Lay Theories

Everyday Understanding of Problems in the Social Sciences

Author: Michael Argyle

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483286479

Category: Social Science

Page: 267

View: 7029

Lay theories - the informal, common-sense explanations people give for particular social behaviours - are often very different from formal 'scientific' explanations of what actually happens. While they have been studied in the past, this is the first attempt to review, in detail, the nature of these beliefs. More specifically, it is the first study to consider such fundamental questions as the structure, aetiology, stability and consequence of lay theories about a range of topics. Each chapter covers a different area, such as psychology, psychiatry, medicine, economics, statistics, law and education.

The Scientific Credibility of Folk Psychology

Author: Garth J.O. Fletcher

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134787014

Category: Psychology

Page: 128

View: 4583

The examination and evaluation of folk psychology and lay cognition has been carried out predominantly in two domains: personality and social psychology, and the philosophy of psychology. Yet, work in these two areas has largely proceeded independently. The assumption on which this volume is founded is that a proper comparison between scientific cognition and folk ways of thought rests on an adequate study of both science and folk psychology. With this in mind, the author provides an analysis of the intricate, and often hidden, links between these two spheres. In doing so, the book poses two related questions. First, what is the nature of folk psychology and how is it related to scientific psychology? Second, of what should the relationship between folk psychology and scientific psychology consist? In answering these two questions, the author draws extensively from research and arguments in social psychology and social cognition, cognitive science, and the philosophy of science. The interdisciplinary approach gives the book a unique perspective that will be of interest to scholars working in social psychology, cognitive science, and philosophy of science. Written in a concise and accessible style, this volume is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students as well as a general psychological audience.

Culture and Social Behavior

The Ontario Symposium

Author: Richard M. Sorrentino,Dov Cohen,James M. Olson,Mark P. Zanna

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135617910

Category: Mathematics

Page: 12

View: 9011

Cross-cultural differences have many important implications for social identity, social cognition, and interpersonal behavior. The 10th volume of the Ontario Symposia on Personality and Social Psychology focuses on East-West cultural differences and similarities and how this research can be applied to cross-cultural studies in general. Culture and Social Behavior covers a range of topics from differences in basic cognitive processes to broad level cultural syndromes that pervade social arrangements, laws, and public representations. Leading researchers in the study of culture and psychology describe their work and their current perspective on the important questions facing the field. Pioneers in the field such as Harry Triandis and Michael Bond present their work, along with those who represent some newer approaches to the study of culture. Richard E. Nisbett concludes the book by discussing the historical development of the field and an examination of which aspects of culture are universal and which are culture-specific. By illustrating both the diversity and vitality of research on the psychology of culture and social behavior, the editors hope this volume will stimulate further research from psychologists of many cultural traditions. Understanding cultural differences is now more important than ever due to their potential to spark conflict, violence, and aggression. As such, this volume is a "must have" for cultural researchers including those in social, cultural, and personality psychology, and interpersonal, cultural, and political communication, anthropology, and sociology.

Contemporary Theories of Religion

A Critical Companion

Author: Michael Stausberg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134041489

Category: Religion

Page: 320

View: 1924

Interest in theories of religion has never been greater. Scholars debate single theoretical approaches in different scholarly journals, while the ‘new atheists’ such as Richard Dawkins and Daniel Dennett criticize the whole idea of religion. For everyone eager to understand the current state of the field, Contemporary Theories of Religion surveys the neglected landscape in its totality. Michael Stausberg brings together leading scholars of the field to review and discuss seventeen contemporary theories of religion. As well as scholars of religion, it features anthropologists, archaeologists, classicists, evolutionary biologists, philosophers and sociologists. Each chapter provides students with background information on the theoretician, a presentation of the theory’s basic principles, an analysis of basic assumptions, and a review of previous critiques. Concluding with a section entitled 'Back and Forth', Stausberg compares the different theories and points to further avenues of discussion for the future.

The Psychology of Preventive Health

Author: Marian Pitts

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134843402

Category: Medical

Page: 168

View: 3589

Should I vaccinate my child? Can we stop ourselves getting cancer? How much can I safely drink? These are the everyday questions that health educators and promoters face from the public, but how should they best be answered? From her extensive experience in health psychology Marian Pitts provides an overview of the latest research in the area of preventive health and questions some underlying assumptions in current practice. The Psychology of Preventive Health is written for students and health professionals interested in widening their perspectives on issues concerning primary health care.

Real Science

What it Is and What it Means

Author: John Ziman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521893107

Category: Science

Page: 412

View: 1601

A systematic, carefully reasoned, but non-technical analysis of the nature and significance of scientific knowledge.

Distributed Decision Making:

Report of a Workshop

Author: Board on Human-Systems Integration,Committee on Human Factors,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309041996

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 74

View: 4701

Decision making in today's organizations is often distributed widely and usually supported by such technologies as satellite communications, electronic messaging, teleconferencing, and shared data bases. Distributed Decision Making outlines the process and problems involved in dispersed decision making, draws on current academic and case history information, and highlights the need for better theories, improved research methods and more interdisciplinary studies on the individual and organizational issues associated with distributed decision making. An appendix provides additional background reading on this socially and economically important problem area.

Conceptual Issues in Psychology

Author: Elizabeth R. Valentine

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415039253

Category: Psychology

Page: 238

View: 8301

Drawing heavily on the recollections and literature of the people themselves, Harrison places late Victorian Britain firmly in its social and political context.

Clinical psychology

concepts, methods, and profession

Author: E. Jerry Phares

Publisher: Irwin Professional Publishing

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 669

View: 2686

Theories of Delinquency

An Examination of Explanations of Delinquent Behavior

Author: Donald J. Shoemaker

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195127768

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 4684

Theories of Delinquency provides a comprehensive survey of major theoretical approaches to the understanding of delinquent behavior. It includes discussions and evaluations of all major individualistic and sociological theories, presenting each theory in a standard format with basic assumptions, important concepts, and critical evaluations of the research connected with these theories. Theories covered include biological and psychological explanations, anomie and social disorganization, differential association, drift theory, labeling theory, critical theories, and explanations of female delinquency. Now in its fourth edition, Theories of Delinquency, contains updated discussions of these theories, and special attention is given to the international aspects of the explanations discussed. Clearly written and consistently organized, Theories of Delinquency is important reading for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in crime and delinquency.

Social Psychology

Understanding Human Interaction

Author: Robert A. Baron,Donn Erwin Byrne

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 633

View: 7676

Levels of Personality

Author: Mark Cook

Publisher: Weidenfeld & Nicolson

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 294

View: 8574

Social Problems

Divergent Perspectives

Author: Thomas J. Sullivan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 728

View: 4264

The Science of Lay Theories

How Beliefs Shape Our Cognition, Behavior, and Health

Author: Claire M. Zedelius,Barbara C. N. Müller,Jonathan W. Schooler

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319573063

Category: Psychology

Page: 382

View: 2115

This timely and important collection broadens our understanding of the ways in which lay theories (also known as folk psychologies, implicit theories, naïve theories, or mindsets) impact our lives and social relations. Moving well beyond lay theories as applied to intelligence and achievement, this volume considers lay theories in an admirably wide context, including perspectives on prejudice, creativity, self-regulation, health, free will, justice, magic, religion and more. Eminent and emerging scholars alike provide a comprehensive overview that presents and synthesizes cutting edge contemporary research on lay theories, spanning social, cognitive, developmental, cultural, and clinical psychology. Structurally, this volume is organized in three parts. Beginning with a preface by renowned scholar Carol Dweck, the first part looks at the origins and nature of lay theories, and how malleable they are. The second part explores lay theories about common psychological phenomena. The third section discusses lay theories about the metaphysical or supernatural. Finally, the last section explores the important question of how lay theories impact health and health behavior. Taken together, the chapters provide an integrative survey of the science of lay theories, bringing together many perspectives that previously have been studied largely in isolation. This volume is more than the sum of its parts—perspectives from different strands of research provide insights that cut across research disciplines, making novel connections and prompting new directions for this field of study. Shedding light on how our beliefs shape all facets of our lives, The Science of Lay Theories: How Beliefs Shape Our Cognition, Behavior, and Health will appeal to researchers and practitioners in psychology, as well as philosophers, cognitive and developmental neuroscientists, religious scholars, sociologists, and anthropologists. It is very rare to say of an edited volume of scholarly chapters “I couldn’t put it down!” Yet that was the case with this book. It’s not just that I have worked in this field for many years, but rather, with every chapter I felt I was gaining new insights into what, deep down, people really believe and how these beliefs influence their lives—Carol Dweck, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA

Navigating the Social World

What Infants, Children, and Other Species Can Teach Us

Author: Mahzarin R. Banaji,Susan A. Gelman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199890714

Category: Psychology

Page: 424

View: 1385

Navigating the social world requires sophisticated cognitive machinery that, although present quite early in crude forms, undergoes significant change across the lifespan. This book will be the first to report on evidence that has accumulated on an unprecedented scale, showing us what capacities for social cognition are present at birth and early in life, and how these capacities develop through learning in the first years of life. The volume will highlight what is known about the discoveries themselves but also what these discoveries imply about the nature of early social cognition and the methods that have allowed these discoveries — what is known concerning the phylogeny and ontogeny of social cognition. To capture the full depth and breadth of the exciting work that is blossoming on this topic in a manner that is accessible and engaging, the editors invited 70 leading researchers to develop a short report of their work that would be written for a broad audience. The purpose of this format was for each piece to focus on a single core message: are babies aware of what is right and wrong, why do children have the same implicit intergroup preferences that adults do, what does language do to the building of category knowledge, and so on. The unique format and accessible writing style will be appealing to graduate students and researchers in cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and social psychology.

Everyday understanding

social and scientific implications

Author: G. R. Semin,Kenneth J. Gergen

Publisher: Sage Pubns

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 248

View: 9155

Combining the talents of a culturally diverse, international group of scholars, this important volume critically examines the most significant strands in the ongoing debate surrounding lay theories. The main focus is with people's everyday understanding of the world, and more directly, their understandings of themselves and others. Contributors explore the status and origins of lay understandings, how they are generated, how they are assessed, and how they influence or insinuate themselves into science. They also discuss whether or not it is appropriate to value scientific theorizing above lay theorizing. Lastly, they answer fundamental questions about the nature of language, cognition, culture, and the foundations of social and scientific knowledge. "Editors Semin and Gergen strike a balance between the specific and the general. . . . Everyday Understanding: Social and Scientific Implications will appeal to readers who support a multiplicity of approaches or even support an alternative to theexperimental method. . . . The series itself is a welcome scientific contribution, and Everyday Understanding: Social and Scientific Implications is an excellent addition to the series and admirably realizes many of the goals of the series. . . . Although readers may sometimes disagree with particular conclusions or arguments made by the authors, the questions raised and the discussions of the issues are intriguing, and scientific understanding may be increased by exploring such issues. . . . The editors succeed in their goal of presenting a range of views and contributing to the current debate about lay theories and their relation to scientific theories." --Contemporary Psychology

From drinking to alcoholism

a sociological commentary

Author: David Robinson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 211

View: 1576

Logics of History

Social Theory and Social Transformation

Author: William H. Sewell Jr.

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226749198

Category: Social Science

Page: 376

View: 4620

While social scientists and historians have been exchanging ideas for a long time, they have never developed a proper dialogue about social theory. William H. Sewell Jr. observes that on questions of theory the communication has been mostly one way: from social science to history. Logics of History argues that both history and the social sciences have something crucial to offer each other. While historians do not think of themselves as theorists, they know something social scientists do not: how to think about the temporalities of social life. On the other hand, while social scientists’ treatments of temporality are usually clumsy, their theoretical sophistication and penchant for structural accounts of social life could offer much to historians. Renowned for his work at the crossroads of history, sociology, political science, and anthropology, Sewell argues that only by combining a more sophisticated understanding of historical time with a concern for larger theoretical questions can a satisfying social theory emerge. In Logics of History, he reveals the shape such an engagement could take, some of the topics it could illuminate, and how it might affect both sides of the disciplinary divide.

Gambling

a review of the literature and its implications for policy and research

Author: Derek Blaikie Cornish

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Games

Page: 284

View: 4684