Language, Truth and Logic

Author: Alfred Jules Ayer

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486113094

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 1274

"A delightful book … I should like to have written it myself." — Bertrand Russell First published in 1936, this first full-length presentation in English of the Logical Positivism of Carnap, Neurath, and others has gone through many printings to become a classic of thought and communication. It not only surveys one of the most important areas of modern thought; it also shows the confusion that arises from imperfect understanding of the uses of language. A first-rate antidote for fuzzy thought and muddled writing, this remarkable book has helped philosophers, writers, speakers, teachers, students, and general readers alike. Mr. Ayers sets up specific tests by which you can easily evaluate statements of ideas. You will also learn how to distinguish ideas that cannot be verified by experience — those expressing religious, moral, or aesthetic experience, those expounding theological or metaphysical doctrine, and those dealing with a priori truth. The basic thesis of this work is that philosophy should not squander its energies upon the unknowable, but should perform its proper function in criticism and analysis.

The Central Questions of Philosophy

Author: Alfred Jules Ayer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780140135800

Category: Great Britain

Page: 243

View: 4744

In this introduction to some of the most frequently discussed areas of philosophy, Sir Alfred Ayer made his subject accessible to both the general reader and the student. Among the topics covered are the nature of philosophy, varieties of philosophical analysis, theory of knowledge, status of physical objects, relations between body and mind, character of scientific explanation, theory of probability, elements of logic and the claims of theology. Although it ranges more widely, the book invites comparison with Bertrand Russell's The Problems of Philosophy.

Set Theory and its Philosophy

A Critical Introduction

Author: Michael Potter

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191556432

Category: Philosophy

Page: 360

View: 8005

Michael Potter presents a comprehensive new philosophical introduction to set theory. Anyone wishing to work on the logical foundations of mathematics must understand set theory, which lies at its heart. Potter offers a thorough account of cardinal and ordinal arithmetic, and the various axiom candidates. He discusses in detail the project of set-theoretic reduction, which aims to interpret the rest of mathematics in terms of set theory. The key question here is how to deal with the paradoxes that bedevil set theory. Potter offers a strikingly simple version of the most widely accepted response to the paradoxes, which classifies sets by means of a hierarchy of levels. What makes the book unique is that it interweaves a careful presentation of the technical material with a penetrating philosophical critique. Potter does not merely expound the theory dogmatically but at every stage discusses in detail the reasons that can be offered for believing it to be true. Set Theory and its Philosophy is a key text for philosophy, mathematical logic, and computer science.

The Problem of Knowledge

Author: Alfred Jules Ayer

Publisher: Viking Press

ISBN: 9780140135473

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 1300

The Philosophy of Logical Atomism

Author: Bertrand Russell

Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc

ISBN: 1329786351

Category: Education

Page: N.A

View: 2351

Bertrand Arthur William Russell,18 May 1872–2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist. In the early 20th century, Russell led the British "revolt against idealism".He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore, and his protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein. He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians.With A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics. His philosophical essay "On Denoting" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy". His work has had a considerable influence on logic, mathematics, set theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology, and metaphysics.

Nursing Knowledge

Science, Practice, and Philosophy

Author: Mark Risjord

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 144435860X

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 788

Nurses who conduct research have a longstanding interest in questions of nursing knowledge. Nursing Knowledge is a clear and well-informed exposition of the philosophical background to nursing theory and research. Nursing Knowledge answers such fundamental questions as: How is nursing theory related to nursing practice? What are the core elements of nursing knowledge? What makes nursing research distinctive as nursing research? It examines the history of the philosophical debates within nursing, critiques the arguments, explains the implications and sets out to rethink the philosophical foundation of nursing science. Nursing Knowledge begins with philosophical problems that arise within nursing science. It then considers various solutions with the help of philosophical ideas arguingargues that nurses ought to adopt certain philosophical positions because they are the best solutions to the problems that nurses encounter. The book argues claims that the nursing standpoint has the potential to disclose a more complete understanding of human health than the common disease-and-dysfunction views. Because of the relationship to practice, nursing science may freely draw theory from other disciplines and nursing practice unifies nursing research. By redefining theory and philosophy,With a new philosophical perspective on nursing science, the so-called relevance gap between nursing theory and practice can be closed. The final chapter of the book ‘redraws the map’, to create a new picture of nursing science based on the following principles: Problems of practice should guide nursing research Practice and theory are dynamically related Theory research must provide the knowledge base necessary for nurse interventions, training, patient education, etc. Nursing research should develop midrange theories and its results are nursing theory is strengthened when it uses theories confirmed by is integrated with other disciplines Key features Clear and accessibly written Accurate and philosophically well-informed, Discusses philosophical problems in contexts familiar to nurses Systematically examines the philosophical issues involved in nursing research Examines epistemology (how we know what we know), theory development, and the philosophical foundations of scientific methodology. Develops a new model of nursing knowledge Dr. Mark Risjord is Associate Professor in Philosophy at Emory University, and has a faculty appointment in the Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing. His main research areas have been in the philosophy of social science and the philosophy of medicine. He was invited to has been teaching philosophy of science and theory development in the new PhD program in the Nell Hodgson School of Nursing at Emory University insince 1999. He has been awarded two competitive teaching prizes: Emory Williams Distinguished Teaching Award (2004) and the Excellence in Teaching Award (1997). He is presently serving as the Masse-Martin/NEH Distinguished Teaching Chair (2006-2010).

The Meaning of Truth

A Sequel to "Pragmatism,"

Author: William James

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Reality

Page: 297

View: 6870

The Cambridge Companion to Logical Empiricism

Author: Alan Richardson,Thomas Uebel

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139826433

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 8046

If there is a movement or school that epitomizes analytic philosophy in the middle of the twentieth century, it is logical empiricism. Logical empiricists created a scientifically and technically informed philosophy of science, established mathematical logic as a topic in and tool for philosophy, and initiated the project of formal semantics. Accounts of analytic philosophy written in the middle of the twentieth century gave logical empiricism a central place in the project. The second wave of interpretative accounts was constructed to show how philosophy should progress, or had progressed, beyond logical empiricism. The essays survey the formative stages of logical empiricism in central Europe and its acculturation in North America, discussing its main topics, and achievements and failures, in different areas of philosophy of science, and assessing its influence on philosophy, past, present, and future.

The Concept of Mind

Author: Gilbert Ryle

Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc

ISBN: 1329500202

Category: Education

Page: N.A

View: 3004

The Concept of Mind is a 1949 book by philosopher Gilbert Ryle that has been seen as a founding document in the philosophy of mind, which received professional recognition as a distinct and important branch of philosophy only after 1950.The Concept of Mind argues that "mind" is "a philosophical illusion hailing chiefly from Descartes and sustained by logical errors and 'category mistakes' which have become habitual." The work has been cited as having "put the final nail in the coffin of Cartesian dualism."

Logical Positivism

Author: A.J. Ayer

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0029011302

Category: Philosophy

Page: 455

View: 3022

Edited by a leading exponent of the school, this book offers--in the words of the movement's founders--logical positivism's revolutionary theories on meaning and metaphysics, the nature of logic and mathematics, the foundations of knowledge, the content of psychological propositions, ethics, sociology, and the nature of philosophy itself.

Essays in Experimental Logic

Author: John Dewey

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486145743

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 3735

14 of the American philosopher's most influential essays appear here, offering profound reflections on many different aspects of knowledge, reality, and epistemology, including the relationship of thought and its subject matter; the antecedents and stimuli of thought, data, and meanings; the objects of thought; and control of ideas by facts.

The Meaning of Life

A Reader

Author: Elmer Daniel Klemke,Steven M. Cahn

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195327304

Category: Philosophy

Page: 258

View: 7223

Featuring nine new articles chosen by coeditor Steven M. Cahn, the third edition of E. D. Klemke's The Meaning of Life offers twenty-two insightful selections that explore this fascinating topic. The essays are primarily by philosophers but also include materials from literary figures and religious thinkers. As in previous editions, the readings are organized around three themes. In Part I the articles defend the view that without faith in God, life has no meaning or purpose. In Part II the selections oppose this claim, defending instead a nontheistic, humanistic alternative--that life can have meaning even in the absence of theistic commitment. In Part III the contributors ask whether the question of the meaning of life is itself meaningful. The third edition adds substantial essays by Moritz Schlick, Joel Feinberg, and John Kekes as well as selections from the writings of Louis P. Pojman, Emil L. Fackenheim, Robert Nozick, Susan Wolf, and Steven M. Cahn. The only anthology of its kind, The Meaning of Life: A Reader, Third Edition, is ideal for courses in introduction to philosophy, human nature, and the meaning of life. It also offers general readers an accessible and stimulating introduction to the subject.

An Introduction to Formal Logic

Author: Peter Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521008044

Category: Mathematics

Page: 357

View: 9324

Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for evaluating arguments translated into these languages, concentrating on the easily comprehensible 'tree' method. His discussion is richly illustrated with worked examples and exercises. A distinctive feature is that, alongside the formal work, there is illuminating philosophical commentary. This book will make an ideal text for a first logic course, and will provide a firm basis for further work in formal and philosophical logic.

Language and Myth

Author: Ernst Cassirer

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486122271

Category: Philosophy

Page: 103

View: 5869

In this important study, Cassirer analyzes the non-rational thought processes that go to make up culture. Includes studies of the metaphysics of the Bhagavat Gita, Ancient Egyptian religion, symbolic logic, and more.

Reason, Truth and History

Author: Hilary Putnam

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139935666

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 2369

Hilary Putnam deals in this book with some of the most fundamental persistent problems in philosophy: the nature of truth, knowledge and rationality. His aim is to break down the fixed categories of thought which have always appeared to define and constrain the permissible solutions to these problems.

Naming and Necessity

Author: Saul A. Kripke

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674598461

Category: Philosophy

Page: 172

View: 9964

If there is such a thing as essential reading in metaphysics or in philosophy of language, this is it. Ever since the publication of its original version, Naming and Necessity has had great and increasing influence. It redirected philosophical attention to neglected questions of natural and metaphysical necessity and to the connections between these and theories of reference, in particular of naming, and of identity. From a critique of the dominant tendency to assimilate names to descriptions and more generally to treat their reference as a function of their Fregean sense, surprisingly deep and widespread consequences may be drawn. The largely discredited distinction between accidental and essential properties, both of individual things (including people) and of kinds of things, is revived. So is a consequent view of science as what seeks out the essences of natural kinds. Traditional objections to such views are dealt with by sharpening distinctions between epistemic and metaphysical necessity; in particular by the startling admission of necessary a posteriori truths. From these, in particular from identity statements using rigid designators whether of things or of kinds, further remarkable consequences are drawn for the natures of things, of people, and of kinds; strong objections follow, for example to identity versions of materialism as a theory of the mind. This seminal work, to which today's thriving essentialist metaphysics largely owes its impetus, is here published with a substantial new Preface by the author.

LOGIC

Informal, Symbolic and Inductive

Author: CHHANDA CHAKRABORTI

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 9788120332485

Category: Philosophy

Page: 584

View: 7272

The Second Edition of this text continues to provide a comprehensive introduction to Logic, a subject that is increasingly becoming popular among students. What distinguishes the text is its graded step-by-step approach to the subject, with informal logic forming the basis and Symbolic logic and Inductive logic forming the more advanced steps. The book also uses a hands-on approach to teaching of logic to induce self-learning, as shown in sections such as on how to create a truth table or a truth tree, on providing strategic tips for formal derivations, and on how to approach symbolization in predicate logic. The Appendices, including those on Indian logic and the nature of inference in Indian logic, are designed to create greater awareness about the extent and depth of the field among students. WHAT’S NEW TO THIS EDITION  A new Appendix on Basic Set Theory. It covers all the fundamental concepts, principles and operations in Basic Set Theory.  Some sections in Chapter 3 on Fallacies have been modified.  Corrections/Modifications done wherever required. KEY FEATURES  In-depth and extensive coverage of Predicate logic.  Covers both Informal and Formal logic.  Each section has many worked-out examples and exercises.  Worked-out examples given in a step-by-step manner for easy compre-hension.  Keywords at the end of each chapter. Intended primarily as a text for students of Philosophy, the book would also be useful to students of Mathematics, Computer Science and Engineering where Logic is offered as part of their course. Read More

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Author: Rudolf Carnap

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486140865

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 6181

Stimulating, thought-provoking text by one of the 20th century's most creative philosophers makes accessible such topics as probability, measurement and quantitative language, causality and determinism, theoretical laws and concepts, more.