Investing in Maternal Health

Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka

Author: Indra Pathmanathan,Jerker Liljestrand

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821353622

Category: Political Science

Page: 182

View: 7415

This study provides the most comprehensive and detailed analysis available on factors behind the decline in maternal mortality in Malaysia and Sri Lanka in the past 50 to 60 years and the magnitude of health system expenditures on maternal health. The main findings are that a modest investment in maternal health services, combined with other poverty reduction measures leads to a fairly rapid decline in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), defined as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The strategies of Malaysia and Sri Lanka changed over time, from an initial emphasis on expanding the provision of services, especially in underserved areas, to increasing utilization and, finally, to emphasizing the improvement of quality. Removing financial barriers to maternal care for clients was an important step in both countries. Professional midwives constitute the backbone of maternal care in Malaysia and Sri Lanka. The MMR reduction in developing countries is feasible with modest public expenditures when appropriate policies are adopted, focused wisely, and adapted incrementally in response to environmental conditions and systems capacity. [World Bank]

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 2)

Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health

Author: Robert Black,Ramanan Laxminarayan,Marleen Temmerman,Neff Walker

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464803684

Category: Medical

Page: 416

View: 4220

The evaluation of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) by the Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (DCP3) focuses on maternal conditions, childhood illness, and malnutrition. Specifically, the chapters address acute illness and undernutrition in children, principally under age 5. It also covers maternal mortality, morbidity, stillbirth, and influences to pregnancy and pre-pregnancy. Volume 3 focuses on developments since the publication of DCP2 and will also include the transition to older childhood, in particular, the overlap and commonality with the child development volume. The DCP3 evaluation of these conditions produced three key findings: 1. There is significant difficulty in measuring the burden of key conditions such as unintended pregnancy, unsafe abortion, nonsexually transmitted infections, infertility, and violence against women. 2. Investments in the continuum of care can have significant returns for improved and equitable access, health, poverty, and health systems. 3. There is a large difference in how RMNCH conditions affect different income groups; investments in RMNCH can lessen the disparity in terms of both health and financial risk.

Reducing Maternal Mortality

Learning from Bolivia, China, Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe

Author: Marjorie A. Koblinsky

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821353929

Category: Medical

Page: 132

View: 910

"To assist countries in their efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality, the World Bank is publishing two volumes - Investing in Maternal Health: Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka and Reducing Maternal Mortality: Learning from Bolivia, China, Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe. These two books offer success stories and lessons learned in improving health and reducing maternal mortality in a range of developing countries. The first book is based on the experiences of Malaysia and Sri Lanka during the past five to six decades. The second book discusses the more recent experiences of Bolivia, China (Yunnan), Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe. These nine countries have made important strides in improving maternal health, and these two books outline what worked and what did not."--BOOK JACKET.

Investing in Maternal Health

Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka

Author: Indra Pathmanathan,Jerker Liljestrand

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821353622

Category: Political Science

Page: 182

View: 9240

This study provides the most comprehensive and detailed analysis available on factors behind the decline in maternal mortality in Malaysia and Sri Lanka in the past 50 to 60 years and the magnitude of health system expenditures on maternal health. The main findings are that a modest investment in maternal health services, combined with other poverty reduction measures leads to a fairly rapid decline in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), defined as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The strategies of Malaysia and Sri Lanka changed over time, from an initial emphasis on expanding the provision of services, especially in underserved areas, to increasing utilization and, finally, to emphasizing the improvement of quality. Removing financial barriers to maternal care for clients was an important step in both countries. Professional midwives constitute the backbone of maternal care in Malaysia and Sri Lanka. The MMR reduction in developing countries is feasible with modest public expenditures when appropriate policies are adopted, focused wisely, and adapted incrementally in response to environmental conditions and systems capacity. [World Bank]

Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally

A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Board on Global Health,Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309459265

Category: Social Science

Page: 60

View: 6083

Focusing on young children in a global context is an approach to end the cycle of poverty and improve the well-being of nations. Improving well-being necessarily begins with core elements such as health, education, nutrition, and social protection; many efforts to improve child development in the first decade of life focus on areas to meet young children’s basic needs. Young children living in low-resourced settings are vulnerable to developmental and educational risk factors, such as stunting and undernutrition, disease, caregiver depression, lack of access to quality preprimary and primary education, disabilities, poverty, and societal and familial violence. While each of these areas is important for children’s growth and development, there are potential increased benefits from integrated programs and coordinated policies that address more than one of these areas simultaneously, particularly for children living in low-resourced communities. An integrated and coordinated “all system†approach may be the best way to guarantee that children will have the prerequisites for healthy development. The Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally was established with the goal of integrating knowledge with action in regions around the world to inform evidence-based, strategic investments in young children, birth through age 8. The forum held nine workshops across five continents over 3 years. The goal was to learn from experiences in multiple regions and engage in culturally embedded dialogue. This publication summarizes the key themes from the presentations and discussions of the workshops.

Improving Maternal and Reproductive Health in South Asia

Drivers and Enablers

Author: Sameh El-Saharty,Sadia Chowdhury,Naoko Ohno,Intissar Sarker

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480964X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

View: 8427

South Asia Region (SAR) has decreased maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by 65 percent between 1990 and 2013, which was the greatest progress among all world regions. Such achievement implores the question, What made SAR stand out against what is predicted by standard socioeconomic outcomes? Improving Maternal and Reproductive Health in South Asia: Drivers and Enablers identifies the interventions and factors that contributed to reducing MMR and improving maternal and reproductive health (MRH) outcomes in SAR. In this study, the analytical framework assumes that improving MRH outcomes is influenced by a multitude of forces from within and outside the health system and considers factors at the household and community levels, as well as interventions in other sectors and factors in the enabling environment. The analysis is based on a structured literature review of the interventions in SAR countries, relevant international experience, and review of the best available evidence from systematic reviews. The focus of the analysis is mainly on assessing the effectiveness of interventions. The findings from this study indicate that the most effective interventions that prevent maternal mortality are those that address the intra-partum stage - the point where most maternal deaths occur - and include improving skilled birth attendance coverage, increasing institutional delivery rates, and scaling up access to emergency obstetric care. There is also adequate evidence that investing in family planning to increase contraceptive use also played a key role during the inter-partum phase by preventing unwanted pregnancies and thus averting the risk of maternal mortality in SAR countries. Outside the programmatic interventions, the levels of household income, women’s education, and completion of secondary education of girls were also strongly correlated with improved MRH outcomes. Also, there is strong evidence that health financing schemes - both demand and supply side - and conditional cash transfer programs were effective in increasing the uptake of MRH services. The study points out to many other interventions with different degrees of effectiveness. The study also identified four major reasons for why SAR achieved this progress in MMR reduction. The best practices and evidence of what works synthesized in this study provide an important way forward for low- and middle-income countries toward achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals.

Empowering Women and Strengthening Health Systems and Services Through Investing in Nursing and Midwifery Enterprise

Lessons from Lower-Income Countries: Workshop Summary

Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Public-Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety,Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309316758

Category: Medical

Page: 140

View: 3121

In September 2014, the Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education and the Forum on Public-Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety of the Institute of Medicine convened a workshop on empowering women and strengthening health systems and services through investing in nursing and midwifery enterprise. Experts in women's empowerment, development, health systems' capacity building, social enterprise and finance, and nursing and midwifery explored the intersections between and among these domains. Innovative and promising models for more sustainable health care delivery that embed women's empowerment in their missions were examined. Participants also discussed uptake and scale; adaptation, translation, and replication; financing; and collaboration and partnership. Empowering Women and Strengthening Health Systems and Services Through Investing in Nursing and Midwifery Enterprise summarizes the presentations and discussion of the workshop. This report highlights examples and explores broad frameworks for existing and potential intersections of different sectors that could lead to better health and well-being of women around the world, and how lessons learned from these examples might be applied in the United States.

Investing in All the People

Educating Women in Developing Countries

Author: Lawrence H. Summers

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821323236

Category: Educacion

Page: 24

View: 1275

World Bank Technical Paper 244. This report on the experiences of several Pacific island nations indicates that in remote villages, solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies are supplying reliable power at costs lower than those of the more commonly used diesel systems. Although the supply of electricity to households is limited, PV does provide isolated peoples with access to light and to information through television and VCRs. The study shows that the success of these programs depends not only on the technology itself but on personnel training, good fee collection systems, and careful financial management. Where managerial and technical expertise was lacking, maintenance by local, cooperatively owned utilites proved to be the best option. The authors present a case study from Tuvalu, where the solar PV system exemplifies the program's effectiveness in serving remote areas. The successful Tuvalu Solar Electric Cooperative Society (TSECS), formed in 1984, has been maintained by a well-trained technical staff with local and visiting technicians. It has also benefited from fee collection through an outside agency that prevents diversion of funds to other projects, local user committees to communicate with the utility, and an exclusive focus on PV systems. Environmentally attractive at both the global and local levels, PV solar technology appears highly promising for small-scale applications in developing countries.

Pregnancy, Childbirth, Postpartum, and Newborn Care

A Guide for Essential Practice

Author: World Health Organization. Reproductive Health and Research

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 924159084X

Category: Medical

Page: 178

View: 7255

This guide provides a full range of updated, evidence-based norms and standards that will enable health care providers to give high quality care during pregnancy, delivery and in the postpartum period, considering the needs of the mother and her newborn baby. All recommendations are for skilled attendants working at the primary level of health care, either at the facility or in the community. They apply to all women attending antenatal care, in delivery, postpartum or post abortion care, or who come for emergency care, and to all newborns at birth and during the first week of life (or later) for routine and emergency care. This guide is a guide for clinical decision-making. It facilitates the collection; analysis, classification and use of relevant information by suggesting key questions, essential observations and/or examinations, and recommending appropriate research-based interventions. It promotes the early detection of complications and the initiation of early and appropriate treatment, including time referral, if necessary. Correct use of this guide should help reduce high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity rates prevalent in many parts of the developing world, thereby making pregnancy and childbirth safer.

Investing in Global Health Systems

Sustaining Gains, Transforming Lives

Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Investing in Global Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309311721

Category: Medical

Page: 136

View: 6339

The United States has been a generous sponsor of global health programs for the past 25 years or more. This investment has contributed to meaningful changes, especially for women and children, who suffer the brunt of the world's disease and disability. Development experts have long debated the relative merits of vertical health programming, targeted to a specific service or patient group, and horizontal programming, supporting more comprehensive care. The U.S. government has invested heavily in vertical programs, most notably through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), its flagship initiative for HIV and AIDS. PEPFAR and programs like it have met with good success. Protecting these successes and continuing progress in the future depends on the judicious integration of vertical programs with local health systems. A strong health system is the best insurance developing countries can have against a disease burden that is shifting rapidly and in ways that history has not prepared us for. Reaching the poor with development assistance is an increasingly complicated task. The majority of the roughly 1 billion people living in dire poverty are in middle-income countries, where foreign assistance is not necessarily needed or welcome. Many of the rest live in fragile states, where political volatility and weak infrastructure make it difficult to use aid effectively. The poorest people in the world are also the sickest; they are most exposed to disease vectors and infection. Nevertheless, they are less likely to access health services. Improving their lot means removing the systemic barriers that keep the most vulnerable people from gaining such access. Investing in Global Health Systems discusses the past and future of global health. First, the report gives context by laying out broad trends in global health. Next, it discusses the timeliness of American investment in health systems abroad and explains how functional health systems support health, encourage prosperity, and advance global security. Lastly, it lays out, in broad terms, an effective donor strategy for health, suggesting directions for both the manner and substance of foreign aid given. The challenge of the future of aid programming is to sustain the successes of the past 25 years, while reducing dependence on foreign aid. Investing in Global Health Systems aims to help government decision makers assess the rapidly changing social and economic situation in developing countries and its implications for effective development assistance. This report explains how health systems improvements can lead to better health, reduce poverty, and make donor investment in health sustainable.

Investing in Hospitals of the Future

Author: Bernd Rechel,S. Wright,N. Edwards

Publisher: WHO Regional Office Europe

ISBN: 9289043040

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 284

View: 9551

Despite considerable investments in health facilities worldwide, little systematic evidence is available on how to plan, design and build new facilities that maximise health gain and ensure that services are responsive to the legitimate expectations of users. This book brings together current knowledge about key dimensions of capital investment in the health sector. A number of issues are examined, including new models of long-term care, capacity planning, the impact of capital investment on the health care workforce, markets and competition, systems used for procurement and financing, the whole lifecycle of health facilities, facility management, the wider impact of capital investment on the local community and economy, how care models can be translated into capital asset solutions, and issues of therapeutic and sustainable design. This book is of value to those interested in the planning, financing, construction, and management of new health facilities. It identifies critical lessons that increase the chances that capital projects will be successful.

Disease and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: Dean T. Jamison

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821363980

Category: Medical

Page: 387

View: 1811

Current data and trends in morbidity and mortality for the sub-Saharan Region as presented in this new edition reflect the heavy toll that HIV/AIDS has had on health indicators, leading to either a stalling or reversal of the gains made, not just for communicable disorders, but for cancers, as well as mental and neurological disorders.

The Consequences of Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality:

Report of a Workshop

Author: Committee on Population,W. Henry Mosley,Marjorie A. Koblinsky,Holly E. Reed,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309069432

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 44

View: 9488

In 1997 the committee published Reproductive Health in Developing Countries: Expanding Dimensions, Building Solutions, a report that recommended actions to improve reproductive health for women around the world. As a follow- on activity, the committee proposed an investigation into the social and economic consequences of maternal morbidity and mortality. With funding from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the U.S. Agency for International Development, the committee organized a workshop on this topic in Washington, DC, on October 19-20, 1998. The Consequences of Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality assesses the scientific knowledge about the consequences of maternal morbidity and mortality and discusses key findings from recent research. Although the existing research on this topic is scarce, the report drew on similar literature on the consequences of adult disease and death, especially the growing literature on the socioeconomic consequences of AIDS, to look at potential consequences from maternal disability and death.

Health and Growth

Author: Michael Spence,Maureen A. Lewis

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821376608

Category: Medical

Page: 189

View: 4885

This book containes a series of "state of the art" essays on topics related to health and growth. The Commission on Growth and Development (CGD)--in preparing its own Growth Report--wished to take stock of the current state of knowledge and understanding of economic growth, and thus commissioned a series of essays on a range of thematic areas. One such area is health. The following questions are discussed in the book:Does investing in health raise economic growth? Can governments achieve rapid growth or high incomes without investing in health? What are the options and benefits of different an.

Undernutrition and Public Policy in India

Investing in the future

Author: Sonalde Desai,Lawrence Haddad,Deepta Chopra,Amit Thorat

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317358430

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 2690

Despite substantial economic growth, India has one of the highest undernutrition rates in the world; it is home to almost 40 per cent of the world’s stunted children. This volume assesses the status and causes of undernutrition in the country, and examines the effectiveness of policies designed to address undernutrition. The essays tackle wide-ranging themes and challenging issues including nutrition; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); maternal, neonatal and child health; Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); Public Distribution System (PDS); crop procurement; and National Food Security Act 2013. With contributions from leading academic researchers, policymakers, as well as civil society representatives, this volume will be indispensable to scholars, teachers and students of public policy, development economics, development sociology, and Indian economy. It will also be useful to government institutions, think tanks and NGOs.

What Works in Girls' Education

Evidence for the World's Best Investment

Author: Gene B Sperling,Rebecca Winthrop

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815728611

Category: Social Science

Page: 335

View: 2063

Hard-headed evidence on why the returns from investing in girls are so high that no nation or family can afford not to educate their girls. Gene Sperling, author of the seminal 2004 report published by the Council on Foreign Relations, and Rebecca Winthrop, director of the Center for Universal Education, have written this definitive book on the importance of girls’ education. As Malala Yousafzai expresses in her foreword, the idea that any child could be denied an education due to poverty, custom, the law, or terrorist threats is just wrong and unimaginable. More than 1,000 studies have provided evidence that high-quality girls’ education around the world leads to wide-ranging returns: Better outcomes in economic areas of growth and incomes Reduced rates of infant and maternal mortality Reduced rates of child marriage Reduced rates of the incidence of HIV/AIDS and malaria Increased agricultural productivity Increased resilience to natural disasters Women’s empowerment What Works in Girls’ Education is a compelling work for both concerned global citizens, and any academic, expert, nongovernmental organization (NGO) staff member, policymaker, or journalist seeking to dive into the evidence and policies on girls’ education.

Investing in Early Childhood Development

Review of the World Bank's Recent Experience

Author: Rebecca K. Sayre,Amanda E. Devercelli,Michelle J. Neuman,Quentin Wodon

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464804044

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 156

View: 9030

This study provides an overview of Bank investments in Early Childhood Development (ECD) from 2000-2013 within the Education, Health, Nutrition and Population, and Social Protection and Labor practices.

Half the Sky

Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide

Author: Nicholas D. Kristof,Sheryl WuDunn

Publisher: Knopf

ISBN: 9780307267146

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 798

A Pulitzer Prize-winning husband-and-wife team speaks out against the oppression of women in the developing world, sharing example stories about victims and survivors who are working to raise awareness, counter abuse, and campaign for women's rights.

Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults

Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Improving the Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Young Adults

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309309980

Category: Medical

Page: 502

View: 4287

Young adulthood - ages approximately 18 to 26 - is a critical period of development with long-lasting implications for a person's economic security, health and well-being. Young adults are key contributors to the nation's workforce and military services and, since many are parents, to the healthy development of the next generation. Although 'millennials' have received attention in the popular media in recent years, young adults are too rarely treated as a distinct population in policy, programs, and research. Instead, they are often grouped with adolescents or, more often, with all adults. Currently, the nation is experiencing economic restructuring, widening inequality, a rapidly rising ratio of older adults, and an increasingly diverse population. The possible transformative effects of these features make focus on young adults especially important. A systematic approach to understanding and responding to the unique circumstances and needs of today's young adults can help to pave the way to a more productive and equitable tomorrow for young adults in particular and our society at large. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults describes what is meant by the term young adulthood, who young adults are, what they are doing, and what they need. This study recommends actions that nonprofit programs and federal, state, and local agencies can take to help young adults make a successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. According to this report, young adults should be considered as a separate group from adolescents and older adults. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults makes the case that increased efforts to improve high school and college graduate rates and education and workforce development systems that are more closely tied to high-demand economic sectors will help this age group achieve greater opportunity and success. The report also discusses the health status of young adults and makes recommendations to develop evidence-based practices for young adults for medical and behavioral health, including preventions. What happens during the young adult years has profound implications for the rest of the life course, and the stability and progress of society at large depends on how any cohort of young adults fares as a whole. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults will provide a roadmap to improving outcomes for this age group as they transition from adolescence to adulthood.

Health Financing in Indonesia

A Reform Road Map

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821380079

Category: Medical

Page: 167

View: 2938

In 2004 the Indonesian government made a commitment to provide its entire population with health insurance coverage through a mandatory public health insurance scheme. It has moved boldly already provides coverage to an estimated 76.4 million poor and near poor, funded through the public budget. Nevertheless, over half the population still lacks health insurance coverage, and the full fiscal impacts of the government's program for the poor have not been fully assessed or felt. In addition, significant deficiencies in the efficiency and equity of the current health system, unless addressed will exacerbate cost pressures and could preclude the effective implementation of universal coverage (Ue and the desired result of improvements in population health outcomes and financial protection. For Indonesia to achieve UC, systems' performance must be improved and key policy choices with respect to the configuration of the health financing system must be made. Indonesia's health system performs well with respect to some health outcomes and financial protection, but there is potential for significant improvement. High-level political decisions are necessary on key elements of the health financing reform package. The key transitional questions to get there include: [ the benefits that can be afforded and their impacts on health outcomes and financial protection; [ how the more than 50 percent of those currently without coverage will be insured; [ how to pay medical care providers to assure access, efficiency, and quality; [ developing a streamlined and efficient administrative structure; [ how to address the current supply constraints to assure availability of promised services; [ how to raise revenues to finance the system, including the program for the poor as well as currently uninsured groups that may require government subsidization such as the more than 60 million informal sector workers, the 85 percent of workers in firms of less than five employees, and the 70 percent of the population living in rural areas.