Modern Visual Culture and National Identity
Author: John Mraz
Publisher: Duke University Press
In Looking for Mexico, a leading historian of visual culture, John Mraz, provides a panoramic view of Mexico’s modern visual culture from the U.S. invasion of 1847 to the present. Along the way, he illuminates the powerful role of photographs, films, illustrated magazines, and image-filled history books in the construction of national identity, showing how Mexicans have both made themselves and been made with the webs of significance spun by modern media. Central to Mraz’s book is photography, which was distributed widely throughout Mexico in the form of cartes-de-visite, postcards, and illustrated magazines. Mraz analyzes the work of a broad range of photographers, including Guillermo Kahlo, Winfield Scott, Hugo Brehme, Agustín Víctor Casasola, Tina Modotti, Manuel Álvarez Bravo, Héctor García, Pedro Meyer, and the New Photojournalists. He also examines representations of Mexico’s past in the country’s influential picture histories: popular, large-format, multivolume series replete with thousands of photographs and an assortment of texts. Turning to film, Mraz compares portrayals of the Mexican Revolution by Fernando de Fuentes to the later movies of Emilio Fernández and Gabriel Figueroa. He considers major stars of Golden Age cinema as gender archetypes for mexicanidad, juxtaposing the charros (hacienda cowboys) embodied by Pedro Infante, Pedro Armendáriz, and Jorge Negrete with the effacing women: the mother, Indian, and shrew as played by Sara García, Dolores del Río, and María Félix. Mraz also analyzes the leading comedians of the Mexican screen, representations of the 1968 student revolt, and depictions of Frida Kahlo in films made by Paul Leduc and Julie Taymor. Filled with more than fifty illustrations, Looking for Mexico is an exuberant plunge into Mexico’s national identity, its visual culture, and the connections between the two.
A Cultural Biography
Author: Andrew Grant Wood
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Few Mexican musicians in the twentieth century achieved as much notoriety or had such an international impact as the popular singer and songwriter Agustín Lara (1897-1970). Widely known as "el flaco de oro" ("the Golden Skinny"), this remarkably thin fellow was prolific across the genres of bolero, ballad, and folk. His most beloved "Granada", a song so enduring that it has been covered by the likes of Mario Lanza, Frank Sinatra, and Placido Domingo, is today a standard in the vocal repertory. However, there exists very little biographical literature on Lara in English. In Agustín Lara: A Cultural Biography, author Andrew Wood's informed and informative placement of Lara's work in a broader cultural context presents a rich and comprehensive reading of the life of this significant musical figure. Lara's career as a media celebrity as well as musician provides an excellent window on Mexican society in the mid-twentieth century and on popular culture in Latin America. Wood also delves into Lara's music itself, bringing to light how the composer's work unites a number of important currents in Latin music of his day, particularly the bolero. With close musicological focus and in-depth cultural analysis riding alongside the biographical narrative, Agustin Lara: A Cultural Biography is a welcome read to aficionados and performers of Latin American musics, as well as a valuable addition to the study of modern Mexican music and Latin American popular culture as a whole.
Politics, Work, and Culture in Mexico, 1938–1968
Author: Paul Gillingham,Benjamin T. Smith
Publisher: Duke University Press
In 1910 Mexicans rebelled against an imperfect dictatorship; after 1940 they ended up with what some called the perfect dictatorship. A single party ruled Mexico for over seventy years, holding elections and talking about revolution while overseeing one of the world's most inequitable economies. The contributors to this groundbreaking collection revise earlier interpretations, arguing that state power was not based exclusively on hegemony, corporatism, or violence. Force was real, but it was also exercised by the ruled. It went hand-in-hand with consent, produced by resource regulation, political pragmatism, local autonomies and a popular veto. The result was a dictablanda: a soft authoritarian regime. This deliberately heterodox volume brings together social historians, anthropologists, sociologists, and political scientists to offer a radical new understanding of the emergence and persistence of the modern Mexican state. It also proposes bold, multidisciplinary approaches to critical problems in contemporary politics. With its blend of contested elections, authoritarianism, and resistance, Mexico foreshadowed the hybrid regimes that have spread across much of the globe. Dictablanda suggests how they may endure. Contributors. Roberto Blancarte, Christopher R. Boyer, Guillermo de la Peña, María Teresa Fernández Aceves, Paul Gillingham, Rogelio Hernández Rodríguez, Alan Knight, Gladys McCormick, Tanalís Padilla, Wil G. Pansters, Andrew Paxman, Jaime Pensado, Pablo Piccato, Thomas Rath, Jeffrey W. Rubin, Benjamin T. Smith, Michael Snodgrass
Stories from the Newsroom, Stories from the Street
Author: Benjamin T. Smith
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Mexico today is one of the most dangerous places in the world to report the news, and Mexicans have taken to the street to defend freedom of expression. As Benjamin T. Smith demonstrates in this history of the press and civil society, the cycle of violent repression and protest over journalism is nothing new. He traces it back to the growth in newspaper production and reading publics between 1940 and 1976, when a national thirst for tabloids, crime sheets, and magazines reached far beyond the middle class. As Mexicans began to view local and national events through the prism of journalism, everyday politics changed radically. Even while lauding the liberty of the press, the state developed an arsenal of methods to control what was printed, including sophisticated spin and misdirection techniques, covert financial payments, and campaigns of threats, imprisonment, beatings, and even murder. The press was also pressured by media monopolists tacking between government demands and public expectations to maximize profits, and by coalitions of ordinary citizens demanding that local newspapers publicize stories of corruption, incompetence, and state violence. Since the Cold War, both in Mexico City and in the provinces, a robust radical journalism has posed challenges to government forces.
Author: Costanza Caraffa,Tiziana Serena
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
The question of the (photographic) construction and representation of national identity is not limited to the ‘long 19th century’, but is a current issue in the post-colonial, post-global, digital world. The essays by international contributors aim at studying the relationship between photographic archives and the idea of nation, yet without focusing on single symbolic icons and instead considering the wider archival and sedimental dimension.
Author: Niamh Thornton
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
Category: Performing Arts
Revolution and Rebellion in Mexican Film examines Mexican films of political conflict from the early studio Revolutionary films of the 1930-50s up to the campaigning Zapatista films of the 2000s. Mapping this evolution out for the first time, the author takes three key events under consideration: the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920); the student movement and massacre in 1968; and, finally, the more recent Zapatista Rebellion (1994-present). Analyzing films such as Vamanos con Pancho Villa (1936), El Grito (1968), and Corazon del Tiempo (2008), the author uses the term 'political conflict' to refer to those violent disturbances, dramatic periods of confrontation, injury and death, which characterize particular historical events involving state and non-state actors that may have a finite duration, but have a long-lasting legacy on the nation. These conflicts have been an important component of Mexican film since its inception and include studio productions, documentaries, and independent films.
Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties
Author: Jaime M. Pensado
Publisher: Stanford University Press
Winner of the 2014 Mexican Book Prize In the middle of the twentieth century, a growing tide of student activism in Mexico reached a level that could not be ignored, culminating with the 1968 movement. This book traces the rise, growth, and consequences of Mexico's "student problem" during the long sixties (1956-1971). Historian Jaime M. Pensado closely analyzes student politics and youth culture during this period, as well as reactions to them on the part of competing actors. Examining student unrest and youthful militancy in the forms of sponsored student thuggery (porrismo), provocation, clientelism (charrismo estudiantil), and fun (relajo), Pensado offers insight into larger issues of state formation and resistance. He draws particular attention to the shifting notions of youth in Cold War Mexico and details the impact of the Cuban Revolution in Mexico's universities. In doing so, Pensado demonstrates the ways in which deviating authorities—inside and outside the government—responded differently to student unrest, and provides a compelling explanation for the longevity of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional.
Commitments, Testimonies, Icons
Author: John Mraz
Publisher: University of Texas Press
The Mexican Revolution of 1910–1920 is among the world’s most visually documented revolutions. Coinciding with the birth of filmmaking and the increased mobility offered by the reflex camera, it received extraordinary coverage by photographers and cineastes—commercial and amateur, national and international. Many images of the Revolution remain iconic to this day—Francisco Villa galloping toward the camera; Villa lolling in the presidential chair next to Emiliano Zapata; and Zapata standing stolidly in charro raiment with a carbine in one hand and the other hand on a sword, to mention only a few. But the identities of those who created the thousands of extant images of the Mexican Revolution, and what their purposes were, remain a huge puzzle because photographers constantly plagiarized each other’s images. In this pathfinding book, acclaimed photography historian John Mraz carries out a monumental analysis of photographs produced during the Mexican Revolution, focusing primarily on those made by Mexicans, in order to discover who took the images and why, to what ends, with what intentions, and for whom. He explores how photographers expressed their commitments visually, what aesthetic strategies they employed, and which identifications and identities they forged. Mraz demonstrates that, contrary to the myth that Agustín Víctor Casasola was “the photographer of the Revolution,” there were many who covered the long civil war, including women. He shows that specific photographers can even be linked to the contending forces and reveals a pattern of commitment that has been little commented upon in previous studies (and completely unexplored in the photography of other revolutions).
Author: Arthur James Wells
Category: English literature
Braceros in the Hermanos Mayo Lens
Author: John Mraz,Jaime Vélez Storey
These two scholars have plumbed the rich Mayo Brothers archive in Mexico's Secretariate of Foreign Relations to select the photos represented here on one of the most controversial cross-cultural subjects of their time: the Bracero Program. This landmark coffee table book offers 83 historical photos and an introduction documenting their importance.
compromisos e iconos
Author: John Mraz
Publisher: Instituto Nacional de Antropologaia E Historia
Primer estudio monográfico de la Revolución Mexicana, a través de fotografías tomadas entre 1910 y 1930. Son fotografías tomadas particularmente por fotógrafos mexicanos, descubriendo un gran número de profesionales -no sólo Agustín V. Casasola- que cubrieron el conflicto armado: Samuel Tinoco, Antonio Garduño, Manuel Ramos, Gerónimo Hernández, Amando Salmerón, Cruz Sánchez, Sara Castrejón, brothers Cachú, y Hugo Brehme entre otros.
Revisitations in Modern and Contemporary Creative Media
Author: Erica Segre
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated
The official centenary commemorating the Mexican Revolution of 1910 led to this specially commissioned volume, which explores notions such as 'revisitation', haunting and memorialization through a detailed examination of Mexican art, photography, film, narrative fiction, periodicals, travel-testimonies and poetry.
North America's Frontier Imagination
Author: Lee Rodney
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
American territorial borders have undergone significant and unparalleled changes in the last decade. They serve as a powerful and emotionally charged locus for American national identity that correlates with the historical idea of the frontier. But the concept of the frontier, so central to American identity throughout modern history, has all but disappeared in contemporary representation while the border has served to uncomfortably fill the void left in the spatial imagination of American culture. This book focuses on the shifting relationship between borders and frontiers in North America, specifically the ways in which they have been imaged and imagined since their formation in the 19th century and how tropes of visuality are central to their production and meaning. Rodney links ongoing discussions in political geography and visual culture in new ways to demonstrate how contemporary American borders exhibit security as a display strategy that is resisted and undermined through a variety of cultural practices.
Cinema of Excess in End-of-the-Century Mexico and Spain
Author: Claudia Schaefer
Publisher: SUNY Press
Category: Social Science
Popular culture in the 1990s, especially cinema, can be considered a showcase for the accumulated hopes and fears of the twentieth century. From the promise of material goods to the profusion of despair, from devastating tragedy to exaggerated rapture, a dizzying array of images assaults the eye. Drawing on recent films from Mexico and Spain, Bored to Distraction navigates this visual terrain, from melodrama to horror, looking for what, if anything, might be excessive enough to rouse us from our comfortable everyday routines.
Activity Theory in the Study of Science, Technology and Innovations
Author: Miettinen, Reijo
Publisher: Lehmanns Media
Beschreibung: This book is a collection of papers in which cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) is used to study science, technology and innovations. In the 16 chapters of the book an activity theoretical approach is developed through dialogue with the relevant theoretical approaches of science and technology studies, such as actor network theory, symbolic interactionism and Knorr-Cetinas's theory of objectual cultural practice. The book has three parts. The first one comprises empirical studies on creativity and change in research work and innovations. The cases studied include research groups in analytical chemistry, aerosol physics, biotechnology as well as innovations in medical technology by research-based firms. In making sense of the distributed creation, CHAT is put in dialogue with the systemic view of psychology of creativity, the systemic approach in history of technology as well as sociological theories of creativity. The second part compares systematically the similarities and differences between Deweyan pragmatism and CHAT, and shows how they can be used in a complementary way in empirical research. The third part evaluates actor network theory, constructivist conceptions of learning as well as the concept of routine largely used in organizational studies from the position of CHAT. In addition the concept 'object of activity' central in activity theory is discussed and elaborated in two chapters. The autor: Reijo Miettinen is Professor of Adult Education in the University of Helsinki and he was Vice director of the Center for Activity Theory and Developmental Work Research in 1995-2007.
Politik des Suchens jenseits von Google
Author: Konrad Becker
Trains, Literature, and the Arts in the River Plate
Author: Sarah M. Misemer
Publisher: Bucknell University Press
Moving Forward, Looking Back: Trains, Literature, and the Arts in the River Plate by Sarah M. Misemer argues that the train is paradoxically an anachronistic and modern indicator of River Plate national identity when seen in the literature and film of the region. The train's connections with new concepts of time and space, as well as the rise of the industrial age, make it a symbol loaded with cultural meanings. This project traces the importance of the train as a market of key moments in Argentine and Uruguayan history from 1854 to the present (nation-building, neo-colonialism, modernization/industrilization, dictatorship, privatization, and debt crisis). Through textual, filmic, and historical accounts this study demonstrates that the train is not simply an icon of the nineteenth-century's Naturalist movement, but rather a powerful contemporary metaphor for authors and directors of the River Plate as they communicate/create collective memory and cultural values in a region mired in uneven spurts of modernization and progress. Many critical shifts in concepts of time and society's consciousness of modernity were derived from the railway and World Standard Time in the nineteenth century. These innovations restructred the way people viewed the world and dealt with "public" and "private" time. The forward, projectile motion along a linear track mimicked the passage of public chronological time. Conversely, the train also invoked a private, nostalgic view of tim as the traveler was yanked from his/her traditional view of the space/time continuum via the train's velocity. Travelers observed the landscape "disappear" in their backward glance from the window---although the landscape and interior compartment's space remained stagnant. This optical illusion caused passengers to perceive the world in new ways. Thus, the train unveils a conflictive blend of nostalgia and progress in the River Plate, as these countries move forward, but look back. Celebrated authors such as Jorge Luis Borges, Alfonsina Storni, Armonia Somers, Juan Carlos Onetti, Roberto Cossa, Eduardo Rovner, and Felisberto Hernandez, all feature the train prominently in their work and are included here. The previous lacuna in academic criticism on this topic is puzzling considering the persistence of authors in Argentina and Uruguay who continue to focus on the train. Misemer's work offers a beginning study of the underrepresented field of railway literature and film in the Hispanic world by some of the most influential authors and cinematographers of their time. Each chapter reveals how rail systems denote watershed moments in the region's development, and shows how these are transformed and transfixed in the River Plate's population's memories through fictional and visual renderings. This book is offered as a first step in acquainting rail aficionados and lovers of literature with the literary terrain of the Southern Cone through a multi-genre approach.
das Werk von Marcel Duchamp
Author: Octavio Paz
Author: Imke Leicht,Christine Löw,Nadja Meisterhans,Katharina Volk
Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich
Category: Political Science
Das Thema Materialität wird innerhalb feministischer Forschungen in den letzten Jahren erneut diskutiert. Vor dem Hintergrund des material turn widmet sich der Band aktuellen Auseinandersetzungen mit Materialität und Materialismus. Dabei sollen zum einen bestehende Konfliktfelder zwischen Diskurs und Materialität sowie Struktur, Handlungsfähigkeit und Subjektivität aus feministischer Perspektive aufgezeigt werden. Zum anderen strebt der Band an, Potenziale einer verbindenden Perspektive auf 'neue' und 'alte' Konzeptionen von Materialität und Materialismen innerhalb feministischer Theorien und Praxen kritisch auszuloten.