Investing in Maternal Health

Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka

Author: Indra Pathmanathan,Jerker Liljestrand

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821353622

Category: Political Science

Page: 182

View: 2375

This study provides the most comprehensive and detailed analysis available on factors behind the decline in maternal mortality in Malaysia and Sri Lanka in the past 50 to 60 years and the magnitude of health system expenditures on maternal health. The main findings are that a modest investment in maternal health services, combined with other poverty reduction measures leads to a fairly rapid decline in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), defined as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The strategies of Malaysia and Sri Lanka changed over time, from an initial emphasis on expanding the provision of services, especially in underserved areas, to increasing utilization and, finally, to emphasizing the improvement of quality. Removing financial barriers to maternal care for clients was an important step in both countries. Professional midwives constitute the backbone of maternal care in Malaysia and Sri Lanka. The MMR reduction in developing countries is feasible with modest public expenditures when appropriate policies are adopted, focused wisely, and adapted incrementally in response to environmental conditions and systems capacity. [World Bank]

Reducing Maternal Mortality

Learning from Bolivia, China, Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe

Author: Marjorie A. Koblinsky

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821353929

Category: Medical

Page: 132

View: 2507

"To assist countries in their efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality, the World Bank is publishing two volumes - Investing in Maternal Health: Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka and Reducing Maternal Mortality: Learning from Bolivia, China, Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe. These two books offer success stories and lessons learned in improving health and reducing maternal mortality in a range of developing countries. The first book is based on the experiences of Malaysia and Sri Lanka during the past five to six decades. The second book discusses the more recent experiences of Bolivia, China (Yunnan), Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe. These nine countries have made important strides in improving maternal health, and these two books outline what worked and what did not."--BOOK JACKET.

Investing in Global Health Systems

Sustaining Gains, Transforming Lives

Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Investing in Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309311721

Category: Medical

Page: 136

View: 3945

The United States has been a generous sponsor of global health programs for the past 25 years or more. This investment has contributed to meaningful changes, especially for women and children, who suffer the brunt of the world's disease and disability. Development experts have long debated the relative merits of vertical health programming, targeted to a specific service or patient group, and horizontal programming, supporting more comprehensive care. The U.S. government has invested heavily in vertical programs, most notably through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), its flagship initiative for HIV and AIDS. PEPFAR and programs like it have met with good success. Protecting these successes and continuing progress in the future depends on the judicious integration of vertical programs with local health systems. A strong health system is the best insurance developing countries can have against a disease burden that is shifting rapidly and in ways that history has not prepared us for. Reaching the poor with development assistance is an increasingly complicated task. The majority of the roughly 1 billion people living in dire poverty are in middle-income countries, where foreign assistance is not necessarily needed or welcome. Many of the rest live in fragile states, where political volatility and weak infrastructure make it difficult to use aid effectively. The poorest people in the world are also the sickest; they are most exposed to disease vectors and infection. Nevertheless, they are less likely to access health services. Improving their lot means removing the systemic barriers that keep the most vulnerable people from gaining such access. Investing in Global Health Systems discusses the past and future of global health. First, the report gives context by laying out broad trends in global health. Next, it discusses the timeliness of American investment in health systems abroad and explains how functional health systems support health, encourage prosperity, and advance global security. Lastly, it lays out, in broad terms, an effective donor strategy for health, suggesting directions for both the manner and substance of foreign aid given. The challenge of the future of aid programming is to sustain the successes of the past 25 years, while reducing dependence on foreign aid. Investing in Global Health Systems aims to help government decision makers assess the rapidly changing social and economic situation in developing countries and its implications for effective development assistance. This report explains how health systems improvements can lead to better health, reduce poverty, and make donor investment in health sustainable.

Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally

A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Board on Global Health,Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309459265

Category: Social Science

Page: 60

View: 7769

Focusing on young children in a global context is an approach to end the cycle of poverty and improve the well-being of nations. Improving well-being necessarily begins with core elements such as health, education, nutrition, and social protection; many efforts to improve child development in the first decade of life focus on areas to meet young children’s basic needs. Young children living in low-resourced settings are vulnerable to developmental and educational risk factors, such as stunting and undernutrition, disease, caregiver depression, lack of access to quality preprimary and primary education, disabilities, poverty, and societal and familial violence. While each of these areas is important for children’s growth and development, there are potential increased benefits from integrated programs and coordinated policies that address more than one of these areas simultaneously, particularly for children living in low-resourced communities. An integrated and coordinated “all system†approach may be the best way to guarantee that children will have the prerequisites for healthy development. The Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally was established with the goal of integrating knowledge with action in regions around the world to inform evidence-based, strategic investments in young children, birth through age 8. The forum held nine workshops across five continents over 3 years. The goal was to learn from experiences in multiple regions and engage in culturally embedded dialogue. This publication summarizes the key themes from the presentations and discussions of the workshops.

Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults

Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Improving the Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Young Adults

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309309980

Category: Medical

Page: 502

View: 4319

Young adulthood - ages approximately 18 to 26 - is a critical period of development with long-lasting implications for a person's economic security, health and well-being. Young adults are key contributors to the nation's workforce and military services and, since many are parents, to the healthy development of the next generation. Although 'millennials' have received attention in the popular media in recent years, young adults are too rarely treated as a distinct population in policy, programs, and research. Instead, they are often grouped with adolescents or, more often, with all adults. Currently, the nation is experiencing economic restructuring, widening inequality, a rapidly rising ratio of older adults, and an increasingly diverse population. The possible transformative effects of these features make focus on young adults especially important. A systematic approach to understanding and responding to the unique circumstances and needs of today's young adults can help to pave the way to a more productive and equitable tomorrow for young adults in particular and our society at large. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults describes what is meant by the term young adulthood, who young adults are, what they are doing, and what they need. This study recommends actions that nonprofit programs and federal, state, and local agencies can take to help young adults make a successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. According to this report, young adults should be considered as a separate group from adolescents and older adults. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults makes the case that increased efforts to improve high school and college graduate rates and education and workforce development systems that are more closely tied to high-demand economic sectors will help this age group achieve greater opportunity and success. The report also discusses the health status of young adults and makes recommendations to develop evidence-based practices for young adults for medical and behavioral health, including preventions. What happens during the young adult years has profound implications for the rest of the life course, and the stability and progress of society at large depends on how any cohort of young adults fares as a whole. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults will provide a roadmap to improving outcomes for this age group as they transition from adolescence to adulthood.

Investing in Children

Work, Education, and Social Policy in Two Rich Countries

Author: Ariel Kalil,Ron Haskins,Jenny Chesters

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815722036

Category: Political Science

Page: 246

View: 4702

Investing in Children: Work, Education, and Social Policy in Two Rich Countries presents new research by leading scholars in Australia and the United States on economic factors that influence children's development and the respective social policies that the two nations have designed to boost human capital development. The volume is organized around three major issues: parental employment, early childhood education and child care, and postsecondary education. All three issues are intimately linked with human capital development. Since both Australia and the United States have created extensive policies to address these three issues, there is potential for each to learn from the other's experiences and policies. This volume helps fulfill that potential. The authors demonstrate that in both nations, the effects of low family income and income inequality emerge early in life and persist. However, policies that increase parental employment, augment family income, and promote quality preschool and postsecondary education can boost children's development and at least partially offset the negative developmental effects of family economic disadvantage.

Investing in Maternal Health

Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka

Author: Indra Pathmanathan,Jerker Liljestrand

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821353622

Category: Political Science

Page: 182

View: 3209

This study provides the most comprehensive and detailed analysis available on factors behind the decline in maternal mortality in Malaysia and Sri Lanka in the past 50 to 60 years and the magnitude of health system expenditures on maternal health. The main findings are that a modest investment in maternal health services, combined with other poverty reduction measures leads to a fairly rapid decline in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), defined as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The strategies of Malaysia and Sri Lanka changed over time, from an initial emphasis on expanding the provision of services, especially in underserved areas, to increasing utilization and, finally, to emphasizing the improvement of quality. Removing financial barriers to maternal care for clients was an important step in both countries. Professional midwives constitute the backbone of maternal care in Malaysia and Sri Lanka. The MMR reduction in developing countries is feasible with modest public expenditures when appropriate policies are adopted, focused wisely, and adapted incrementally in response to environmental conditions and systems capacity. [World Bank]

Investing in Health

Development Effectiveness in the Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector

Author: Timothy A. Johnston,Susan Stout

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821343104

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 71

View: 1996

World Bank lending for health, nutrition, and population (HNP) activities is accelerating. The Bank's emphasis has evolved from expanding HNP service delivery capacity to encouraging systemic reform. The Bank is now the major source of external finance for the sector in the developing world. The policy influence of its nonlending services is potentially significant.With the current generation of projects, the Bank and its partners are attempting to address underlying constraints to sector performance, while remaining cognizant of the difficulty of improving health sector effectiveness and efficiency, even in developed countries. This volume recommends that the Bank seek to: • do better, not more, in the HNP sector, • improve project monitoring and evaluation, and • strengthen its ties with the World Health Organization and other interested organizations.

Investing in Early Childhood Development

Review of the World Bank's Recent Experience

Author: Rebecca K. Sayre,Amanda E. Devercelli,Michelle J. Neuman,Quentin Wodon

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464804044

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 156

View: 5731

This study provides an overview of Bank investments in Early Childhood Development (ECD) from 2000-2013 within the Education, Health, Nutrition and Population, and Social Protection and Labor practices.

Maternal Health

Fifth Report of Session 2007-08

Author: N.A

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 9780215513847

Category: Maternal and infant welfare

Page: 229

View: 2433

Low Birthweight

Country, Regional and Global Estimates

Author: Tessa M. Wardlaw

Publisher: UNICEF

ISBN: 9280638327

Category: Birth weight, Low

Page: 27

View: 3463

Presents country, regional and global estimates of low birthweight for 2000, together with a detailed description of the methodology used. Some limited data on trends are also included.

Investing in All the People

Author: Lawrence H. Summers

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: N.A

Category: Educacion

Page: 20

View: 5610

Investing in Health Research and Development

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Health Research Relating to Future Intervention Options, Convened Under the Auspices of the World Health Organization

Author: Ad Hoc Committee on Health Research Relating to Future Intervention Options

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Health

Page: 278

View: 2774

The Adapted Mind

Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture

Author: Jerome H. Barkow,Leda Cosmides,John Tooby

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195356472

Category: Science

Page: 688

View: 6753

Although researchers have long been aware that the species-typical architecture of the human mind is the product of our evolutionary history, it has only been in the last three decades that advances in such fields as evolutionary biology, cognitive psychology, and paleoanthropology have made the fact of our evolution illuminating. Converging findings from a variety of disciplines are leading to the emergence of a fundamentally new view of the human mind, and with it a new framework for the behavioral and social sciences. First, with the advent of the cognitive revolution, human nature can finally be defined precisely as the set of universal, species-typical information-processing programs that operate beneath the surface of expressed cultural variability. Second, this collection of cognitive programs evolved in the Pleistocene to solve the adaptive problems regularly faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors--problems such as mate selection, language acquisition, cooperation, and sexual infidelity. Consequently, the traditional view of the mind as a general-purpose computer, tabula rasa, or passive recipient of culture is being replaced by the view that the mind resembles an intricate network of functionally specialized computers, each of which imposes contentful structure on human mental organization and culture. The Adapted Mind explores this new approach--evolutionary psychology--and its implications for a new view of culture.

BMJ

British Medical Journal

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medicine

Page: N.A

View: 6529

Investing in Indonesia's Health

Challenges and Opportunities for Future Public Spending : Health Public Expenditure Review, 2008

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical care

Page: 140

View: 3084

Investing in Peace

How Development Aid Can Prevent Or Promote Conflict

Author: Robert J. Muscat

Publisher: M.E. Sharpe

ISBN: 9780765631602

Category: Business & Economics

Page: N.A

View: 1887

International intervention in internal wars has gained a certain legitimacy in the post-cold war world, but in practice it is still problematic. Response to these conflicts has remained mainly diplomatic -- and belated. Is there anything international actors can do to prevent, or at least ameliorate, such conflicts? Are conflict-prevention measures already being applied, and sometimes succeeding so well that we are unaware of their effectiveness? If so, what can we learn from them? In this book, Robert A. Muscat, a veteran international development expert who has worked in South America, South and Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the Balkans, attempts to answer these questions. Drawing on the work of others as well as his own extensive experience, he reviews the accrued insights into the causes of internal conflict. He examines nine cases in which the work of development agencies exacerbated or ameliorated the root causes of conflict, This permits some generalizations about the efficacy or deleterious effects of development programs -- and of their futility when the conflict-prevention dimension of international assistance efforts is ignored.

Investing in Equity in Health

The Ten-year Public Investment Plan for the Health Sector, 1994-2004

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Decentralization in government

Page: 31

View: 6805