomena of ionization and excitation induced by charged particle and photon interactions with matter in vivo and in vitro. This reference probes concepts not only in radiation and photochemistry, but also in radiation physics, radiation biochemistry, and radiation biology as well as recent applications in medicine and material, environmental, space, and biological science and engineering. It studies reports on the interactions of high-energy photons, specifically in the vacuum ultraviolet-soft X-ray region to offer fundamental information on the primary processes of the interactions of charged particles with matter.

Fundamentals of Radiation Chemistry

Author: A. Mozumder

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080532172

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 3397

This book describes the physical and chemical effects of radiation interaction with matter. Beginning with the physical basis for the absorption of charged particle radiations, Fundamentals of Radiation Chemistry provides a systematic account of the formation of products, including the nature and properties of intermediate species. Developed from first principles, the coverage of fundamentals and applications will appeal to an interdisciplinary audience of radiation physicists and radiation biologists. Only an undergraduate background in chemistry and physics is assumed as a prerequisite for the understanding of applications in research and industry. Provides a working knowledge of radiation effects for students and non-experts Stresses the role of the electron both as a radiation and as a reactant species Contains clear diagrams of track models Includes a chapter on applications Written by an expert with more than thirty years of experience in a premiere research laboratory Culled from the author's painstaking research of journals and other publications over several decades

Diagnostic Radiology Physics

A Handbook for Teachers and Students

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency

Publisher: International Atomic Energy Agency

ISBN: 9789201310101

Category: Medical

Page: 707

View: 3179

This publication is aimed at students and teachers involved in programmes that train medical physicists for work in diagnostic radiology. It provides, in the form of a syllabus, a comprehensive overview of the basic medical physics knowledge required for the practice of modern diagnostic radiology. This makes it particularly useful for graduate students and residents in medical physics programmes. The material presented in the publication has been endorsed by the major international organisations and is the foundation for academic and clinical courses in both diagnostic radiology physics and in emerging areas such as imaging in radiotherapy.

Photochemical Purification of Water and Air

Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) - Principles, Reaction Mechanisms, Reactor Concepts

Author: Thomas Oppenländer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527610898

Category: Science

Page: 383

View: 4557

While the treatment of water and exhaust gas using ultraviolet (UV) light offers both ecological and economic advantages, information on photo-initiated advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) has been dispersed among various journals and proceedings until now. This authoritative and comprehensive handbook is the first to cover both the photochemical fundamentals and practical applications, including a description of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and process engineering of suitable photoreactors. The author presents various real-world examples, including economic aspects, while many references to current scientific literature facilitate access to current research topics relevant for water and air industries. Throughout, over 140 detailed figures visualize photochemical and photophysical phenomena, and help in interpreting important research results. From the foreword by James R. Bolton (President of Bolton Photosciences Inc., Executive Director of the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA)): "Prof. Oppenlander is well qualified to write about the AOPs/AOTs, since he has contributed to this literature in a very significant manner. This book will be of considerable value to graduate students, science and engineering faculty, scientists, process engineers and sales engineers in industry, government regulators and health professionals."

Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology

Author: David S. Chang,Foster D. Lasley,Indra J. Das,Marc S. Mendonca,Joseph R. Dynlacht

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319068415

Category: Medical

Page: 348

View: 826

This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a valuable reference for students and prospective students in every discipline of radiation oncology.

Physics and Engineering of Radiation Detection

Author: Syed Naeem Ahmed

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128016442

Category: Science

Page: 784

View: 3809

Physics and Engineering of Radiation Detection presents an overview of the physics of radiation detection and its applications. It covers the origins and properties of different kinds of ionizing radiation, their detection and measurement, and the procedures used to protect people and the environment from their potentially harmful effects. The second edition is fully revised and provides the latest developments in detector technology and analyses software. Also, more material related to measurements in particle physics and a complete solutions manual have been added. Discusses the experimental techniques and instrumentation used in different detection systems in a very practical way without sacrificing the physics content Provides useful formulae and explains methodologies to solve problems related to radiation measurements Contains many worked-out examples and end-of-chapter problems Detailed discussions on different detection media, such as gases, liquids, liquefied gases, semiconductors, and scintillators Chapters on statistics, data analysis techniques, software for data analysis, and data acquisition systems

Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Author: K. Siegbahn

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444596992

Category: Science

Page: 915

View: 6383

Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Volume 1 offers a comprehensive account of radioactivity and related low-energy phenomena. It summarizes progress in the field of alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, including the discovery of the non-conservation of parity, as well as new experimental methods that elucidate the processes of weak interactions in general and beta-decay in particular. Comprised of 14 chapters, the book presents experimental methods and theoretical discussions and calculations to maintain the link between experiment and theory. It begins with a discussion of the interaction of electrons and alpha particles with matter. The book explains the elastic scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei and the interaction between gamma-radiation and matter. It then introduces topic on beta-ray spectrometer theory and design and crystal diffraction spectroscopy of nuclear gamma rays. Moreover, the book discusses the applications of the scintillation counter; proportional counting in gases; and the general processes and procedures used in determining disintegration schemes through a study of the beta- and gamma-rays emitted. In addition, it covers the nuclear shell model; collective nuclear motion and the unified model; and alpha-decay conservation laws. The emissions of gamma-radiation during charged particle bombardment and from fission fragments, as well as the neutron-capture radiation spectroscopy, are also explained. Experimentalists will find this book extremely useful.