Justifying Interventions in Africa

(De)Stabilizing Sovereignty in Liberia, Burundi and the Congo

Author: Nina Wilén

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230313981

Category: Political Science

Page: 225

View: 2447

The Study of Sovereignty, Intervention and Peace Operations in International Relations Analysing a Moving Target: Sovereignty, a Complex Concept Intervention, Justifications and Interpretations: The Case of ECOWAS in Liberia Sanctions, Justifications and Reactions: The Case of the Regional Initiative in Burundi Intervention, Justifications and Interpretations: The Case of SADC in Congo Capacity-Building and Local Ownership: Indicators of Sovereignty? (De)Stabilization - So What?: An Analysis of the Political Consequences of the Interventions on a Regional and International Level Concluding Remarks.

African Foreign Policies in International Institutions

Author: Jason Warner,Timothy M. Shaw

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137575743

Category: Political Science

Page: 430

View: 6695

This book is the first to exclusively consider the foreign policy tendencies of African states in international institutions. As an edited volume offering empirically based perspectives from a variety of scholars, this project disabuses the notion that Africa should be considered a "niche" interest in the field of foreign policy analysis. It asserts that the actions of the continent's states collectively serve as an important heuristic by which to interrogate and understand the foreign policies of other global states, and are not simply "anomalously" extant entities whose actions should be studied only insofar as they deviate from predictions based on the experiences of Western or other non-African states.

Responding to Conflict in Africa

The United Nations and Regional Organizations

Author: J. Boulden

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113736758X

Category: Political Science

Page: 340

View: 2172

Using nine case studies and an overview of recent changes at the institutional level, the purpose of this book is to examine the issues and experiences associated with the increased level of activity between the United Nations and regional organizations in their efforts to address conflict in Africa.

The Use of Force in International Law

A Case-Based Approach

Author: Tom Ruys,Olivier Corten,Alexandra Hofer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191087181

Category: Law

Page: 750

View: 9324

The international law on the use of force is one of the oldest branches of international law. It is an area twinned with the emergence of international law as a concept in itself, and which sees law and politics collide. The number of armed conflicts is equal only to the number of methodological approaches used to describe them. Many violent encounters are well known. The Kosovo Crisis in 1999 and the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 spring easily to the minds of most scholars and academics, and gain extensive coverage in this text. Other conflicts, including the Belgian operation in Stanleyville, and the Ethiopian Intervention in Somalia, are often overlooked to our peril. Ruys and Corten's expert-written text compares over sixty different instances of the use of cross border force since the adoption of the UN Charter in 1945, from all out warfare to hostile encounters between individual units, targeted killings, and hostage rescue operations, to ask a complex question. How much authority does the power of precedent really have in the law of the use of force?

How Europe Underdeveloped Africa

Author: Walter Rodney

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1788731204

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 4159

The classic work of political, economic, and historical analysis, powerfully introduced by Angela Davis In his short life, the Guyanese intellectual Walter Rodney emerged as one of the leading thinkers and activists of the anticolonial revolution, leading movements in North America, South America, the African continent, and the Caribbean. In each locale, Rodney found himself a lightning rod for working class Black Power. His deportation catalyzed 20th century Jamaica's most significant rebellion, the 1968 Rodney riots, and his scholarship trained a generation how to think politics at an international scale. In 1980, shortly after founding of the Working People's Alliance in Guyana, the 38-year-old Rodney would be assassinated. In his magnum opus, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Rodney incisively argues that grasping "the great divergence" between the west and the rest can only be explained as the exploitation of the latter by the former. This meticulously researched analysis of the abiding repercussions of European colonialism on the continent of Africa has not only informed decades of scholarship and activism, it remains an indispensable study for grasping global inequality today.

Security Sector Reform in Conflict-Affected Countries

The Evolution of a Model

Author: Mark Sedra

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317390806

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 1762

This book examines the evolution, impact, and future prospects of the Security Sector Reform (SSR) model in conflict-affected countries in the context of the wider debate over the liberal peace project. Since its emergence as a concept in the late 1990s, SSR has represented a paradigm shift in security assistance, from the realist, regime-centric, train-and-equip approach of the Cold War to a new liberal, holistic and people-centred model. The rapid rise of this model, however, belied its rather meagre impact on the ground. This book critically examines the concept and its record of achievement over the past two decades, putting it into the broader context of peace-building and state-building theory and practice. It focuses attention on the most common, celebrated and complex setting for SSR, conflict-affected environments, and comparatively examines the application and impacts of donor-supported SSR programing in a series of conflict-affected countries over the past two decades, including Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, East Timor and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The broader aim of the book is to better understand how the contemporary SSR model has coalesced over the past two decades and become mainstreamed in international development and security policy and practice. This provides a solid foundation to investigate the reasons for the poor performance of the model and to assess its prospects for the future. This book will be of much interest to students of international security, peacebuilding, statebuilding, development studies and IR in general.

Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed

The MSF Experience

Author: Claire Magone,Michael Neuman,Fabrice Weissman

Publisher: Hurst

ISBN: 1849045267

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 3050

From international NGOs to UN agencies, from donors to observers of humanitarianism, opinion is unanimous: in a context of the alleged "clash of civilizations", our "humanitarian space" is shrinking. Put another way, the freedom of action and of speech of humanitarians is being eroded due to the radicalisation of conflicts and the reaffirmation of state sovereignty over aid actors and policies. The purpose of this book is to challenge this assumption through an analysis of the events that have marked MSF's history since 2003 (when MSF published its first general work on humanitarian action and its relationships with governments). It addresses the evolution of humanitarian goals, the resistance to these goals and the political arrangements that overcame this resistance (or that failed to do so). The contributors seek to analyse the political transactions and balances of power and interests that allow aid activities to move forward, but that are usually masked by the lofty rhetoric of "humanitarian principles". They focus on one key question: what is an acceptable compromise for MSF? This book seeks to puncture a number of the myths that have grown up over the forty years since MSF was founded and describes in detail how the ideals of humanitarian principles and "humanitarian space" operating in conflict zones are in reality illusory. How, in fact, it is the grubby negotiations with varying parties, each of whom have their own vested interests, that may allow organisations such as MSF to operate in a given crisis situation - or not.

Breaking the Conflict Trap

Civil War and Development Policy

Author: World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821386417

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 9351

Civil war conflict is a core development issue. The existence of civil war can dramatically slow a country's development process, especially in low-income countries which are more vulnerable to civil war conflict. Conversely, development can impede civil war. When development succeeds, countries become safer when development fails, they experience a greater risk of being caught in a conflict trap. Ultimately, civil war is a failure of development. 'Breaking the Conflict Trap' identifies the dire consequences that civil war has on the development process and offers three main findings. First, civil war has adverse ripple effects that are often not taken into account by those who determine whether wars start or end. Second, some countries are more likely than others to experience civil war conflict and thus, the risks of civil war differ considerably according to a country's characteristics including its economic stability. Finally, Breaking the Conflict Trap explores viable international measures that can be taken to reduce the global incidence of civil war and proposes a practical agenda for action. This book should serve as a wake up call to anyone in the international community who still thinks that development and conflict are distinct issues.

Europe's Role in Nation-building

From the Balkans to the Congo

Author: James Dobbins

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 083304138X

Category: History

Page: 298

View: 2518

The European Union and its member nations have proven adept at mounting small-scale nation-building operations and should be ready to handle more substantial missions. Building on prior RAND work, this volume presents six case studies of recent European-led nation-building missions, in Albania, Sierra Leone, Macedonia, Côte d'Ivoire, the Congo, and Bosnia, as well as a review of the Australian mission to the Solomon Islands.

Dead Aid

Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa

Author: Dambisa Moyo

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780374139568

Category: Political Science

Page: 188

View: 7379

Describes the state of postwar development policy in Africa that has channeled billions of dollars in aid but failed to either reduce poverty or increase growth, offering a hopeful vision of how to address the problem.

Blood on the Stone

Greed, Corruption and War in the Global Diamond Trade

Author: Ian Smillie

Publisher: Anthem Press

ISBN: 0857289632

Category: History

Page: 237

View: 8871

Africa’s diamond wars took four million lives. ‘Blood on the Stone’ tells the story of how diamonds came to be so dangerous, describing the great diamond cartel and a dangerous pipeline leading from war-torn Africa to the glittering showrooms of Paris, London and New York. It describes the campaign that forced an industry and more than 50 governments to create a global control mechanism, and it provides a sobering prognosis on its future.

Humanitarian Military Intervention

The Conditions for Success and Failure

Author: Taylor B. Seybolt

Publisher: SIPRI Publication

ISBN: 9780199252435

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 2715

Military intervention in a conflict without a reasonable prospect of success is unjustifiable, especially when it is done in the name of humanity. Couched in the debate on the responsibility to protect civilians from violence and drawing on traditional 'just war' principles, the central premise of this book is that humanitarian military intervention can be justified as a policy option only if decision makers can be reasonably sure that intervention will do more good than harm. This book asks, 'Have past humanitarian military interventions been successful?' It defines success as saving lives and sets out a methodology for estimating the number of lives saved by a particular military intervention. Analysis of 17 military operations in six conflict areas that were the defining cases of the 1990s-northern Iraq after the Gulf War, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rwanda, Kosovo and East Timor-shows that the majority were successful by this measure. In every conflict studied, however, some military interventions succeeded while others failed, raising the question, 'Why have some past interventions been more successful than others?' This book argues that the central factors determining whether a humanitarian intervention succeeds are the objectives of the intervention and the military strategy employed by the intervening states. Four types of humanitarian military intervention are offered: helping to deliver emergency aid, protecting aid operations, saving the victims of violence and defeating the perpetrators of violence. The focus on strategy within these four types allows an exploration of the political and military dimensions of humanitarian intervention and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each of the four types. Humanitarian military intervention is controversial. Scepticism is always in order about the need to use military force because the consequences can be so dire. Yet it has become equally controversial not to intervene when a governmentsubjects its citizens to massive violation of their basic human rights. This book recognizes the limits of humanitarian intervention but does not shy away from suggesting how military force can save lives in extreme circumstances.

When States Fail

Causes and Consequences

Author: Robert I. Rotberg

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400835799

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 4497

Since 1990, more than 10 million people have been killed in the civil wars of failed states, and hundreds of millions more have been deprived of fundamental rights. The threat of terrorism has only heightened the problem posed by failed states. When States Fail is the first book to examine how and why states decay and what, if anything, can be done to prevent them from collapsing. It defines and categorizes strong, weak, failing, and collapsed nation-states according to political, social, and economic criteria. And it offers a comprehensive recipe for their reconstruction. The book comprises fourteen essays by leading scholars and practitioners who help structure this disparate field of research, provide useful empirical descriptions, and offer policy recommendations. Robert Rotberg's substantial opening chapter sets out a theory and taxonomy of state failure. It is followed by two sets of chapters, the first on the nature and correlates of failure, the second on methods of preventing state failure and reconstructing those states that do fail. Economic jump-starting, legal refurbishing, elections, the demobilizing of ex-combatants, and civil society are among the many topics discussed. All of the essays are previously unpublished. In addition to Rotberg, the contributors include David Carment, Christopher Clapham, Nat J. Colletta, Jeffrey Herbst, Nelson Kasfir, Michael T. Klare, Markus Kostner, Terrence Lyons, Jens Meierhenrich, Daniel N. Posner, Susan Rose-Ackerman, Donald R. Snodgrass, Nicolas van de Walle, Jennifer A. Widner, and Ingo Wiederhofer.

Water Management in Africa and the Middle East

Challenges and Opportunities

Author: Eglal Rached

Publisher: IDRC

ISBN: 088936804X

Category: Eau - Approvisionnement - Afrique

Page: 294

View: 3487

Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and Opportunities

Peace Operations

Author: Paul F. Diehl,Alexandru Balas

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 074568419X

Category: Political Science

Page: 244

View: 3118

As peace operations become the primary mechanism of conflict management used by the UN and regional organizations, understanding their problems and potential is essential for a more secure world. In this revised and updated second edition, Paul Diehl and Alexandru Balas provide a cutting-edge analysis of the central issues surrounding the development, operation, and effectiveness of peace operations. Among many features, the book: Traces the historical development of peace operations from their origins in the early 20th century through the development of modern peacebuilding missions and multiple simultaneous peace operations. Tracks changes over time in the size, mission and organization of peace operations. Analyses different organizational, financial, and troop provisions for peace operations, as well as assessing alternatives. Lays out criteria for evaluating peace operations and details the conditions under which such operations are successful. Drawing on a wide range of examples from those between Israel and her neighbours to more recent operations in Bosnia, Somalia, Darfur, East Timor, and the Congo, this new edition brings together the body of scholarly research on peace operations to address those concerns. It will be an indispensable guide for students, practitioners and general readers wanting to broaden their knowledge of the possibilities and limits of peace operations today.

Natural Resources and Violent Conflict

Options and Actions

Author: Ian Bannon,Paul Collier

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821355039

Category: Nature

Page: 409

View: 8817

Research carried out by the World Bank on the root causes of conflict and civil war finds that a developing country's economic dependence on natural resources or other primary commodities is strongly associated with the risk level for violent conflict. This book brings together a collection of reports and case studies that explore what the international community in particular can do to reduce this risk.; The text explains the links between natural resources and conflict and examines the impact of resource dependence on economic performance, governance, secessionist movements and revel financing. It then explores avenues for international action - from financial and resource reporting procedures and policy recommendations to commodity tracking systems and enforcement instruments, including sanctions, certification requirements, aid conditionality, legislative and judicial instruments.

The Future of African Peace Operations

From the Janjaweed to Boko Haram

Author: Cedric De Coning,Linnéa Gelot,John Karlsrud

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1783607114

Category: Political Science

Page: 168

View: 9515

Facing threats ranging from Islamist insurgencies to the Ebola pandemic, African regional actors are playing an increasingly vital role in safeguarding peace and stability across the continent. But while the African Union has demonstrated its ability to deploy forces on short notice and in difficult circumstances, the challenges posed by increasingly complex conflict zones have revealed a widening divide between the theory and practice of peacekeeping. With the AU's African Standby Force becoming fully operational in 2016, this timely and much-needed work argues that responding to these challenges will require a new and distinctively African model of peacekeeping, as well as a radical revision of the current African security framework. The first book to provide a comprehensive overview and analysis of African peace operations, The Future of African Peace Operations gives a long overdue assessment of the ways in which peacekeeping on the continent has evolved over the past decade. It will be a vital resource for policy makers, researchers and all those seeking solutions and insights into the immense security challenges which Africa is facing today.

Human Development Report 1994

Author: United Nations Development Programme

Publisher: Human Development Report

ISBN: 0195091701

Category: Developing countries

Page: 226

View: 4401

Expounds a new concept of human security- one that focuses on the security of people in their homes, in their jobs, in their communities and in their environment.

Scarcity and Surfeit

The Ecology of Africa's Conflicts

Author: Jeremy Lind,Kathryn Sturman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781919913186

Category: Africa

Page: 388

View: 4551