Logic and Structure

Author: Dirk van Dalen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447145585

Category: Mathematics

Page: 263

View: 8739

Dirk van Dalen’s popular textbook Logic and Structure, now in its fifth edition, provides a comprehensive introduction to the basics of classical and intuitionistic logic, model theory and Gödel’s famous incompleteness theorem. Propositional and predicate logic are presented in an easy-to-read style using Gentzen’s natural deduction. The book proceeds with some basic concepts and facts of model theory: a discussion on compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, non-standard models and quantifier elimination. The discussion of classical logic is concluded with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, intuitionistic logic and Kripke semantics is carefully explored. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property are also included. The last chapter on Gödel's first incompleteness theorem is self-contained and provides a systematic exposition of the necessary recursion theory. This new edition has been properly revised and contains a new section on ultra-products.

Proof And Computation: Digitization In Mathematics, Computer Science And Philosophy

Author: Mainzer Klaus,Schwichtenberg Helmut,Schuster Peter Michael

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813270950

Category: Mathematics

Page: 300

View: 2990

This book is for graduate students and researchers, introducing modern foundational research in mathematics, computer science, and philosophy from an interdisciplinary point of view. Its scope includes Predicative Foundations, Constructive Mathematics and Type Theory, Computation in Higher Types, Extraction of Programs from Proofs, and Algorithmic Aspects in Financial Mathematics. By filling the gap between (under-)graduate level textbooks and advanced research papers, the book gives a scholarly account of recent developments and emerging branches of the aforementioned fields. Contents: Proof and Computation (K Mainzer) Constructive Convex Programming (J Berger and G Svindland) Exploring Predicativity (L Crosilla) Constructive Functional Analysis: An Introduction (H Ishihara) Program Extraction (K Miyamoto) The Data Structures of the Lambda Terms (M Sato) Provable (and Unprovable) Computability (S Wainer) Introduction to Minlog (F Wiesnet) Readership: Graduate students, researchers, and professionals in Mathematics and Computer Science. Keywords: Proof Theory;Computability Theory;Program Extraction;Constructive Analysis;PredicativityReview: Key Features: This book gathers recent contributions of distinguished experts It makes emerging fields accessible to a wider audience, appealing to a broad readership with diverse backgrounds It fills a gap between (under-)graduate level textbooks and state-of-the-art research papers

Basic Proof Theory

Author: A. S. Troelstra,H. Schwichtenberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521779111

Category: Computers

Page: 417

View: 8189

Introduction to proof theory and its applications in mathematical logic, theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.

Principles of Harmonic Analysis

Author: Anton Deitmar,Siegfried Echterhoff

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319057928

Category: Mathematics

Page: 332

View: 8579

This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

Models of Peano arithmetic

Author: Richard Kaye

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA


Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 292

View: 3952

Non-standard models of arithmetic are of interest to mathematicians through the presence of infinite integers and the various properties they inherit from the finite integers. Since their introduction in the 1930s, they have come to play an important role in model theory, and in combinatorics through independence results such as the Paris-Harrington theorem. This book is an introduction to these developments, and stresses the interplay between the first-order theory, recursion-theoretic aspects, and the structural properties of these models. Prerequisites for an understanding of the text have been kept to a minimum, these being a basic grounding in elementary model theory and a familiarity with the notions of recursive, primitive recursive, and r.e. sets. Consequently, the book is suitable for postgraduate students coming to the subject for the first time, and a number of exercises of varying degrees of difficulty will help to further the reader's understanding.

Analysis, Manifolds, and Physics

Author: Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat,Cécile DeWitt-Morette,Margaret Dillard Bleick

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780444860170

Category: Mathematics

Page: 630

View: 5100

This reference book, which has found wide use as a text, provides an answer to the needs of graduate physical mathematics students and their teachers. The present edition is a thorough revision of the first, including a new chapter entitled ``Connections on Principle Fibre Bundles'' which includes sections on holonomy, characteristic classes, invariant curvature integrals and problems on the geometry of gauge fields, monopoles, instantons, spin structure and spin connections. Many paragraphs have been rewritten, and examples and exercises added to ease the study of several chapters. The index includes over 130 entries.

Logic as a Tool

A Guide to Formal Logical Reasoning

Author: Valentin Goranko

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118880056

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

View: 9463

Written in a clear, precise and user-friendly style, Logic as a Tool: A Guide to Formal Logical Reasoning is intended for undergraduates in both mathematics and computer science, and will guide them to learn, understand and master the use of classical logic as a tool for doing correct reasoning. It offers a systematic and precise exposition of classical logic with many examples and exercises, and only the necessary minimum of theory. The book explains the grammar, semantics and use of classical logical languages and teaches the reader how grasp the meaning and translate them to and from natural language. It illustrates with extensive examples the use of the most popular deductive systems -- axiomatic systems, semantic tableaux, natural deduction, and resolution -- for formalising and automating logical reasoning both on propositional and on first-order level, and provides the reader with technical skills needed for practical derivations in them. Systematic guidelines are offered on how to perform logically correct and well-structured reasoning using these deductive systems and the reasoning techniques that they employ. •Concise and systematic exposition, with semi-formal but rigorous treatment of the minimum necessary theory, amply illustrated with examples •Emphasis both on conceptual understanding and on developing practical skills •Solid and balanced coverage of syntactic, semantic, and deductive aspects of logic •Includes extensive sets of exercises, many of them provided with solutions or answers •Supplemented by a website including detailed slides, additional exercises and solutions For more information browse the book's website at: https://logicasatool.wordpress.com

Incompleteness in the Land of Sets

Author: Melvin Fitting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987345

Category: Mathematics

Page: 142

View: 9814

Russell's paradox arises when we consider those sets that do not belong to themselves. The collection of such sets cannot constitute a set. Step back a bit. Logical formulas define sets (in a standard model). Formulas, being mathematical objects, can be thought of as sets themselves-mathematics reduces to set theory. Consider those formulas that do not belong to the set they define. The collection of such formulas is not definable by a formula, by the same argument that Russell used. This quickly gives Tarski's result on the undefinability of truth. Variations on the same idea yield the famous results of Godel, Church, Rosser, and Post. This book gives a full presentation of the basic incompleteness and undecidability theorems of mathematical logic in the framework of set theory. Corresponding results for arithmetic follow easily, and are also given. Godel numbering is generally avoided, except when an explicit connection is made between set theory and arithmetic. The book assumes little technical background from the reader. One needs mathematical ability, a general familiarity with formal logic, and an understanding of the completeness theorem, though not its proof. All else is developed and formally proved, from Tarski's Theorem to Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem. Exercises are scattered throughout.

A Course in Mathematical Logic

Author: John Lane Bell,Moshe Machover

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080934749

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: 599

View: 7498

A comprehensive one-year graduate (or advanced undergraduate) course in mathematical logic and foundations of mathematics. No previous knowledge of logic is required; the book is suitable for self-study. Many exercises (with hints) are included.

Practical Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Paul Taylor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521631075

Category: Mathematics

Page: 572

View: 4873

Practical Foundations collects the methods of construction of the objects of twentieth-century mathematics. Although it is mainly concerned with a framework essentially equivalent to intuitionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel logic, the book looks forward to more subtle bases in categorical type theory and the machine representation of mathematics. Each idea is illustrated by wide-ranging examples, and followed critically along its natural path, transcending disciplinary boundaries between universal algebra, type theory, category theory, set theory, sheaf theory, topology and programming. Students and teachers of computing, mathematics and philosophy will find this book both readable and of lasting value as a reference work.

Mathematical Analysis I

Author: V. A. Zorich

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662487926

Category: Mathematics

Page: 616

View: 5415

This second edition of a very popular two-volume work presents a thorough first course in analysis, leading from real numbers to such advanced topics as differential forms on manifolds; asymptotic methods; Fourier, Laplace, and Legendre transforms; elliptic functions; and distributions. Especially notable in this course are the clearly expressed orientation toward the natural sciences and the informal exploration of the essence and the roots of the basic concepts and theorems of calculus. Clarity of exposition is matched by a wealth of instructive exercises, problems, and fresh applications to areas seldom touched on in textbooks on real analysis. The main difference between the second and first editions is the addition of a series of appendices to each volume. There are six of them in the first volume and five in the second. The subjects of these appendices are diverse. They are meant to be useful to both students (in mathematics and physics) and teachers, who may be motivated by different goals. Some of the appendices are surveys, both prospective and retrospective. The final survey establishes important conceptual connections between analysis and other parts of mathematics. The first volume constitutes a complete course in one-variable calculus along with the multivariable differential calculus elucidated in an up-to-date, clear manner, with a pleasant geometric and natural sciences flavor.

Classical Topology and Combinatorial Group Theory

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461243726

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 1692

In recent years, many students have been introduced to topology in high school mathematics. Having met the Mobius band, the seven bridges of Konigsberg, Euler's polyhedron formula, and knots, the student is led to expect that these picturesque ideas will come to full flower in university topology courses. What a disappointment "undergraduate topology" proves to be! In most institutions it is either a service course for analysts, on abstract spaces, or else an introduction to homological algebra in which the only geometric activity is the completion of commutative diagrams. Pictures are kept to a minimum, and at the end the student still does nr~ understand the simplest topological facts, such as the rcason why knots exist. In my opinion, a well-balanced introduction to topology should stress its intuitive geometric aspect, while admitting the legitimate interest that analysts and algebraists have in the subject. At any rate, this is the aim of the present book. In support of this view, I have followed the historical development where practicable, since it clearly shows the influence of geometric thought at all stages. This is not to claim that topology received its main impetus from geometric recreations like the seven bridges; rather, it resulted from the l'isualization of problems from other parts of mathematics-complex analysis (Riemann), mechanics (Poincare), and group theory (Dehn). It is these connec tions to other parts of mathematics which make topology an important as well as a beautiful subject.

A Short Introduction to Intuitionistic Logic

Author: Grigori Mints

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306469758

Category: Mathematics

Page: 131

View: 3641

Intuitionistic logic is presented here as part of familiar classical logic which allows mechanical extraction of programs from proofs. to make the material more accessible, basic techniques are presented first for propositional logic; Part II contains extensions to predicate logic. This material provides an introduction and a safe background for reading research literature in logic and computer science as well as advanced monographs. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic notions of first order logic. One device for making this book short was inventing new proofs of several theorems. The presentation is based on natural deduction. The topics include programming interpretation of intuitionistic logic by simply typed lambda-calculus (Curry-Howard isomorphism), negative translation of classical into intuitionistic logic, normalization of natural deductions, applications to category theory, Kripke models, algebraic and topological semantics, proof-search methods, interpolation theorem. The text developed from materal for several courses taught at Stanford University in 1992-1999.

Philosophical Devices

Proofs, Probabilities, Possibilities, and Sets

Author: David Papineau

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191656259

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 2734

This book is designed to explain the technical ideas that are taken for granted in much contemporary philosophical writing. Notions like 'denumerability', 'modal scope distinction', 'Bayesian conditionalization', and 'logical completeness' are usually only elucidated deep within difficult specialist texts. By offering simple explanations that by-pass much irrelevant and boring detail, Philosophical Devices is able to cover a wealth of material that is normally only available to specialists. The book contains four sections, each of three chapters. The first section is about sets and numbers, starting with the membership relation and ending with the generalized continuum hypothesis. The second is about analyticity, a prioricity, and necessity. The third is about probability, outlining the difference between objective and subjective probability and exploring aspects of conditionalization and correlation. The fourth deals with metalogic, focusing on the contrast between syntax and semantics, and finishing with a sketch of Gödel's theorem. Philosophical Devices will be useful for university students who have got past the foothills of philosophy and are starting to read more widely, but it does not assume any prior expertise. All the issues discussed are intrinsically interesting, and often downright fascinating. It can be read with pleasure and profit by anybody who is curious about the technical infrastructure of contemporary philosophy.

Data Mining with Rattle and R

The Art of Excavating Data for Knowledge Discovery

Author: Graham Williams

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144199890X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 374

View: 2109

Data mining is the art and science of intelligent data analysis. By building knowledge from information, data mining adds considerable value to the ever increasing stores of electronic data that abound today. In performing data mining many decisions need to be made regarding the choice of methodology, the choice of data, the choice of tools, and the choice of algorithms. Throughout this book the reader is introduced to the basic concepts and some of the more popular algorithms of data mining. With a focus on the hands-on end-to-end process for data mining, Williams guides the reader through various capabilities of the easy to use, free, and open source Rattle Data Mining Software built on the sophisticated R Statistical Software. The focus on doing data mining rather than just reading about data mining is refreshing. The book covers data understanding, data preparation, data refinement, model building, model evaluation, and practical deployment. The reader will learn to rapidly deliver a data mining project using software easily installed for free from the Internet. Coupling Rattle with R delivers a very sophisticated data mining environment with all the power, and more, of the many commercial offerings.

A Course in Algebra

Author: Ėrnest Borisovich Vinberg

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821833189

Category: Mathematics

Page: 511

View: 8754

This is a comprehensive textbook on modern algebra written by an internationally renowned specialist. It covers material traditionally found in advanced undergraduate and basic graduate courses and presents it in a lucid style. The author includes almost no technically difficult proofs, and reflecting his point of view on mathematics, he tries wherever possible to replace calculations and difficult deductions with conceptual proofs and to associate geometric images to algebraic objects.The effort spent on the part of students in absorbing these ideas will pay off when they turn to solving problems outside of this textbook. Another important feature is the presentation of most topics on several levels, allowing students to move smoothly from initial acquaintance with the subject to thorough study and a deeper understanding. Basic topics are included, such as algebraic structures, linear algebra, polynomials, and groups, as well as more advanced topics, such as affine and projective spaces, tensor algebra, Galois theory, Lie groups, and associative algebras and their representations. Some applications of linear algebra and group theory to physics are discussed. The book is written with extreme care and contains over 200 exercises and 70 figures. It is ideal as a textbook and also suitable for independent study for advanced undergraduates and graduate students.

Measure, Integral and Probability

Author: Marek Capinski,(Peter) Ekkehard Kopp

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447136314

Category: Mathematics

Page: 227

View: 2839

This very well written and accessible book emphasizes the reasons for studying measure theory, which is the foundation of much of probability. By focusing on measure, many illustrative examples and applications, including a thorough discussion of standard probability distributions and densities, are opened. The book also includes many problems and their fully worked solutions.

Geometry of Surfaces

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461209293

Category: Mathematics

Page: 236

View: 3703

The geometry of surfaces is an ideal starting point for learning geometry, for, among other reasons, the theory of surfaces of constant curvature has maximal connectivity with the rest of mathematics. This text provides the student with the knowledge of a geometry of greater scope than the classical geometry taught today, which is no longer an adequate basis for mathematics or physics, both of which are becoming increasingly geometric. It includes exercises and informal discussions.

Undergraduate Commutative Algebra

Author: Miles Reid

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521458894

Category: Mathematics

Page: 153

View: 7173

In this well-written introduction to commutative algebra, the author shows the link between commutative ring theory and algebraic geometry. In addition to standard material, the book contrasts the methods and ideology of modern abstract algebra with concrete applications in algebraic geometry and number theory. Professor Reid begins with a discussion of modules and Noetherian rings before moving on to finite extensions and the Noether normalization. Sections on the nullstellensatz and rings of fractions precede sections on primary decomposition and normal integral domains. This book is ideal for anyone seeking a primer on commutative algebra.

Theory of Wire Rope

Author: George A. Costello

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468403508

Category: Science

Page: 106

View: 7859

Mechanical engineering, an engineering discipline borne of the needs of the industrial revolution, is once again asked to do its substantial share in the call for industrial renewal. The general call is urgent as we face profound issues of productivity and competitiveness that require engineering solutions, among others. The Mechanical Engineering Series is a new series, featuring graduate texts and research monographs, intended to address the need for information in contemporary areas of mechanical engineering. The series is conceived as a comprehensive one that will cover a broad range of concentrations important to mechanical engineering graduate education and research. We are fortunate to have a distinguished roster of consulting editors, each an expert in one of the areas of concentration. The names of the consulting editors are listed on the first page of the volume. The areas of concentration are applied mechanics, biomechanics, computational mechanics, dynamic systems and control, energetics, mechanics of materials, processing, thermal science, and tribology. Professor Leckie, the consulting editor for applied mechanics, and I are pleased to present the third volume of the series: Theory of Wire Rope by Professor Costello. The selection of this volume underscores again the interest of the Mechanical Engineering Series to provide our readers with topical monographs as well as graduate texts.