Author: James Baldwin
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
Category: Social Science
A study of Islamic law and political power in the Ottoman Empires richest provincial cityWhat did Islamic law mean in the early modern period, a world of great Muslim empires? Often portrayed as the quintessential jurists law, to a large extent it was developed by scholars outside the purview of the state. However, for the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, justice was the ultimate duty of the monarch, and Islamic law was a tool of legitimation and governance. James E. Baldwin examines how the interplay of these two conceptions of Islamic law religious scholarship and royal justice undergirded legal practice in Cairo, the largest and richest city in the Ottoman provinces. Through detailed studies of the various formal and informal dispute resolution institutions and practices that formed the fabric of law in Ottoman Cairo, his book contributes to key questions concerning the relationship between the shariaa and political power, the plurality of Islamic legal practice, and the nature of centre-periphery relations in the Ottoman Empire.Key featuresOffers a new interpretation of the relationship between Islamic law and political powerPresents law as the key nexus connecting Egypt with the imperial capital Istanbul during the period of Ottoman decentralizationStudies judicial institutions such as the governors Diwan and the imperial council that have received little attention in previous scholarshipIntegrates the study of legal records with an analysis of how legal practice was represented in contemporary chroniclesProvides transcriptions and translations of a range of Ottoman legal documents
Islamic Law and Custom in the Courts of Ottoman Cairo
Author: Reem A. Meshal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In this book, the author examines sijills, the official documents of the Ottoman Islamic courts, to understand how sharia law, society and the early-modern economy of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Ottoman Cairo related to the practice of custom in determining rulings. In the sixteenth century, a new legal and cultural orthodoxy fostered the development of an early-modern Islam that broke new ground, giving rise to a new concept of the citizen and his role. Contrary to the prevailing scholarly view, this work adopts the position that local custom began to diminish and decline as a source of authority. These issues resonate today, several centuries later, in the continuing discussions of individual rights in relation to Islamic law.
Der Konflikt zwischen Glaube und Vernunft
Author: Christopher de Bellaigue
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
»Erhellend, großartig geschrieben, ein Buch, das uns hilft, das Verständnis zwischen islamischer Welt und Moderne zu verstehen.« Yuval Noah Harari, Autor von »Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit« Die islamische Aufklärung hat längst stattgefunden. In einer fulminanten Erzählung demontiert Christopher de Bellaigue die oft selbstgefällige westliche Sicht auf die arabische Welt. Auch in Ägypten, im Iran und der Türkei gab es nach 1800 eine breite Bewegung für Freiheit, Gleichheit und Demokratie und für einen weltlichen Staat, für Frauenrechte und Gewerkschaften, freie Presse und die Abschaffung der Sklaverei. In atemberaubender Geschwindigkeit modernisierten sich die arabischen Gesellschaften. Doch die Gegenaufklärung folgte auf dem Fuß, mit autokratischen Regimen und fundamentalistischem Terror. De Bellaigue schildert den Kampf zwischen Glaube und Vernunft und um eine neue muslimische Identität. Eine reiche, überraschende Geschichte, eine radikal neue Sicht auf den modernen Islam. »Eine ausgesprochen originelle und informative Studie über die Zusammenstöße zwischen dem Islam und der Moderne in Istanbul, Kairo und Teheran während der letzten zweihundert Jahre.« Orhan Pamuk »Christopher de Bellaigue gehört seit Langem schon zu den einfallsreichsten und anregendsten Interpreten einiger von Angst und Vorurteil verstellter Realitäten. In ›Die islamische Aufklärung‹ seziert er den selbstgefälligen Gegensatz zwischen Islam und Moderne und enthüllt dabei eine faszinierende Welt: eine Welt, in der Menschen sich unter dem Druck der Geschichte ständig verändern, improvisieren und sich anpassen. Es ist genau das richtige Buch für unsere in Unordnung geratene Welt: zeitgemäß, dringlich und erhellend.« Pankaj Mishra »Zur rechten Zeit, tiefsinnig und provokativ.« Peter Frankopan
Islam, Law and Society
Author: Saim Kayadibi
Publisher: The Other Press
Author: Tova Reich
Wem gehört der Holocaust? Maurice Messer erkennt ein gutes Produkt, wenn es vor ihm steht – und seien wir doch mal ehrlich: Wann schlagen Spenderherzen höher als bei dem Wort »Holocaust«? Doch Maurice ist nicht der Einzige, der in den Geldtöpfen der Gedenkindustrie fischen will ... Eine intelligente, beißende Satire über die Vermarktung menschlichen Leidens, zum Schreien komisch und zugleich erschreckend realistisch.
Author: Suraiya Faroqhi
Suraiya Faroqhi schildert knapp, kenntnisreich und lebendig die Geschichte eines der mächtigsten Reiche des späten Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, das noch zu Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts das gesamte Gebiet der heutigen Staaten Türkei, Irak, Syrien, Libanon, Israel sowie Teile Griechenlands umfaßte. Die Darstellung folgt der Chronologie der politischen Geschichte vom 14. Jahrhundert bis zur Auflösung des Reiches nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg und bezieht dabei die Geschichte von Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Kultur überall gleichwertig ein. Hieraus ergibt sich ein ungewöhnlich farbiges Bild vom Osmanischen Reich: Die bisherige Vorstellung von einer erstarrten osmanischen Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, die kaum mit der abendländischen, europäischen verflochten war, muß revidiert werden. Einzelne gesellschaftliche Gruppen und Provinzen suchten im eigenen Interesse mit Nachdruck den Anschluß an Europa. Warum der Vielvölkerstaat trotz dieser Bemühungen und trotz seiner – angesichts der heutigen Konflikte ganz erstaunlichen – religiösen Toleranz zerbrach, macht die Autorin eindringlich deutlich.
The Law of Property in Egypt
Author: Richard A. Debs
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Richard A. Debs analyzes the classical Islamic law of property based on the Shari'ah, traces its historic development in Egypt, and describes its integration as a source of law within the modern format of a civil code. He focuses specifically on Egypt, a country in the Islamic world that drew upon its society's own vigorous legal system as it formed its modern laws. He also touches on issues that are common to all such societies that have adopted, either by choice or by necessity, Western legal systems. Egypt's unique synthesis of Western and traditional elements is the outcome of an effort to respond to national goals and requirements. Its traditional law, the Shari'ah, is the fundamental law of all Islamic societies, and Debs's analysis of Egypt's experience demonstrates how Islamic jurisprudence can be sophisticated, coherent, rational, and effective, developed over centuries to serve the needs of societies that flourished under the rule of law.
Author: Wilferd Madelung
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Author: Guy Burak
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The Second Formation of Islamic Law offers a new periodization of Islamic legal history in the eastern Islamic lands.
Islam, Politics, and Modernity's Moral Predicament
Author: Wael B. Hallaq
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
Wael B. Hallaq boldly argues that the "Islamic state," judged by any standard definition of what the modern state represents, is both impossible and inherently self-contradictory. Comparing the legal, political, moral, and constitutional histories of premodern Islam and Euro-America, he finds the adoption and practice of the modern state to be highly problematic for modern Muslims. He also critiques more expansively modernity's moral predicament, which renders impossible any project resting solely on ethical foundations. The modern state not only suffers from serious legal, political, and constitutional issues, Hallaq argues, but also, by its very nature, fashions a subject inconsistent with what it means to be, or to live as, a Muslim. By Islamic standards, the state's technologies of the self are severely lacking in moral substance, and today's Islamic state, as Hallaq shows, has done little to advance an acceptable form of genuine Shari'a governance. The Islamists' constitutional battles in Egypt and Pakistan, the Islamic legal and political failures of the Iranian Revolution, and similar disappointments underscore this fact. Nevertheless, the state remains the favored template of the Islamists and the ulama (Muslim clergymen). Providing Muslims with a path toward realizing the good life, Hallaq turns to the rich moral resources of Islamic history. Along the way, he proves political and other "crises of Islam" are not unique to the Islamic world nor to the Muslim religion. These crises are integral to the modern condition of both East and West, and by acknowledging these parallels, Muslims can engage more productively with their Western counterparts.
die intellektuelle Biografie des Bediüzzaman Said Nursi
Author: Şükran Vahide
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
Middle Eastern Women in the Early Modern Era
Author: Madeline C. Zilfi
Category: Social Science
This collection of articles by 14 Middle East historians is a pathbreaking work in the history of Middle Eastern women prior to the contemporary era. The collection seeks to begin the task of reconstructing the history of (Muslim) women's experience in the middle centuries of the Ottoman era, between the mid-seventeenth century and the early nineteenth, prior to hegemonic European involvement in the region and prior to the "modernizing reforms' inaugurated by the Ottoman regime.
Author: Amira El Azhary Sonbol
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
Category: Social Science
A collection of 18 essays that covers a wide range of material and re-evaluates women's studies and Middle Eastern studies, Muslim women and the Shari'a courts, the Ottoman household, Dhimmi communities, family law, morality and violence.
Author: Ahmed Akgunduz,Said Ozturk
Publisher: IUR Press
This book was first published in Turkish under the title Bilinmeyen Osmanlı, co-authored by Prof. Dr. Said Öztürk, and 250,000 copies were printed. I answered 290 questions whereas Öztürk answered 13 in total. He collaborated regarding source details and references as well as tirelessly proofreading and editing the book. In addition, this book was later translated into Arabic; the first edition was published by Osmanlı Araştirmalari Vakfi (OSAV), Istanbul, and the second will be published by Dār al-Shouroq in Cairo. The English version of this book has almost become a separate work from the aforementioned versions. Although the main part was translated into English by Ismail Ercan, the book needed a number of improvements and rewriting of some articles after referring to Western sources on the various subjects. Hence, I changed the title as well as the format of the book mainly for this reason. But I have indicated which articles were written by Prof. Öztürk. As preparation for this book, the questions it deals with have been discussed in academic research ever since 1983, and, in addition, hundreds of conferences have been held throughout Anatolia. As a result, over 5000 questions have accumulated in our “question desk,” submitted in written form by both readers and listeners. For example, the issue of ḥarem comes first, with 503 questions. The issue of whether the Ottoman Sulṭāns, particularly Bayezid the Thunderbolt, drank alcohol ranked second, with 276 questions. These were followed by such questions as fratricide rights and freedoms in the Ottoman state, the issue of the Sulṭāns going on pilgrimage, if Sulṭān Waḥīduddin was a traitor, etc. Needless to say, we have been inspired by similar research done in this field. This book will consist of four parts. In Part One we will deal with weighty questions on the political history of the Ottoman state and the replies to them. However, such questions are most frequently asked about each Sulṭān – even if they are related to law or economics. For instance, we will not ignore the issue of fratricide in his law when discussing Meḥmed the Conqueror and the charges of the genocide of the Kurds when it comes to Selim the Excellent. In Part Two we will deal with the questions on social life in the Ottoman state and the ḥarem. In Part Three we will look at those issues regarding the Ottoman legislative system and the organization of the state. In Part Four we will answer some questions about the economy and financial law of the Ottoman state. Unfortunately, we will not deal with all the questions we have received in all the aforesaid fields owing to insufficient space. Yet it is our view that if something cannot be achieved completely, we should not give up entirely and resign ourselves to what has been done. There are 307 differents subjects in this book; some of them as below: - War (jihād) in the Ottoman state and the legal principles of the policy of conquest in the Ottoman state - The Devşirme (Conscription) System - The allegations that the Ottoman state adhered to the Bektaşi and Aleviyye traditions during the years of its foundation until Sulṭān Selim the Excellent and that the Abdalan-ı Rum consisted of Bektaşi Babas and Alevi Dedes. - On rumors that some Ottoman Sulṭāns were addicted to alcohol and even held illegitimate carousals at the Palace. - The legality of fratricide in the Ottoman state and some claims by some historians regarding savagery and massacre for the sake of claiming the Sultanat. - There are claims that Sulṭān Meḥmed the Conqueror was sympathetic toward Christianity and corresponded with the Pope. - On the Ottoman State offering assistance to the Andalusian state that was destroyed in 1492. - Ottoman Harem. - Ottoman legal codes. - Ottoman legal system and Islamic law. - Which events sowed the seeds of hatred between Arabs and Turks, both of whom are Muslims? - The reasons for the decline and fall of the Ottoman State. - The capitulations as one reason for terminating the Ottoman State.
Author: Christian Funke
Category: Political Science
In Ästhetik, Politik und schiitische Repräsentation im zeitgenössischen Iran zeigt Christian Funke die Verflechtungen von Politik, Protest und schiitischer Materialität auf und legt vielschichtig dar, wie die Grüne Bewegung mit umfassenderen Diskursen über Demokratie, Identität, Geschichte und Gegenwart sowie Religion und Politik verknüpft war. In Aesthetics, Politics, and Shiʿi Representation in Contemporary Iran Christian Funke explores the entangled relationship betweem politics, protest and Shiʿi materiality and shows how the ‘Green Movement’ was part of larger discourses on democracy, identity, the present and the past, and religion and politics.
Geschichte und Gegenwart
Author: Mathias Rohe
Erstmals beschreibt in diesem Buch ein islamwissenschaftlich geschulter Jurist Entstehung, Entwicklung und gegenwärtige Ausformung des islamischen Rechts. Mathias Rohe erläutert die wichtigsten islamischem Rechtsquellen und Rechtsfindungsmethoden und schildert in Grundzügen die Regelungsbereiche des klassischen islamischen Rechts: Ehe- und Familienrecht, Erbrecht, Vertrags- und Wirtschaftsrecht, Gesellschaftsrecht, Eigentumsrecht, Strafrecht, Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht, Fremden- und Völkerrecht. Dabei kommen auch grundlegende Unterschiede zwischen Sunniten, Schiiten und anderen Richtungen zur Sprache. Sein besonderes Augenmerk gilt den Regelungen für Muslime in einer nichtislamischen Umgebung, vor allem in Deutschland. Ein Ausblick auf Perspektiven des islamischen Rechts in einer globalisierten Welt beschließt dieses anschaulich geschriebene Standardwerk. Für die vorliegende dritte Auflage wurde das Buch überarbeitet, aktualisiert und erweitert. „Mathias Rohe hat ein ausgezeichnetes Buch über die wichtigsten Schattierungen der Scharia verfasst. Dessen Lektüre ist Pflicht für jeden, dem ernsthaft an der Integration gelegen ist.“ (Andreas Zielke, Süddeutsche Zeitung) „Wer Aufklärung verschenken will, möge zum christlichsten aller Feste das Buch von Matthias Rohe unter den Baum legen. (...) Es hat das Zeug zu einem Standardwerk. Und es füllt eine Lücke, die Missverständnisse und die einseitige Wahrnehmung konservativer Islamauslegung reißen.“ (Thoralf Schwanitz, Andreas Kurz, Financial Times Deutschland)
Authority, Discretion, and Everyday Experiences in Mamluk Egypt
Author: Kristen Stilt
Publisher: OUP Oxford
A dynamic account of the practice of Islamic law, this book focuses on the actions of a particular legal official, the muhtasib, whose vast jurisdiction included all public behavior. In the cities of Cairo and neighboring Fustat during the Mamluk period (1250-1517), the men who held the position of muhtasib acted as regulators of markets and public spaces generally. They traversed their jurisdictions carrying out the duty to command right and forbid wrong, and were as much a part of the legal landscape as the better-known figures of judge and mufti. Taking directions from the rulers, the sultan foremost among them, they were also guided by legal doctrine as formulated by the jurists, combining these two sources of law in one face of authority. The daily workings of the law are illuminated by the reports of the muhtasib in the vivid Mamluk-era chronicles, which often also captured the responses of the individuals who encountered the official. The book is organized around actions taken by the muhtasib in the areas of Muslim devotional and pious practices; crimes and offenses; the management of Christians and Jews; market regulation and consumer protection; the specific markets for essential bread; currency and taxes; and public order. The case studies presented show that while legal doctrine was clearly relevant to the muhtasib's actions, the policy demands of the sultan were also quite significant, and rules from both sources of authority intersected with social, political, economic, and personal factors to create full and vibrant scenarios that reveal the practice of Islamic law.
Author: Mohammad Talaat Ghunaimi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The traditional doctrine of Islamic law in regard to international re lations is well known. The Shari'a includes many excellent provisions about declarations of war, treaties of peace, armistices, diplomatic envoys, negotiations and guarantees of safe conduct. But the fact remains that it divides the world, broadly speaking, into the "Abode of Islam" and the "Abode of 'War," and that it envisages the continu ance of intermittent war between them until the latter is absorbed in the former. In the course of such fighting, and in the intervals in be tween, many civilities were to be meticulously observed; but prisoners of war could be killed, sold or enslaved at the discretion of the Muslim authorities, and the women of those who resisted the advance of Islam could be taken as slave-concubines, regardless of whether they were single or married. The "Abode of Islam" did not, indeed, consist ex clusively of Muslims, for those whose religion was based on a book accepted by Islam as originally inspired and in practice, indeed, those other religions too - were not forced to embrace Islam but only to accept Muslim rule. They were granted the status of dhimmis, were protected in their persons and their property, were allowed to follow their own religion in an unobtrusive fashion, and were accorded the position of essentially second-class citizens. They were also of course, perfectly free to embrace Islam; but for a Muslim to be converted to another faith involved the death penalty.
Law, Administration and Production in Ottoman Syria
Author: Martha Mundy,Richard Saumarez Smith
Was "modernity" in the Middle East merely imported piecemeal from the West? Did Ottoman society really consist of islands of sophistication in a sea of tribal conservatism, as has so often been claimed? In this groundbreaking new book, Martha Mundy and Richard Saumarez Smith draw on over a decade of primary source research to argue that, contrary to popular belief, a distinctively Ottoman process of modernization was achieved by the end of the nineteenth century with great social consequences for all who lived through it. Modernization touched women as intimately as men: the authors' careful work explores the impact of Ottoman legal reforms such as granting women equal rights to land. Mundy and Saumarez Smith have painstakingly recreated a picture of such processes through both new archival material and the testimony of surviving witnesses to the period. This book will not only affect the way we look at Ottoman society, it will change our understanding of the relationship between East, West and modernity.